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  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2018043
    Description:

    This infographic looks at the changing characteristics of jobs in Canada, including industry, pension coverage, whether jobs are full-time and permanent, and whether they are unionized.

    Release date: 2018-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014359
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the long-term labour market premiums associated with completing a college certificate and a bachelor's degree, compared to completing a high school diploma. Several labour market outcomes of individuals are examined with longitudinal data over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s.

    With the creation of a new linked file consisting of the 1991 Census of Population and the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF), it is now possible to follow individuals in the labour market for a longer period of time than is feasible with existing survey data. The purpose of this study is to compare labour market outcomes of individuals with different levels of educational attainment over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s. Three levels of education are considered, corresponding to the decisions made by students following high school graduation: a high school diploma, a college certificate, and a bachelor's degree. Longitudinal data are used to track total earnings (wages and salaries plus net self-employment income), coverage in an employer-sponsored pension plan, employment, union membership, and permanent and temporary layoffs over the period 1991 to 2010.

    Release date: 2014-02-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014354
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the long-term labour market premiums associated with a high school diploma. The focus is on the value of the qualification (the signaling effect), but the premiums associated with the number of years of schooling required to obtain the qualification (the human-capital effect) are also estimated. The labour market outcomes of individuals born in the mid-1960s are measured from their mid-20s to their mid-40s with longitudinal administrative data from the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF) that are linked to the 1991 Census of Population. Two groups are considered: terminal high school graduates (those who had obtained a high school diploma but had not acquired any postsecondary education by the 1991 Census) and individuals without a high school diploma (those who had no high school diploma, were not enrolled in high school, and had no postsecondary education at the time of the 1991 Census).

    Release date: 2014-01-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013032
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article addresses three questions: (1) What were the employment dynamics of a specific cohort of immigrant and native-born workers over the 20 years from 1991 to 2010? (2) To what extent did initial differences in earnings and pension coverage between the two groups narrow during this period? (3) Which factors were associated with the narrowing of these differences? The data are from the linked Census 1991-Longitudinal Worker File and pertain to real annual wages and salaries and pension coverage of immigrants aged 25 to 34 in 1991 who arrived in Canada from 1985 to 1990 and native-born workers of the same age.

    Release date: 2013-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2013029
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Population aging and the recent global financial crisis underscore the importance of the discussions of the adequacy of retirement preparation in Canada and the soundness of the Canadian retirement income system. The focus of this study is to examine whether the accumulated private savings of Canadian households is adequate for their retirement, given their expected entitlement to public and private pension when they retire.

    Release date: 2013-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2009321
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Data from the Longitudinal Administrative Data (LAD) base are used to compare the retirement status and earnings replacement rates achieved by individuals who were, and individuals who were not, Registered Pension Plan members in 1991 and/or 1992, when they were in their mid-fifties. Among men in this cohort, the likelihood of being retired at age 70 to 72 was about 4 to 14 percentage points higher among pension plan members than non-members. Data used for the study do not provide information on why RPP non-members tend to retire later than do members. Among retired individuals, earnings replacement rates did not differ significantly between RPP members and non-members.

    Release date: 2009-12-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200711113197
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Prime-aged couples experienced a moderate decline in RPP coverage over the last two decades, as the substantial growth in wives labour market participation and the slight increase in their RPP coverage only partially offset a substantial decline in husbands coverage. On average, retirement savings of families rose over the last two decades, but the distribution became more unequal. To a large extent, the uneven growth in retirement savings mirrors the sharp increase in family earnings inequality since the early 1980s.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006286
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We analyze the degree to which Canadian families are covered by private pension plans and document how their savings for retirement (made through contributions to tax-assisted retirement savings programs) have evolved over the last two decades. We find that two-parent families, lone-parent families and other individuals located in the bottom quintile of the earnings distribution are not better prepared for retirement than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. On the other hand, those located in the top quintile are better prepared than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. As a result, Canadian families' preparedness for retirement, which was fairly unequal in the mid-1980s, has become even more unequal over the last two decades. This finding has important implications for the future. Recent research has shown that the maturation of the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPPs) has led to a substantial reduction in income inequality among the elderly between the early 1980s and the mid-1990s. In the absence of offsetting trends, the growing inequality in Canadian families preparedness for retirement implies that that the distribution of family income among seniors should become more unequal in the years to come.

    Release date: 2006-09-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005248
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We examine the evolution of low-paid work and the position of economically vulnerable families in Canada over the last two decades. Despite substantial growth in workers' educational attainment and experience, the proportion of jobs paying less than $10.00 per hour has remained fairly stable since the early 1980s. However, union coverage in low-paid jobs has dropped, especially for males. The risk of job loss has changed little but the proportion of newly hired employees who hold temporary jobs has increased markedly, thereby indicating important changes in the employer-employee relationship. Despite their rising educational attainment, most low earners (except women aged 25 to 29) have not seen their chances of escaping low earnings improved between the 1980s and the 1990s.

    Of all full-time employees, 5% were low-paid and lived in low income families in 1980 and 2000. In 2000, individuals with no high school diploma, recent immigrants, unattached individuals, lone mothers and persons living alone accounted for fully 71% of all full-time workers in low-paid jobs and in low-income, but only 37% of all full-time workers. While members of these five groups account for the majority of low-paid workers in low-income families, two of these groups have seen their economic position declined significantly: low-educated couples and recent immigrants.

    Release date: 2005-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20010095984
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article looks at the characteristics of people currently retiring before the age of 60.

    Release date: 2001-12-12
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Analysis (13)

Analysis (13) (0 to 10 of 13 results)

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2018043
    Description:

    This infographic looks at the changing characteristics of jobs in Canada, including industry, pension coverage, whether jobs are full-time and permanent, and whether they are unionized.

    Release date: 2018-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014359
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the long-term labour market premiums associated with completing a college certificate and a bachelor's degree, compared to completing a high school diploma. Several labour market outcomes of individuals are examined with longitudinal data over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s.

    With the creation of a new linked file consisting of the 1991 Census of Population and the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF), it is now possible to follow individuals in the labour market for a longer period of time than is feasible with existing survey data. The purpose of this study is to compare labour market outcomes of individuals with different levels of educational attainment over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s. Three levels of education are considered, corresponding to the decisions made by students following high school graduation: a high school diploma, a college certificate, and a bachelor's degree. Longitudinal data are used to track total earnings (wages and salaries plus net self-employment income), coverage in an employer-sponsored pension plan, employment, union membership, and permanent and temporary layoffs over the period 1991 to 2010.

    Release date: 2014-02-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014354
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the long-term labour market premiums associated with a high school diploma. The focus is on the value of the qualification (the signaling effect), but the premiums associated with the number of years of schooling required to obtain the qualification (the human-capital effect) are also estimated. The labour market outcomes of individuals born in the mid-1960s are measured from their mid-20s to their mid-40s with longitudinal administrative data from the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF) that are linked to the 1991 Census of Population. Two groups are considered: terminal high school graduates (those who had obtained a high school diploma but had not acquired any postsecondary education by the 1991 Census) and individuals without a high school diploma (those who had no high school diploma, were not enrolled in high school, and had no postsecondary education at the time of the 1991 Census).

    Release date: 2014-01-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013032
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article addresses three questions: (1) What were the employment dynamics of a specific cohort of immigrant and native-born workers over the 20 years from 1991 to 2010? (2) To what extent did initial differences in earnings and pension coverage between the two groups narrow during this period? (3) Which factors were associated with the narrowing of these differences? The data are from the linked Census 1991-Longitudinal Worker File and pertain to real annual wages and salaries and pension coverage of immigrants aged 25 to 34 in 1991 who arrived in Canada from 1985 to 1990 and native-born workers of the same age.

    Release date: 2013-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2013029
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Population aging and the recent global financial crisis underscore the importance of the discussions of the adequacy of retirement preparation in Canada and the soundness of the Canadian retirement income system. The focus of this study is to examine whether the accumulated private savings of Canadian households is adequate for their retirement, given their expected entitlement to public and private pension when they retire.

    Release date: 2013-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2009321
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Data from the Longitudinal Administrative Data (LAD) base are used to compare the retirement status and earnings replacement rates achieved by individuals who were, and individuals who were not, Registered Pension Plan members in 1991 and/or 1992, when they were in their mid-fifties. Among men in this cohort, the likelihood of being retired at age 70 to 72 was about 4 to 14 percentage points higher among pension plan members than non-members. Data used for the study do not provide information on why RPP non-members tend to retire later than do members. Among retired individuals, earnings replacement rates did not differ significantly between RPP members and non-members.

    Release date: 2009-12-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200711113197
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Prime-aged couples experienced a moderate decline in RPP coverage over the last two decades, as the substantial growth in wives labour market participation and the slight increase in their RPP coverage only partially offset a substantial decline in husbands coverage. On average, retirement savings of families rose over the last two decades, but the distribution became more unequal. To a large extent, the uneven growth in retirement savings mirrors the sharp increase in family earnings inequality since the early 1980s.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006286
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We analyze the degree to which Canadian families are covered by private pension plans and document how their savings for retirement (made through contributions to tax-assisted retirement savings programs) have evolved over the last two decades. We find that two-parent families, lone-parent families and other individuals located in the bottom quintile of the earnings distribution are not better prepared for retirement than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. On the other hand, those located in the top quintile are better prepared than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. As a result, Canadian families' preparedness for retirement, which was fairly unequal in the mid-1980s, has become even more unequal over the last two decades. This finding has important implications for the future. Recent research has shown that the maturation of the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPPs) has led to a substantial reduction in income inequality among the elderly between the early 1980s and the mid-1990s. In the absence of offsetting trends, the growing inequality in Canadian families preparedness for retirement implies that that the distribution of family income among seniors should become more unequal in the years to come.

    Release date: 2006-09-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005248
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We examine the evolution of low-paid work and the position of economically vulnerable families in Canada over the last two decades. Despite substantial growth in workers' educational attainment and experience, the proportion of jobs paying less than $10.00 per hour has remained fairly stable since the early 1980s. However, union coverage in low-paid jobs has dropped, especially for males. The risk of job loss has changed little but the proportion of newly hired employees who hold temporary jobs has increased markedly, thereby indicating important changes in the employer-employee relationship. Despite their rising educational attainment, most low earners (except women aged 25 to 29) have not seen their chances of escaping low earnings improved between the 1980s and the 1990s.

    Of all full-time employees, 5% were low-paid and lived in low income families in 1980 and 2000. In 2000, individuals with no high school diploma, recent immigrants, unattached individuals, lone mothers and persons living alone accounted for fully 71% of all full-time workers in low-paid jobs and in low-income, but only 37% of all full-time workers. While members of these five groups account for the majority of low-paid workers in low-income families, two of these groups have seen their economic position declined significantly: low-educated couples and recent immigrants.

    Release date: 2005-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20010095984
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article looks at the characteristics of people currently retiring before the age of 60.

    Release date: 2001-12-12
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