Low income and inequality

Key indicators

Selected geographical area: Canada

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Selected geographical area: Canada

Selected geographical area: Newfoundland and Labrador

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Selected geographical area: New Brunswick

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Selected geographical area: Ontario

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Data (77)

Data (77) (0 to 10 of 77 results)

Analysis (156)

Analysis (156) (0 to 10 of 156 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2018001
    Description:

    This study looks at changes introduced in 2018 to the methodology used for the census family low income measure, based on the T1 Family File (T1FF; tax filer data). By making these changes, the methodology becomes better aligned with other data sources at Statistics Canada, such as the Census of Population and the Canadian Income Survey. To account for changes in the methodology, new T1FF standard tables on the census family low income measure (after-tax income), going back to 2004 data, are introduced.

    Release date: 2018-04-05

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2018002
    Description:

    This study looks at the differences in after-tax low income measure (LIM) statistics from two data sources which both use administrative tax data as their principal inputs: the 2016 Census of Population and the T1 Family file (T1FF). It presents a summary of the two data sources and compares after-tax LIM statistics by focussing on unit of analysis, LIM thresholds and the percentage of population below the LIM. The study also explores what factors users may want to consider when choosing one data source over the other.

    Release date: 2018-04-05

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201807211361
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-03-13

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2018006
    Description:

    The infographic looks at income in Canada, including the percentage of persons in low income, government transfers and the median after-tax income by family type.

    Release date: 2018-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017397
    Description:

    Rates of low income among immigrants continue to be high relative to the Canadian-born population. This paper examines the rate of chronic low income among immigrants aged 25 or older in Canada during the 2000s. Chronic low income is defined as having a family income under a low income cut-off for five consecutive years or more. A regionally adjusted low-income measure is used for the analysis.

    Release date: 2017-09-29

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201725614427
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Stats in brief: 98-200-X2016012
    Description:

    This Census in Brief examines children younger than 18 living in low-income households in 2015. It sheds light on the incidence of low income for Canadian children of different ages, across different family circumstances and household living arrangements. It also provides information on child low income at different levels of geography, including provinces, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations.

    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201724915861
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201700154854
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2014 Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA) in order to examine the relationship between low income and characteristics of people aged 25 to 64 with a disability, including disability type, severity class, age of onset of disability, family composition, and other risk factors associated with low income. It also examines the composition of the low-income population in relation to disability, and provides information on the relationship between employment and low income for this population.

    Release date: 2017-08-11

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201635114283
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-12-16
Reference (10)

Reference (10) ((10 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2015003
    Description:

    This note discusses revised income estimates from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). These revisions to the SLID estimates make it possible to compare results from the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) to earlier years. The revisions address the issue of methodology differences between SLID and CIS.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X201000211378
    Description:

    One key to poverty alleviation or eradication in the third world is reliable information on the poor and their location, so that interventions and assistance can be effectively targeted to the neediest people. Small area estimation is one statistical technique that is used to monitor poverty and to decide on aid allocation in pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals. Elbers, Lanjouw and Lanjouw (ELL) (2003) proposed a small area estimation methodology for income-based or expenditure-based poverty measures, which is implemented by the World Bank in its poverty mapping projects via the involvement of the central statistical agencies in many third world countries, including Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and is incorporated into the World Bank software program PovMap. In this paper, the ELL methodology which consists of first modeling survey data and then applying that model to census information is presented and discussed with strong emphasis on the first phase, i.e., the fitting of regression models and on the estimated standard errors at the second phase. Other regression model fitting procedures such as the General Survey Regression (GSR) (as described in Lohr (1999) Chapter 11) and those used in existing small area estimation techniques: Pseudo-Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (Pseudo-EBLUP) approach (You and Rao 2002) and Iterative Weighted Estimating Equation (IWEE) method (You, Rao and Kovacevic 2003) are presented and compared with the ELL modeling strategy. The most significant difference between the ELL method and the other techniques is in the theoretical underpinning of the ELL model fitting procedure. An example based on the Philippines Family Income and Expenditure Survey is presented to show the differences in both the parameter estimates and their corresponding standard errors, and in the variance components generated from the different methods and the discussion is extended to the effect of these on the estimated accuracy of the final small area estimates themselves. The need for sound estimation of variance components, as well as regression estimates and estimates of their standard errors for small area estimation of poverty is emphasized.

    Release date: 2010-12-21

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2000011
    Description:

    This report summarizes the comments received in response to a discussion paper on low income cut-offs released in January 2000.

    Release date: 2000-09-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M1999009
    Description:

    This paper describes the issues around updating the low income cut-offs as well as Statistics Canada's findings and proposes a course of action.

    Release date: 2000-01-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0027X
    Description:

    Recently there has been extensive and recurring media coverage of Statistics Canada's low income cut-offs and their relationship to the measurement of poverty. At the heart of the debate is the use of the low income cut-offs as poverty lines even though Statistics Canada has clearly stated, since their publication began over 25 years ago, that they are not. The high profile recently given this issue has presented Statistics Canada with a welcome opportunity to restate its position on these issues, views which seem to have become lost in the debate.

    Release date: 1999-04-01

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M1997009
    Description:

    This working presents the nature and uses of the geographic structure used by the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and explains how statistics on low income are dependent on geographical concepts. It also describes the methodology for deriving geographic data for the Wave 1 (1993 reference year) SLID files, and improvements made for the Wave 2 (1994 reference year) release.

    Release date: 1997-12-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 3501
    Description: The purpose of this survey was to provide data for estimating income distributions by size for individuals and families.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 3502
    Description: This survey was conducted to provide data on cross-sectional income for the Canadian population and data on low income families in Canada.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5161
    Description: The purpose of the survey is to develop indicators to gauge the ability of families to satisfy basic material needs such as food, clothing, housing as well as social needs of participation and leisure.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5206
    Description: The purpose of the survey is to provide information to the Government of Canada on the economic well-being of Canadian households. The data will be used to assess the needs of households in Canada.
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