March 2022

Spotlight on data and research

International students as a source of labour supply: A summary of recent trends

This Spotlight on Data and Research article features the main findings from a series of six articles by Statistics Canada and Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada that examined the role of international students as a source of labour in Canada.

International students provided a growing source of labour for the Canadian market that extended well beyond their periods of study. About 3 in 10 international students became a landed immigrant within ten years. One in two international student graduates remained in their province of study. For international students who become permanent residents, Canadian study experience translated into stronger economic outcomes over time.

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From adaptability to vulnerability: Changes in admission criteria and refugee participation in social assistance

The 2002 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) significantly altered Canada’s refugee priorities by committing to admission on humanitarian grounds and prioritizing those in need of protection. This article summarized findings that compared the long-term use of social assistance among resettled refugees before and after IRPA, as well as during the transition to IRPA.

Two years after landing, 71% of government-assisted refugees (GARs) who arrived during the IRPA transition period (2002 to 2004) and 72% of post-IRPA arrivals received social assistance, compared to 66% of arrivals pre-IRPA. By the tenth year after arrival, the share of GARs receiving social assistance dropped to 25% for pre-IRPA arrivals and to 35% for post-IRPA arrivals.

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Youth unemployment in Canada, Germany, Ireland, and the United Kingdom in times of COVID-19

Very few countries managed to avoid a hit to their economy or young people’s employment in the wake of COVID-19. Researchers from Statistics Canada collaborated with institutes in Europe on the COVID-19: Youth economic activity and health monitor (YEAH) project to shed light in this area by examining the pandemic’s impacts on youth employment and well-being.

Unemployment levels rose for workers in their mid-teens to mid-twenties in Canada, Germany, Ireland, and the UK during the early days of the pandemic, reaching peak levels in the summer of 2020. By the summer of 2021, youth unemployment rates in all four countries largely recovered, although they all recorded slightly higher numbers than in the year pre-pandemic.

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Recent developments in the Canadian economy: Winter 2022

This article provides an integrated summary of recent changes in output, consumer prices and employment. It highlights changes in the economic data during the second half of 2021 and into early 2022. The article also draws on data sources that inform the economic conditions facing businesses as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve.

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Patenting activity of Canadian-resident businesses

Findings from a new longitudinal database on patenting in Canada show that from 2001 to 2015 the number of patent applications filed by Canadian businesses located in Canada rose slightly, but that this increase is entirely due to the higher number of patents filed in the United States.

This increase in patenting in the United States (+2,215 applications) can be traced to the increased activity of smaller, younger firms in service industries and in the technological fields of computer technology, civil engineering, digital communications, medical technology, transport, and IT methods for management.

Patenting is a measure of innovative activity and has been linked to positive economic outcomes for firms. Evidence suggests that Canadian-resident firms that file patent applications in the United States are as likely to experience high employment or revenue growth as firms that make applications in Canada.

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Research articles

A profile of children with affirmative responses to the 2016 census questions on difficulties with activities of daily living

This article presents a sociodemographic profile of children aged 0 to 14 years based on responses to questions from the 2016 Census on difficulties with activities of daily living. Results show that these questions, which are aimed at identifying Canadians aged 15 and older who are likely to have a disability, might not be suitable for children aged 14 and under. Given that these questions were repeated on the 2021 Census long-form questionnaire, future research is required to further assess their suitability.

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