November 2021


The labour market outcomes of economic immigrants in the skilled trades

The admission of skilled trades immigrants increased rapidly in the late 2000s and early 2010s, as the immigration selection system responded to increased demand for skilled tradespeople. This article examines the labour market outcomes of this category of economic immigrants.

In the first year after admission, immigrants in skilled trades had a higher rate of employment than other economic immigrants: 10 percentage points higher for men and 7 points higher for women. Among men, this employment advantage narrowed to 6 percentage points by the 10th year, while the difference disappeared after 5 years among women. Skilled trades immigrants had a much slower earnings growth after admission than other economic immigrants.

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International students as a source of labour supply: Engagement in the labour market during the period of study

As the number of international students studying in Canada increased over the past two decades, various regulations were implemented to facilitate their ability to work while studying. This article assesses the extent to which they were engaged in the labour market.

The number of international students with paid employment increased from 21,800 in 2000 to 277,400 in 2018, and their share among total paid workers grew from 0.1% to 1.4%.

The share of international students in the working population increased in every province over that time period but by 2018 it was largest in British Columbia (2.3%), Ontario (1.8%) and Prince Edward Island (1.5%).

There was a higher concentration of international students in the accommodation and food services sector (4.6%) than in other sectors in 2018, though all sectors experienced gains in the share of their workforce made up of international students.

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Claiming postsecondary education tax credits: Differences by level of parental income and implications for trends in enrolment rates

The income of postsecondary students’ parents is associated with both the likelihood of a student claiming postsecondary education tax credits, and of being enrolled in a degree program. This study is the first to use national registration information to calculate enrolment rates in degree programs by level of parental income.

Overall, among 19-year-old postsecondary students who filed their taxes in 2017, about 9 in 10 claimed postsecondary education credits, which can lower a student’s  tax obligation (or that of a parent, grandparent, spouse or common-law partner, or their parent or grandparent). However, 82.8% of students in the bottom quintile of the parental income distribution claimed credits compared with between 88.1% and 92.8% of students in the top 80% of the income distribution (with rates increasing slightly with each level of income).

Among 19-year-old youth in the top income quintile in 2017, 52.3% had enrolled in a degree program, compared with 25.0% among their counterparts in the bottom income quintile.

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Research article

Gender differences in STEM enrolment and graduation: What are the roles of academic performance and preparation?

Women are more likely than men to enrol in postsecondary education, but less likely to select science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programs, which typically lead to higher earnings than non-STEM programs. The article “Gender differences in STEM enrolment and graduation: What role for academic performance and preparation?” explores possible reasons for this difference in STEM participation.

Among individuals who graduated from high school between 2009 and 2011 and who enrolled in a bachelor’s degree program shortly thereafter, women were 36.4% less likely than men to choose a STEM program. Similar results are evident when looking at STEM graduation. However, only one-third of the gender gap in STEM enrolment and graduation can be explained by gender differences in academic performance in STEM-related and non-STEM-related high school subjects, STEM-readiness (taking at least three Grade 12 STEM-related electives), and neighbourhood and high school characteristics.

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