The changing landscape of Canadian metropolitan areas
Section 3: Ecosystem accounts and statistics by census metropolitan area
This section presents tables, charts and maps on land cover and land use change and population and dwellings for each of Canada's 33 census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and census metropolitan area-ecosystems (CMA-Es). It also includes an ecosystem asset account table compatible with the United Nations' System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (see Textbox 3.1). Links are included to a wealth of other relevant Statistics Canada information that is available for CMAs. For information on the data sources, limitations and methods, see Appendix B.
Spatial data files (ArcGIS®, file extension: .shp) providing the built-up area data for 1971, 1991, 2001 and 2011, as well as the relevant boundary files and metadata are available for each CMA. Download the ZIP files from Maps 3.1 to 3.34.
Start of Textbox 3.1
Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field within the discipline of environmental accounting. The concepts and methods of environmental accounting are described in the United Nations' SEEA Central Framework, which became an international statistical standard in 2012, after 20 years of development. The concepts and methods of ecosystem accounting, described in the United Nations' SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, are not as mature.
Some national statistical offices, Statistics Canada among them, are working to validate and further develop the concepts and methods described in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. Initial results are presented in the ecosystem asset accounts presented below for each CMA.
The accounting processes developed to generate this land cover and land use change information represent the progress in ecosystem accounting at Statistics Canada (see Appendix B. Data sources and methods for a summary description of the methodology). While these tables currently only include broad categories—built-up area, arable land, natural and semi-natural land—work is planned to generate time series on other land cover and land use categories, which will eventually form part of the table.
For more information see:
Statistics Canada, 2013, "Measuring ecosystem goods and services in Canada," Human Activity and the Environment, Catalogue no. 16-201-X.
Statistics Canada, 2014, "What is the value of an ecosystem? Teacher's Kit for Human Activity and the Environment 2013: Measuring ecosystem goods and services in Canada," Human Activity and the Environment – Teacher's kit, Catalogue no. 16-507-X.
Statistics Canada, 2014, "Agriculture in Canada," Human Activity and the Environment, Catalogue no. 16-201-X.
United Nations Statistics Division, European Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and The World Bank, 2014, System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012: Central Framework,
http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seeaRev/SEEA_CF_Final_en.pdf (accessed July 28, 2015).
United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and World Bank, 2014, System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012: Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seeaRev/eea_final_en.pdf (accessed November 24, 2015).
End of Textbox 3.1
Census metropolitan area profiles
- Abbotsford–Mission, British Columbia
- Barrie, Ontario
- Brantford, Ontario
- Calgary, Alberta
- Edmonton, Alberta
- Greater Sudbury, Ontario
- Guelph, Ontario
- Halifax, Nova Scotia
- Hamilton, Ontario
- Kelowna, British Columbia
- Kingston, Ontario
- Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo, Ontario
- London, Ontario
- Moncton, New Brunswick
- Montréal, Quebec
- Oshawa, Ontario
- Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario
- Ottawa–Gatineau, Quebec
- Peterborough, Ontario
- Québec, Quebec
- Regina, Saskatchewan
- Saguenay, Quebec
- Saint John, New Brunswick
- Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
- Sherbrooke, Quebec
- St. Catharines–Niagara, Ontario
- St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador
- Thunder Bay, Ontario
- Toronto, Ontario
- Trois-Rivières, Quebec
- Vancouver, British Columbia
- Victoria, British Columbia
- Windsor, Ontario
- Winnipeg, Manitoba