Earnings, wages and non-wage benefits

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All (212)

All (212) (0 to 10 of 212 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100015
    Description:

    Previous research has suggested that skills acquired at a young age, such as reading or math skills, may have an impact on the early labour market outcomes of individuals. In this study, tax data linked to the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) are used to examine the association between background factors at age 15 (including reading proficiency) and employment earnings in young adulthood for a cohort of respondents who were aged 15 in 2000.

    Release date: 2019-10-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2019004
    Description:

    This study examines the evolution of the gender wage gap in Canada from 1998 to 2018 among employees aged 25 to 54. The contributions of various characteristics to the gap, and to the changes in the gap, are examined using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition on hourly wage data from the Labour Force Survey.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019018
    Description:

    This paper examines the impact of public sector salary disclosure laws on university faculty salaries in Canada. These laws, which give the public access to the salaries of individual faculty members if they exceed specified thresholds, were introduced in different provinces at different points in time. One of the most persistent and salient features of labour markets around the world is that women earn less than men. A hypothesis recently gaining traction among academic researchers and policy makers is that the gender earnings gap persists in part because it is hidden. There have also been calls in the private sector for more transparency on pay discrepancies between male and female workers. This paper provides new evidence on the causal effect of pay transparency laws on salaries.

    Release date: 2019-09-16

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2019003
    Description:

    This report looks at the evolution of minimum wage prevalence over the last 20 years, using annual estimates from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). It examines changes in the profile of minimum wage employees, first through a series of gradual minimum wage increases observed from 1998 to 2017, followed by notable increases in 2018. It then looks at changes in the average minimum wage in Canada compared with the average hourly wages for all employees.

    Release date: 2019-09-11

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022019001
    Description:

    Reducing pay inequality between women and men is a key priority, both nationally and internationally, for achieving gender equality. Documenting gender inequality in pay and tracking progress in this regard for policy purposes requires at least one indicator. The adjusted gender pay gap-the raw difference between the employment earnings of women and men, expressed either as a proportion of men's earnings (i.e., the "gender pay ratio") or one minus the gender pay ratio-typically serves this purpose. At present, there are no internationally-recognized standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap, leaving considerable scope for political choice.

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the development of international standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap by explaining the assumptions underlying, and the implications following from, various methods. Additionally, the paper strives to increase literacy about the meaning and interpretation of different estimates of the gender pay gap, and to bring together various explanations for the gender pay gap.

    Release date: 2019-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100007
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2016 Census in order to examine the employment earnings of individuals with an immigrant background (i.e., immigrants and children of immigrants) who are part of official language minorities in Canada. Two groups are examined: those with French as their first official language spoken (FOLS) living in Canada outside Quebec, and those with English as their FOLS living in Quebec. In this study, comparisons are made with groups belonging to the linguistic majority.

    Release date: 2019-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019012
    Description:

    It has been well-documented that postsecondary graduates, on average, earn considerably more than others. Consequently, increasing postsecondary enrollment among youth from lower-income families—through targeted student aid or community outreach programs—may constitute an effective mechanism for promoting upward income mobility. However, there currently exists no evidence of the benefits of a postsecondary education (PSE) for youth from lower-income families per se. Using postsecondary administrative records and income tax records, this study bridges this information gap by estimating the association between earnings and PSE by level of parental income among a cohort of Ontario postsecondary graduates and a comparison group of Ontario youth who did not enroll in a postsecondary institution.

    Release date: 2019-04-26

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019003
    Description:

    This paper provides a brief portrait of the Canadian Working Income Tax Benefit (WITB) and WITB recipients using 2014 tax data. It first presents the main components of the WITB program. It then describes WITB recipients from demographic and income perspectives. Finally, the paper examines the impact of the WITB on low-income rates and low-income gap ratios.

    Release date: 2019-04-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019007
    Description:

    Canada welcomed over 830,000 refugees from the 1980s to 2000s. However, their economic outcomes, especially the variation among major refugee groups, have not been examined comprehensively. Using the Longitudinal Immigration Database, this paper examines the labour market outcomes of refugees from 13 source countries with large inflows to Canada over the 1980-to-2009 period. The analysis first compares employment rates and earnings among refugees from the 13 source countries. It further compares each refugee group with economic-class and family-class immigrants who arrived during the same period.

    Release date: 2019-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019002
    Description:

    Based on the preliminary T1 Family File (T1FF) for the 2017 reference year, this study gives an overview for Canada, the provinces and the territories of income from annual wages, salaries and commissions of T1 tax filers. The paper focusses on some characteristics of this income source and of the wage-earning tax filers.

    Release date: 2019-01-29
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Analysis (212)

Analysis (212) (0 to 10 of 212 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100015
    Description:

    Previous research has suggested that skills acquired at a young age, such as reading or math skills, may have an impact on the early labour market outcomes of individuals. In this study, tax data linked to the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) are used to examine the association between background factors at age 15 (including reading proficiency) and employment earnings in young adulthood for a cohort of respondents who were aged 15 in 2000.

    Release date: 2019-10-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2019004
    Description:

    This study examines the evolution of the gender wage gap in Canada from 1998 to 2018 among employees aged 25 to 54. The contributions of various characteristics to the gap, and to the changes in the gap, are examined using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition on hourly wage data from the Labour Force Survey.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019018
    Description:

    This paper examines the impact of public sector salary disclosure laws on university faculty salaries in Canada. These laws, which give the public access to the salaries of individual faculty members if they exceed specified thresholds, were introduced in different provinces at different points in time. One of the most persistent and salient features of labour markets around the world is that women earn less than men. A hypothesis recently gaining traction among academic researchers and policy makers is that the gender earnings gap persists in part because it is hidden. There have also been calls in the private sector for more transparency on pay discrepancies between male and female workers. This paper provides new evidence on the causal effect of pay transparency laws on salaries.

    Release date: 2019-09-16

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2019003
    Description:

    This report looks at the evolution of minimum wage prevalence over the last 20 years, using annual estimates from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). It examines changes in the profile of minimum wage employees, first through a series of gradual minimum wage increases observed from 1998 to 2017, followed by notable increases in 2018. It then looks at changes in the average minimum wage in Canada compared with the average hourly wages for all employees.

    Release date: 2019-09-11

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022019001
    Description:

    Reducing pay inequality between women and men is a key priority, both nationally and internationally, for achieving gender equality. Documenting gender inequality in pay and tracking progress in this regard for policy purposes requires at least one indicator. The adjusted gender pay gap-the raw difference between the employment earnings of women and men, expressed either as a proportion of men's earnings (i.e., the "gender pay ratio") or one minus the gender pay ratio-typically serves this purpose. At present, there are no internationally-recognized standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap, leaving considerable scope for political choice.

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the development of international standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap by explaining the assumptions underlying, and the implications following from, various methods. Additionally, the paper strives to increase literacy about the meaning and interpretation of different estimates of the gender pay gap, and to bring together various explanations for the gender pay gap.

    Release date: 2019-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100007
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2016 Census in order to examine the employment earnings of individuals with an immigrant background (i.e., immigrants and children of immigrants) who are part of official language minorities in Canada. Two groups are examined: those with French as their first official language spoken (FOLS) living in Canada outside Quebec, and those with English as their FOLS living in Quebec. In this study, comparisons are made with groups belonging to the linguistic majority.

    Release date: 2019-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019012
    Description:

    It has been well-documented that postsecondary graduates, on average, earn considerably more than others. Consequently, increasing postsecondary enrollment among youth from lower-income families—through targeted student aid or community outreach programs—may constitute an effective mechanism for promoting upward income mobility. However, there currently exists no evidence of the benefits of a postsecondary education (PSE) for youth from lower-income families per se. Using postsecondary administrative records and income tax records, this study bridges this information gap by estimating the association between earnings and PSE by level of parental income among a cohort of Ontario postsecondary graduates and a comparison group of Ontario youth who did not enroll in a postsecondary institution.

    Release date: 2019-04-26

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019003
    Description:

    This paper provides a brief portrait of the Canadian Working Income Tax Benefit (WITB) and WITB recipients using 2014 tax data. It first presents the main components of the WITB program. It then describes WITB recipients from demographic and income perspectives. Finally, the paper examines the impact of the WITB on low-income rates and low-income gap ratios.

    Release date: 2019-04-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019007
    Description:

    Canada welcomed over 830,000 refugees from the 1980s to 2000s. However, their economic outcomes, especially the variation among major refugee groups, have not been examined comprehensively. Using the Longitudinal Immigration Database, this paper examines the labour market outcomes of refugees from 13 source countries with large inflows to Canada over the 1980-to-2009 period. The analysis first compares employment rates and earnings among refugees from the 13 source countries. It further compares each refugee group with economic-class and family-class immigrants who arrived during the same period.

    Release date: 2019-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019002
    Description:

    Based on the preliminary T1 Family File (T1FF) for the 2017 reference year, this study gives an overview for Canada, the provinces and the territories of income from annual wages, salaries and commissions of T1 tax filers. The paper focusses on some characteristics of this income source and of the wage-earning tax filers.

    Release date: 2019-01-29
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