Low income and inequality

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All (360) (0 to 10 of 360 results)

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2024014
    Description: Using data from the 2021 Census of Population, this infographic examines the prevalence of low income among persons in one-parent families with an immigrant parent. This infographic explores the prevalence of low income among persons in one-parent families according to the parent’s admission category and racialized group, as well as the presence of young children in the family.
    Release date: 2024-03-25

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022024001
    Description: Using data from the 2021 Census of Population, this article examines the prevalence of low income among persons in one-parent families with an immigrant parent. This article explores the prevalence of low income according to characteristics of the parent (e.g., admission category, period of immigration) and their family and household (e.g., number of children, household type).
    Release date: 2024-03-25

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2024004
    Description: This discussion paper begins by providing the reasons for why equivalization methods are used. Following this, the square root scale is described and the motivations for using the square root scale are discussed. Third, a series of new tests are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the square root scale, and these results are discussed in some detail as they reveal many insights. The final section of the paper raises considerations for creating Market Basket Measure (MBM) thresholds for different types of families, such as unattached individuals and those including seniors or persons with disabilities.

    The paper also provides an opportunity for the public and stakeholders to share feedback and comments in measuring poverty by different family characteristics in Canada.
    Release date: 2024-02-22

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2024003
    Description: This research paper examines shelter and transportation costs within census metropolitan areas (CMAs). The paper begins by describing a proposed methodology for delineating urban and suburban sub-regions within CMA Market Basket Measure (MBM) regions. It then presents new shelter and transportation costs based on the new delineations and assesses the extent to which differences in costs between urban and suburban sub-regions differ. The analysis concludes by examining how the new delineations would impact the estimation of poverty rates had they been implemented. This paper also provides an opportunity for the public and stakeholders to provide feedback and comments.
    Release date: 2024-02-15

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2024002
    Description: This discussion paper describes considerations for applying the Market Basket Measure (MBM) methodology onto a purely administrative data source. The paper will begin by outlining a rationale for estimating MBM poverty statistics using administrative income data sources. It then explains a proposal for creating annual samples along with the caveats of creating these samples, followed by a brief analysis using the proposed samples. The paper concludes with potential future improvements to the samples and provides the opportunity for reader’s feedback.
    Release date: 2024-02-08

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2024001
    Description: This paper provides provisional poverty rates for the 2022 and 2023 reference years using a previously published regression model. The model has been updated to use most recently available data from Distributed Household Economic Accounts (DHEA), the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) and Consumer Price Indexes (CPI).
    Release date: 2024-01-18

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2023010
    Description: This discussion paper addresses options and considerations related to two Market Basket Measure (MBM) research agenda items: (1) Updating the other necessities basket component; and (2) the potential creation of a communication services component in the MBM methodology. It also provides an opportunity for the public and stakeholders to provide feedback and comments on the considerations presented in this paper.
    Release date: 2023-12-21

  • Table: 11-10-0066-01
    Geography: Census metropolitan area, Census agglomeration, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description: Market Basket Measure (MBM) thresholds for the reference family by MBM region and base year. Total thresholds as well as thresholds for the food, clothing, transportation, shelter and other expenses components are presented, in current and constant dollars, annual.
    Release date: 2023-11-29

  • Table: 98-10-0109-01
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census division, Census subdivision
    Frequency: Occasional
    Universe: Persons in private households in occupied private dwellings, 2021 Census — 25% Sample data
    Variable list: Economic family characteristics of persons (13), Age (8), Gender (3), Statistics (3), Individual Northern MBM poverty status (7)
    Description: Individual poverty status using Northern Market Basket Measure (MBM-N) by family characteristics, age and gender for Canada, territories, census divisions and census subdivisions.
    Release date: 2023-11-15

  • Table: 98-10-0144-01
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census agglomeration, Census metropolitan area part, Census agglomeration part
    Frequency: Occasional
    Universe: Population aged 17 and over in private households, 2021 Census — 25% Sample data
    Variable list: Individual low-income status (15), Economic family characteristics of persons (13), Highest certificate, diploma or degree (12), Age (15D), Gender (3), Statistics (3), Military service status (4A)
    Description: Data on military service status by individual poverty status using the Market Basket Measure (MBM), individual low-income status, economic family characteristics of persons, highest certificate, diploma or degree, age and gender for the population aged 17 years and over in private households in Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts.
    Release date: 2023-11-15
Data (115)

Data (115) (0 to 10 of 115 results)

  • Table: 11-10-0066-01
    Geography: Census metropolitan area, Census agglomeration, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description: Market Basket Measure (MBM) thresholds for the reference family by MBM region and base year. Total thresholds as well as thresholds for the food, clothing, transportation, shelter and other expenses components are presented, in current and constant dollars, annual.
    Release date: 2023-11-29

  • Table: 98-10-0109-01
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census division, Census subdivision
    Frequency: Occasional
    Universe: Persons in private households in occupied private dwellings, 2021 Census — 25% Sample data
    Variable list: Economic family characteristics of persons (13), Age (8), Gender (3), Statistics (3), Individual Northern MBM poverty status (7)
    Description: Individual poverty status using Northern Market Basket Measure (MBM-N) by family characteristics, age and gender for Canada, territories, census divisions and census subdivisions.
    Release date: 2023-11-15

  • Table: 98-10-0144-01
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census agglomeration, Census metropolitan area part, Census agglomeration part
    Frequency: Occasional
    Universe: Population aged 17 and over in private households, 2021 Census — 25% Sample data
    Variable list: Individual low-income status (15), Economic family characteristics of persons (13), Highest certificate, diploma or degree (12), Age (15D), Gender (3), Statistics (3), Military service status (4A)
    Description: Data on military service status by individual poverty status using the Market Basket Measure (MBM), individual low-income status, economic family characteristics of persons, highest certificate, diploma or degree, age and gender for the population aged 17 years and over in private households in Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts.
    Release date: 2023-11-15

  • Table: 98-10-0601-01
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census division
    Frequency: Occasional
    Universe: Population aged 15 years and over in private households, 2021 Census — 25% Sample data
    Variable list: Occupation - Broad category - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2021 (13A), Industry - Sectors - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2017 (23A), Work activity during the reference year (9), Statistics (3), Individual low-income status (10)
    Description: Data on individual low-income and poverty status by occupation broad category (1-digit code) from the National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2021, industry sector (2-digit code) from the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2017, and work activity during the reference year for the population aged 15 years and over in private households in Canada, provinces and territories, and census divisions.
    Release date: 2023-11-15

  • Table: 45-20-00012023001
    Description: The Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) is an area-based index which uses Census of Population microdata to measure four key dimensions of deprivation at the dissemination area (DA)-level: residential instability, economic dependency, situational vulnerability and ethno-cultural composition.

    The CIMD allows for an understanding of inequalities in various measures of health and social well-being. While it is a geographically-based index of deprivation and marginalization, it can also be used as a proxy for an individual. The CIMD has the potential to be widely used by researchers on a variety of topics related to socio-economic research. Other uses for the index may include: policy planning and evaluation, or resource allocation.
    Release date: 2023-11-10

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 45-20-0001
    Description:

    The Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) is an area-based index which uses Census of Population microdata to measure four key dimensions of deprivation at the dissemination area (DA)-level: residential instability, economic dependency, situational vulnerability and ethno-cultural composition. The CIMD allows for an understanding of inequalities in various measures of health and social well-being. While it is a geographically-based index of deprivation and marginalization, it can also be used as a proxy for an individual. The CIMD has the potential to be widely used by researchers on a variety of topics related to socio-economic research. Other uses for the index may include: policy planning and evaluation, or resource allocation.

    Release date: 2023-11-10

  • Table: 11-10-0024-01
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table provides statistics on year-over-year low-income transitions, including low income entry and exit rates, low income resistance, and low income immobility rates among Canadian taxfilers. The low income measure (LIM) is used to identify low income taxfilers. The LIM threshold is calculated as half of the median of the adjusted family after-tax income of all taxfilers and their family members. This table uses two different types of LIM: the variable LIM is based on the median total income re-calculated year, while the fixed LIM is based on the median total income in 2002 adjusted yearly by the all-items Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2023-11-10

  • Table: 11-10-0025-01
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table provides information on the number of years in low income over an eight-year period among Canadian taxfilers. The years in low-income may or may not be adjacent to each other. The low income measure (LIM) is used to identify low income taxfilers. The LIM threshold is calculated as half of the median of the adjusted family after-tax income of all taxfilers and their family members. This table uses two different types of LIM: the variable LIM is based on the median total income re-calculated each year, while the fixed LIM is based on the median total income in 2002 adjusted yearly by the all-items Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2023-11-10

  • Table: 11-10-0026-01
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census metropolitan area part
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table contains statistics that describe the duration of low income spells experienced by Canadian taxfilers in an eight-year period. A low income spell refers to a period in which a person stays in low income. It can last one year or several years consecutively. The length of the spell is referred to as its duration and is measured in years. The low income measure (LIM) is used to identify low income taxfilers. The LIM threshold is calculated as half of the median of the adjusted family after-tax income of all taxfilers and their family members. This table uses two different types of LIM: the variable LIM is based on the median total income re-calculated each year, while the fixed LIM is based on the median total income in 2002 adjusted yearly by the all-items Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2023-11-10

  • Table: 98-10-0621-01
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area, Census agglomeration
    Frequency: Occasional
    Universe: Population in private households in occupied private dwellings, 2021 Census — 25% Sample data
    Variable list: Population characteristics (46), Tenure including presence of mortgage payments and subsidized housing (totals include farm operators) (8), Gender (3), Primary household maintainer (2), Statistics (3B), Housing suitability and dwelling condition (6)
    Description: Population groups by housing suitability and condition of dwelling for Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations. Includes tenure including presence of mortgage payments and subsidized housing (totals include farm operators), gender and primary household maintainer.
    Release date: 2023-10-04
Analysis (232)

Analysis (232) (0 to 10 of 232 results)

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2024014
    Description: Using data from the 2021 Census of Population, this infographic examines the prevalence of low income among persons in one-parent families with an immigrant parent. This infographic explores the prevalence of low income among persons in one-parent families according to the parent’s admission category and racialized group, as well as the presence of young children in the family.
    Release date: 2024-03-25

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022024001
    Description: Using data from the 2021 Census of Population, this article examines the prevalence of low income among persons in one-parent families with an immigrant parent. This article explores the prevalence of low income according to characteristics of the parent (e.g., admission category, period of immigration) and their family and household (e.g., number of children, household type).
    Release date: 2024-03-25

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2024004
    Description: This discussion paper begins by providing the reasons for why equivalization methods are used. Following this, the square root scale is described and the motivations for using the square root scale are discussed. Third, a series of new tests are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the square root scale, and these results are discussed in some detail as they reveal many insights. The final section of the paper raises considerations for creating Market Basket Measure (MBM) thresholds for different types of families, such as unattached individuals and those including seniors or persons with disabilities.

    The paper also provides an opportunity for the public and stakeholders to share feedback and comments in measuring poverty by different family characteristics in Canada.
    Release date: 2024-02-22

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2024003
    Description: This research paper examines shelter and transportation costs within census metropolitan areas (CMAs). The paper begins by describing a proposed methodology for delineating urban and suburban sub-regions within CMA Market Basket Measure (MBM) regions. It then presents new shelter and transportation costs based on the new delineations and assesses the extent to which differences in costs between urban and suburban sub-regions differ. The analysis concludes by examining how the new delineations would impact the estimation of poverty rates had they been implemented. This paper also provides an opportunity for the public and stakeholders to provide feedback and comments.
    Release date: 2024-02-15

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2024002
    Description: This discussion paper describes considerations for applying the Market Basket Measure (MBM) methodology onto a purely administrative data source. The paper will begin by outlining a rationale for estimating MBM poverty statistics using administrative income data sources. It then explains a proposal for creating annual samples along with the caveats of creating these samples, followed by a brief analysis using the proposed samples. The paper concludes with potential future improvements to the samples and provides the opportunity for reader’s feedback.
    Release date: 2024-02-08

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2024001
    Description: This paper provides provisional poverty rates for the 2022 and 2023 reference years using a previously published regression model. The model has been updated to use most recently available data from Distributed Household Economic Accounts (DHEA), the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) and Consumer Price Indexes (CPI).
    Release date: 2024-01-18

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2023010
    Description: This discussion paper addresses options and considerations related to two Market Basket Measure (MBM) research agenda items: (1) Updating the other necessities basket component; and (2) the potential creation of a communication services component in the MBM methodology. It also provides an opportunity for the public and stakeholders to provide feedback and comments on the considerations presented in this paper.
    Release date: 2023-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X202300100013
    Description: This study examines the relationship between income and food insecurity, looking at families most at risk, as well as the possible role of assets and debts in food insecurity.
    Release date: 2023-11-14

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X202331837704
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2023-11-14

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2023009
    Description: This paper builds on an earlier paper, "Delineating remote regions for the Market Basket Measure", outlining an approach for delineating remote Market Basket Measure (MBM) regions by describing a potential methodology for creating remote-region MBM thresholds across Canada’s provinces. The paper then outlines the potential impacts these thresholds would have on provincial poverty estimates. It also provides an opportunity for the public and stakeholders to provide feedback and comments on the methodology.
    Release date: 2023-09-07
Reference (13)

Reference (13) (0 to 10 of 13 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 45-20-00012023002
    Description: The Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) is an area-based index which uses Census of Population microdata to measure four key dimensions of deprivation at the dissemination area (DA)-level: residential instability, economic dependency, situational vulnerability and ethno-cultural composition.

    The CIMD allows for an understanding of inequalities in various measures of health and social well-being. While it is a geographically-based index of deprivation and marginalization, it can also be used as a proxy for an individual. The CIMD has the potential to be widely used by researchers on a variety of topics related to socio-economic research. Other uses for the index may include: policy planning and evaluation, or resource allocation.
    Release date: 2023-11-10

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 45-20-0001
    Description:

    The Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) is an area-based index which uses Census of Population microdata to measure four key dimensions of deprivation at the dissemination area (DA)-level: residential instability, economic dependency, situational vulnerability and ethno-cultural composition. The CIMD allows for an understanding of inequalities in various measures of health and social well-being. While it is a geographically-based index of deprivation and marginalization, it can also be used as a proxy for an individual. The CIMD has the potential to be widely used by researchers on a variety of topics related to socio-economic research. Other uses for the index may include: policy planning and evaluation, or resource allocation.

    Release date: 2023-11-10

  • Notices and consultations: 75F0002M2019009
    Description:

    From September 2018 through April 2019, Statistics Canada conducted a broad consultation on the Market Basket Measure (MBM). This paper will describe the consultations that took place, give highlights of what Statistics Canada heard, and describe next steps.

    Release date: 2019-07-18

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 45-20-00012019002
    Description:

    The User Guide for the Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) outlines uses for the index, as well as it provides a brief description of the methodology behind the development of the index. This User Guide also provides instructions on how to use the index, and lists considerations when using the CIMD data.

    Release date: 2019-06-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2015003
    Description:

    This note discusses revised income estimates from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). These revisions to the SLID estimates make it possible to compare results from the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) to earlier years. The revisions address the issue of methodology differences between SLID and CIS.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2000011
    Description:

    This report summarizes the comments received in response to a discussion paper on low income cut-offs released in January 2000.

    Release date: 2000-09-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M1999009
    Description:

    This paper describes the issues around updating the low income cut-offs as well as Statistics Canada's findings and proposes a course of action.

    Release date: 2000-01-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0027X
    Description:

    Recently there has been extensive and recurring media coverage of Statistics Canada's low income cut-offs and their relationship to the measurement of poverty. At the heart of the debate is the use of the low income cut-offs as poverty lines even though Statistics Canada has clearly stated, since their publication began over 25 years ago, that they are not. The high profile recently given this issue has presented Statistics Canada with a welcome opportunity to restate its position on these issues, views which seem to have become lost in the debate.

    Release date: 1999-04-01

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M1997009
    Description:

    This working presents the nature and uses of the geographic structure used by the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and explains how statistics on low income are dependent on geographical concepts. It also describes the methodology for deriving geographic data for the Wave 1 (1993 reference year) SLID files, and improvements made for the Wave 2 (1994 reference year) release.

    Release date: 1997-12-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 3501
    Description: The purpose of this survey was to provide data for estimating income distributions by size for individuals and families.
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