Low income and inequality

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  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019065
    Description:

    Based on data from the Labour Force Survey, this infographic highlights the gender wage gap and its sources in 2018.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Table: 11-10-0024-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 204-0101)
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table provides statistics on year-over-year low-income transitions, including low income entry and exit rates, low income resistance, and low income immobility rates among Canadian taxfilers. The low income measure (LIM) is used to identify low income taxfilers. The LIM threshold is calculated as half of the median of the adjusted family after-tax income of all taxfilers and their family members. This table uses two different types of LIM: the variable LIM is based on the median total income re-calculated year, while the fixed LIM is based on the median total income in 2002 adjusted yearly by the all-items Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2019-10-04

  • Table: 11-10-0025-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 204-0102)
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table provides information on the number of years in low income over an eight-year period among Canadian taxfilers. The years in low-income may or may not be adjacent to each other. The low income measure (LIM) is used to identify low income taxfilers. The LIM threshold is calculated as half of the median of the adjusted family after-tax income of all taxfilers and their family members. This table uses two different types of LIM: the variable LIM is based on the median total income re-calculated each year, while the fixed LIM is based on the median total income in 2002 adjusted yearly by the all-items Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2019-10-04

  • Table: 11-10-0026-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 204-0103)
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table contains statistics that describe the duration of low income spells experienced by Canadian taxfilers in an eight-year period. A low income spell refers to a period in which a person stays in low income. It can last one year or several years consecutively. The length of the spell is referred to as its duration and is measured in years. The low income measure (LIM) is used to identify low income taxfilers. The LIM threshold is calculated as half of the median of the adjusted family after-tax income of all taxfilers and their family members. This table uses two different types of LIM: the variable LIM is based on the median total income re-calculated each year, while the fixed LIM is based on the median total income in 2002 adjusted yearly by the all-items Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2019-10-04

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019010
    Description:

    This study aims to profile workers in the homelessness support field. This group was defined by classifying workers based on specific occupations and industry of employment. Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, various socio-economic characteristics for these workers are presented. The study profiles these individuals by geography, age, sex, educational attainment, Aboriginal identity and visible minority status. The study also addresses their work patterns, earnings and low income status. Some discussion of the limitations of available data and insights into potential future areas for research follow.

    Release date: 2019-09-23

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022019001
    Description:

    Reducing pay inequality between women and men is a key priority, both nationally and internationally, for achieving gender equality. Documenting gender inequality in pay and tracking progress in this regard for policy purposes requires at least one indicator. The adjusted gender pay gap-the raw difference between the employment earnings of women and men, expressed either as a proportion of men's earnings (i.e., the "gender pay ratio") or one minus the gender pay ratio-typically serves this purpose. At present, there are no internationally-recognized standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap, leaving considerable scope for political choice.

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the development of international standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap by explaining the assumptions underlying, and the implications following from, various methods. Additionally, the paper strives to increase literacy about the meaning and interpretation of different estimates of the gender pay gap, and to bring together various explanations for the gender pay gap.

    Release date: 2019-08-30

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019052
    Description:

    This snapshot provides some key facts on Canada's Official Poverty Dashboard. Indicators in the dashboard include deep economic poverty; unmet housing needs and chronic homelessness; unmet health needs; food insecurity; relative low income; bottom 40% income share; youth engagement; literacy and numeracy; median hourly wage; average poverty gap; asset resilience; and poverty entry and exit rates.

    Release date: 2019-07-18

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019053
    Description:

    “Canada’s Poverty Reduction Strategy” introduces the Official Poverty Line for Canada with a dashboard of 12 Indicators to track progress on poverty reduction for Canadians and their households. This infographic presents detailed data comparisons and trend information for the following indicators: deep economic poverty; unmet housing needs and chronic homelessness; unmet health needs; food insecurity; relative low income; bottom 40% income share; youth engagement; literacy and numeracy; median hourly wage; average poverty gap; asset resilience; and poverty entry and exit rates.

    Release date: 2019-07-18

  • Notices and consultations: 75F0002M2019009
    Description:

    From September 2018 through April 2019, Statistics Canada conducted a broad consultation on the Market Basket Measure (MBM). This paper will describe the consultations that took place, give highlights of what Statistics Canada heard, and describe next steps.

    Release date: 2019-07-18

  • Table: 11-10-0018-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 111-0046)
    Geography: Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census agglomeration, Census metropolitan area part, Census agglomeration part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    Individuals; After-tax low income status of tax filers and dependants based on Census Family Low Income Measure (CFLIM-AT), by family type and family type composition (final T1 Family File; T1FF).

    Release date: 2019-07-11
Data (82)

Data (82) (0 to 10 of 82 results)

  • Table: 11-10-0024-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 204-0101)
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table provides statistics on year-over-year low-income transitions, including low income entry and exit rates, low income resistance, and low income immobility rates among Canadian taxfilers. The low income measure (LIM) is used to identify low income taxfilers. The LIM threshold is calculated as half of the median of the adjusted family after-tax income of all taxfilers and their family members. This table uses two different types of LIM: the variable LIM is based on the median total income re-calculated year, while the fixed LIM is based on the median total income in 2002 adjusted yearly by the all-items Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2019-10-04

  • Table: 11-10-0025-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 204-0102)
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table provides information on the number of years in low income over an eight-year period among Canadian taxfilers. The years in low-income may or may not be adjacent to each other. The low income measure (LIM) is used to identify low income taxfilers. The LIM threshold is calculated as half of the median of the adjusted family after-tax income of all taxfilers and their family members. This table uses two different types of LIM: the variable LIM is based on the median total income re-calculated each year, while the fixed LIM is based on the median total income in 2002 adjusted yearly by the all-items Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2019-10-04

  • Table: 11-10-0026-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 204-0103)
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table contains statistics that describe the duration of low income spells experienced by Canadian taxfilers in an eight-year period. A low income spell refers to a period in which a person stays in low income. It can last one year or several years consecutively. The length of the spell is referred to as its duration and is measured in years. The low income measure (LIM) is used to identify low income taxfilers. The LIM threshold is calculated as half of the median of the adjusted family after-tax income of all taxfilers and their family members. This table uses two different types of LIM: the variable LIM is based on the median total income re-calculated each year, while the fixed LIM is based on the median total income in 2002 adjusted yearly by the all-items Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2019-10-04

  • Table: 11-10-0018-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 111-0046)
    Geography: Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census agglomeration, Census metropolitan area part, Census agglomeration part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    Individuals; After-tax low income status of tax filers and dependants based on Census Family Low Income Measure (CFLIM-AT), by family type and family type composition (final T1 Family File; T1FF).

    Release date: 2019-07-11

  • Table: 11-10-0020-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 111-0047)
    Geography: Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census agglomeration, Census metropolitan area part, Census agglomeration part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    Families of tax filers; After-tax low income status of census families based on Census Family Low Income Measure (CFLIM-AT), by family type and family composition (final T1 Family File; T1FF).

    Release date: 2019-07-11

  • Table: 45-20-00012019001
    Description:

    The Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation dataset includes tables in an Excel and Comma-separated values (CSV) format for the national-level index (excluding the territories), as well as three provincial and two regional indexes: the Atlantic region (Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick), Quebec, Ontario, the Prairie region (Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta), and British Columbia.

    Release date: 2019-06-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 45-20-0001
    Description:

    The Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) is an area-based index which used 2016 Census of Population microdata to measure four key dimensions of deprivation at the dissemination area (DA)-level: residential instability, economic dependency, situational vulnerability and ethno-cultural composition.

    The CIMD allows for an understanding of inequalities in various measures of health and social well-being. While it is a geographically-based index of deprivation and marginalization, it can also be used as a proxy for an individual. The CIMD has the potential to be widely used by researchers on a variety of topics related to socio-economic research. Other uses for the index may include: policy planning and evaluation, or resource allocation.

    Release date: 2019-06-12

  • Table: 11-10-0066-01
    Geography: Census metropolitan area, Census agglomeration, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    Market Basket Measure (MBM) thresholds for the reference family by MBM region and base year. Total thresholds as well as thresholds for the food, clothing, transportation, shelter and other expenses components are presented, in current and constant dollars, annual.

    Release date: 2019-02-26

  • Table: 11-10-0135-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 206-0041)
    Geography: Canada, Geographical region of Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    Number of persons in low income, low income rate and average gap ratio by age, sex and economic family type, annual.

    Release date: 2019-02-26

  • Table: 11-10-0135-02
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    Low income statistics by age, sex and economic family type, annual.

    Release date: 2019-02-26
Analysis (166)

Analysis (166) (0 to 10 of 166 results)

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019065
    Description:

    Based on data from the Labour Force Survey, this infographic highlights the gender wage gap and its sources in 2018.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019010
    Description:

    This study aims to profile workers in the homelessness support field. This group was defined by classifying workers based on specific occupations and industry of employment. Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, various socio-economic characteristics for these workers are presented. The study profiles these individuals by geography, age, sex, educational attainment, Aboriginal identity and visible minority status. The study also addresses their work patterns, earnings and low income status. Some discussion of the limitations of available data and insights into potential future areas for research follow.

    Release date: 2019-09-23

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022019001
    Description:

    Reducing pay inequality between women and men is a key priority, both nationally and internationally, for achieving gender equality. Documenting gender inequality in pay and tracking progress in this regard for policy purposes requires at least one indicator. The adjusted gender pay gap-the raw difference between the employment earnings of women and men, expressed either as a proportion of men's earnings (i.e., the "gender pay ratio") or one minus the gender pay ratio-typically serves this purpose. At present, there are no internationally-recognized standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap, leaving considerable scope for political choice.

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the development of international standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap by explaining the assumptions underlying, and the implications following from, various methods. Additionally, the paper strives to increase literacy about the meaning and interpretation of different estimates of the gender pay gap, and to bring together various explanations for the gender pay gap.

    Release date: 2019-08-30

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019052
    Description:

    This snapshot provides some key facts on Canada's Official Poverty Dashboard. Indicators in the dashboard include deep economic poverty; unmet housing needs and chronic homelessness; unmet health needs; food insecurity; relative low income; bottom 40% income share; youth engagement; literacy and numeracy; median hourly wage; average poverty gap; asset resilience; and poverty entry and exit rates.

    Release date: 2019-07-18

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019053
    Description:

    “Canada’s Poverty Reduction Strategy” introduces the Official Poverty Line for Canada with a dashboard of 12 Indicators to track progress on poverty reduction for Canadians and their households. This infographic presents detailed data comparisons and trend information for the following indicators: deep economic poverty; unmet housing needs and chronic homelessness; unmet health needs; food insecurity; relative low income; bottom 40% income share; youth engagement; literacy and numeracy; median hourly wage; average poverty gap; asset resilience; and poverty entry and exit rates.

    Release date: 2019-07-18

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019001
    Description:

    The low-income rate is one of the most observed indicators of well-being, used to track changes in living standards and to identify groups at risk of social exclusion. Statistics Canada does not currently publish low-income rates for the on-reserve and Territorial populations, although other organizations have developed and published their own low-income statistics using Census or National Household Survey (NHS) data. This publication examines the concepts and methodologies underlying low-income indicators with the aim of providing guidance to users who wish to examine low income on reserve or in the Territories using Census or NHS data. It underlines data quality considerations such as incomplete enumeration on reserve. Other caveats include the fact that the low-income measure does not account for differences in the cost of living, and that Statistics Canada’s definition of income excludes many non-cash sources of income.

    Release date: 2019-04-16

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019003
    Description:

    This paper provides a brief portrait of the Canadian Working Income Tax Benefit (WITB) and WITB recipients using 2014 tax data. It first presents the main components of the WITB program. It then describes WITB recipients from demographic and income perspectives. Finally, the paper examines the impact of the WITB on low-income rates and low-income gap ratios.

    Release date: 2019-04-16

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201908520383
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-03-26

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2019003
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series examines data on the financial conditions of Canadian households, focusing on recent trends related to indebtedness, income growth, and net worth. Aggregate leverage indicators are examined for the household sector as a whole, followed by a more detailed analysis of households with different income profiles in selected urban areas. This study highlights the extent to which indebtedness and household wealth differ across the country, along with the financial vulnerabilities facing low income households.

    Release date: 2019-03-26

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201905711361
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-02-26
Reference (13)

Reference (13) (0 to 10 of 13 results)

  • Notices and consultations: 75F0002M2019009
    Description:

    From September 2018 through April 2019, Statistics Canada conducted a broad consultation on the Market Basket Measure (MBM). This paper will describe the consultations that took place, give highlights of what Statistics Canada heard, and describe next steps.

    Release date: 2019-07-18

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 45-20-00012019002
    Description:

    The User Guide for the Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) outlines uses for the index, as well as it provides a brief description of the methodology behind the development of the index. This User Guide also provides instructions on how to use the index, and lists considerations when using the CIMD data.

    Release date: 2019-06-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 45-20-0001
    Description:

    The Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) is an area-based index which used 2016 Census of Population microdata to measure four key dimensions of deprivation at the dissemination area (DA)-level: residential instability, economic dependency, situational vulnerability and ethno-cultural composition.

    The CIMD allows for an understanding of inequalities in various measures of health and social well-being. While it is a geographically-based index of deprivation and marginalization, it can also be used as a proxy for an individual. The CIMD has the potential to be widely used by researchers on a variety of topics related to socio-economic research. Other uses for the index may include: policy planning and evaluation, or resource allocation.

    Release date: 2019-06-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2015003
    Description:

    This note discusses revised income estimates from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). These revisions to the SLID estimates make it possible to compare results from the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) to earlier years. The revisions address the issue of methodology differences between SLID and CIS.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X201000211378
    Description:

    One key to poverty alleviation or eradication in the third world is reliable information on the poor and their location, so that interventions and assistance can be effectively targeted to the neediest people. Small area estimation is one statistical technique that is used to monitor poverty and to decide on aid allocation in pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals. Elbers, Lanjouw and Lanjouw (ELL) (2003) proposed a small area estimation methodology for income-based or expenditure-based poverty measures, which is implemented by the World Bank in its poverty mapping projects via the involvement of the central statistical agencies in many third world countries, including Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and is incorporated into the World Bank software program PovMap. In this paper, the ELL methodology which consists of first modeling survey data and then applying that model to census information is presented and discussed with strong emphasis on the first phase, i.e., the fitting of regression models and on the estimated standard errors at the second phase. Other regression model fitting procedures such as the General Survey Regression (GSR) (as described in Lohr (1999) Chapter 11) and those used in existing small area estimation techniques: Pseudo-Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (Pseudo-EBLUP) approach (You and Rao 2002) and Iterative Weighted Estimating Equation (IWEE) method (You, Rao and Kovacevic 2003) are presented and compared with the ELL modeling strategy. The most significant difference between the ELL method and the other techniques is in the theoretical underpinning of the ELL model fitting procedure. An example based on the Philippines Family Income and Expenditure Survey is presented to show the differences in both the parameter estimates and their corresponding standard errors, and in the variance components generated from the different methods and the discussion is extended to the effect of these on the estimated accuracy of the final small area estimates themselves. The need for sound estimation of variance components, as well as regression estimates and estimates of their standard errors for small area estimation of poverty is emphasized.

    Release date: 2010-12-21

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2000011
    Description:

    This report summarizes the comments received in response to a discussion paper on low income cut-offs released in January 2000.

    Release date: 2000-09-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M1999009
    Description:

    This paper describes the issues around updating the low income cut-offs as well as Statistics Canada's findings and proposes a course of action.

    Release date: 2000-01-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0027X
    Description:

    Recently there has been extensive and recurring media coverage of Statistics Canada's low income cut-offs and their relationship to the measurement of poverty. At the heart of the debate is the use of the low income cut-offs as poverty lines even though Statistics Canada has clearly stated, since their publication began over 25 years ago, that they are not. The high profile recently given this issue has presented Statistics Canada with a welcome opportunity to restate its position on these issues, views which seem to have become lost in the debate.

    Release date: 1999-04-01

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M1997009
    Description:

    This working presents the nature and uses of the geographic structure used by the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and explains how statistics on low income are dependent on geographical concepts. It also describes the methodology for deriving geographic data for the Wave 1 (1993 reference year) SLID files, and improvements made for the Wave 2 (1994 reference year) release.

    Release date: 1997-12-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 3501
    Description: The purpose of this survey was to provide data for estimating income distributions by size for individuals and families.
Date modified: