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    • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2009063
      Description:

      This paper highlights the Canadian Tourism Satellite Account (CTSA) developed by Statistics Canada. The CTSA provides an economic measure of the importance of tourism in terms of expenditures, Gross Domestic Product and employment for Canada. It permits a comparison of tourism with other industries within Canada since the concepts and methods used are based on the framework of the Canadian System of National Accounts. The study revealed that tourism is an important part of Canada's well diversified economy. This paper presents the results of the CTSA for reference year 2004.

      This study was prepared by staff of the Research and Development Projects and Analysis Section, Income and Expenditure Accounts Division, Statistics Canada. The study was funded by the Canadian Tourism Commission.

      Release date: 2009-12-24

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211036
      Description:

      Surveys are frequently required to produce estimates for subpopulations, sometimes for a single subpopulation and sometimes for several subpopulations in addition to the total population. When membership of a rare subpopulation (or domain) can be determined from the sampling frame, selecting the required domain sample size is relatively straightforward. In this case the main issue is the extent of oversampling to employ when survey estimates are required for several domains and for the total population. Sampling and oversampling rare domains whose members cannot be identified in advance present a major challenge. A variety of methods has been used in this situation. In addition to large-scale screening, these methods include disproportionate stratified sampling, two-phase sampling, the use of multiple frames, multiplicity sampling, panel surveys, and the use of multi-purpose surveys. This paper illustrates the application of these methods in a range of social surveys.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X200900211037
      Description:

      Randomized response strategies, which have originally been developed as statistical methods to reduce nonresponse as well as untruthful answering, can also be applied in the field of statistical disclosure control for public use microdata files. In this paper a standardization of randomized response techniques for the estimation of proportions of identifying or sensitive attributes is presented. The statistical properties of the standardized estimator are derived for general probability sampling. In order to analyse the effect of different choices of the method's implicit "design parameters" on the performance of the estimator we have to include measures of privacy protection in our considerations. These yield variance-optimum design parameters given a certain level of privacy protection. To this end the variables have to be classified into different categories of sensitivity. A real-data example applies the technique in a survey on academic cheating behaviour.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211038
      Description:

      We examine overcoming the overestimation in using generalized weight share method (GWSM) caused by link nonresponse in indirect sampling. A few adjustment methods incorporating link nonresponse in using GWSM have been constructed for situations both with and without the availability of auxiliary variables. A simulation study on a longitudinal survey is presented using some of the adjustment methods we recommend. The simulation results show that these adjusted GWSMs perform well in reducing both estimation bias and variance. The advancement in bias reduction is significant.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211039
      Description:

      Propensity weighting is a procedure to adjust for unit nonresponse in surveys. A form of implementing this procedure consists of dividing the sampling weights by estimates of the probabilities that the sampled units respond to the survey. Typically, these estimates are obtained by fitting parametric models, such as logistic regression. The resulting adjusted estimators may become biased when the specified parametric models are incorrect. To avoid misspecifying such a model, we consider nonparametric estimation of the response probabilities by local polynomial regression. We study the asymptotic properties of the resulting estimator under quasi-randomization. The practical behavior of the proposed nonresponse adjustment approach is evaluated on NHANES data.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211040
      Description:

      In this paper a multivariate structural time series model is described that accounts for the panel design of the Dutch Labour Force Survey and is applied to estimate monthly unemployment rates. Compared to the generalized regression estimator, this approach results in a substantial increase of the accuracy due to a reduction of the standard error and the explicit modelling of the bias between the subsequent waves.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211041
      Description:

      Estimation of small area (or domain) compositions may suffer from informative missing data, if the probability of missing varies across the categories of interest as well as the small areas. We develop a double mixed modeling approach that combines a random effects mixed model for the underlying complete data with a random effects mixed model of the differential missing-data mechanism. The effect of sampling design can be incorporated through a quasi-likelihood sampling model. The associated conditional mean squared error of prediction is approximated in terms of a three-part decomposition, corresponding to a naive prediction variance, a positive correction that accounts for the hypothetical parameter estimation uncertainty based on the latent complete data, and another positive correction for the extra variation due to the missing data. We illustrate our approach with an application to the estimation of Municipality household compositions based on the Norwegian register household data, which suffer from informative under-registration of the dwelling identity number.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211042
      Description:

      This paper proposes an approach for small area prediction based on data obtained from periodic surveys and censuses. We apply our approach to obtain population predictions for the municipalities not sampled in the Brazilian annual Household Survey (PNAD), as well as to increase the precision of the design-based estimates obtained for the sampled municipalities. In addition to the data provided by the PNAD, we use census demographic data from 1991 and 2000, as well as a complete population count conducted in 1996. Hierarchically non-structured and spatially structured growth models that gain strength from all the sampled municipalities are proposed and compared.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211043
      Description:

      Business surveys often use a one-stage stratified simple random sampling without replacement design with some certainty strata. Although weight adjustment is typically applied for unit nonresponse, the variability due to nonresponse may be omitted in practice when estimating variances. This is problematic especially when there are certainty strata. We derive some variance estimators that are consistent when the number of sampled units in each weighting cell is large, using the jackknife, linearization, and modified jackknife methods. The derived variance estimators are first applied to empirical data from the Annual Capital Expenditures Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau and are then examined in a simulation study.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211044
      Description:

      In large scaled sample surveys it is common practice to employ stratified multistage designs where units are selected using simple random sampling without replacement at each stage. Variance estimation for these types of designs can be quite cumbersome to implement, particularly for non-linear estimators. Various bootstrap methods for variance estimation have been proposed, but most of these are restricted to single-stage designs or two-stage cluster designs. An extension of the rescaled bootstrap method (Rao and Wu 1988) to stratified multistage designs is proposed which can easily be extended to any number of stages. The proposed method is suitable for a wide range of reweighting techniques, including the general class of calibration estimators. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to examine the performance of the proposed multistage rescaled bootstrap variance estimator.

      Release date: 2009-12-23
    Data (44)

    Data (44) (0 to 10 of 44 results)

    • Profile of a community or region: 89-638-X200900211058
      Geography: Census agglomeration
      Description:

      This product is a series of profiles for a number of census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations and communities across Canada with a large Aboriginal population, either in numbers or share of the area's total population. The series aims to present a demographic and socio-economic profile of the total Aboriginal population living in these areas. Demographic Data as well as information on living arrangements of children, education, labour, income, mobility, housing, and health are highlighted. While most of the focus is on adults, there is also limited information provided on children. Data showing comparisons between Aboriginal groups are provided for selected variables, as are comparisons with the non-Aboriginal population. Findings are based on the 2006 Census and the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

      Release date: 2009-12-17

    • Profile of a community or region: 89-638-X200900211059
      Geography: Census metropolitan area
      Description:

      This product is a series of profiles for a number of census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations and communities across Canada with a large Aboriginal population, either in numbers or share of the area's total population. The series aims to present a demographic and socio-economic profile of the total Aboriginal population living in these areas. Demographic Data as well as information on living arrangements of children, education, labour, income, mobility, housing, and health are highlighted. While most of the focus is on adults, there is also limited information provided on children. Data showing comparisons between Aboriginal groups are provided for selected variables, as are comparisons with the non-Aboriginal population. Findings are based on the 2006 Census and the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

      Release date: 2009-12-17

    • Profile of a community or region: 89-638-X200900211060
      Geography: Census agglomeration
      Description:

      This product is a series of profiles for a number of census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations and communities across Canada with a large Aboriginal population, either in numbers or share of the area's total population. The series aims to present a demographic and socio-economic profile of the total Aboriginal population living in these areas. Demographic Data as well as information on living arrangements of children, education, labour, income, mobility, housing, and health are highlighted. While most of the focus is on adults, there is also limited information provided on children. Data showing comparisons between Aboriginal groups are provided for selected variables, as are comparisons with the non-Aboriginal population. Findings are based on the 2006 Census and the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

      Release date: 2009-12-17

    • Profile of a community or region: 89-638-X200900211061
      Geography: Census agglomeration
      Description:

      This product is a series of profiles for a number of census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations and communities across Canada with a large Aboriginal population, either in numbers or share of the area's total population. The series aims to present a demographic and socio-economic profile of the total Aboriginal population living in these areas. Demographic Data as well as information on living arrangements of children, education, labour, income, mobility, housing, and health are highlighted. While most of the focus is on adults, there is also limited information provided on children. Data showing comparisons between Aboriginal groups are provided for selected variables, as are comparisons with the non-Aboriginal population. Findings are based on the 2006 Census and the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

      Release date: 2009-12-17

    • Profile of a community or region: 89-638-X200900211062
      Geography: Census metropolitan area
      Description:

      This product is a series of profiles for a number of census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations and communities across Canada with a large Aboriginal population, either in numbers or share of the area's total population. The series aims to present a demographic and socio-economic profile of the total Aboriginal population living in these areas. Demographic Data as well as information on living arrangements of children, education, labour, income, mobility, housing, and health are highlighted. While most of the focus is on adults, there is also limited information provided on children. Data showing comparisons between Aboriginal groups are provided for selected variables, as are comparisons with the non-Aboriginal population. Findings are based on the 2006 Census and the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

      Release date: 2009-12-17

    • Profile of a community or region: 16-002-X200900411031
      Description:

      The Lower Mainland ecoregion profile is the first in an upcoming series of ecoregion profiles. The information presented includes a brief description of the physical setting, a snapshot of land cover and use as well as selected statistics on the changing socio-economy in the region. This ecoregion will be the site for many of the activities associated with the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics.

      Release date: 2009-12-09

    • Table: 51-004-X2009006
      Description:

      This publication provides quarterly information on operational and financial variables related to the scheduled and charter operations of all Canadian-licensed air carriers classified into reporting levels I and II. Operational data (passengers, passenger-kilometres, goods carried, goods tonne-kilometres, etc.) and financial data (operating revenues, operating expenses, employment expenses) are presented. This publication also includes data highlights and some financial performance indicators and productivity measures.

      Release date: 2009-11-13

    • Table: 88-001-X2009006
      Description:

      Release date: 2009-10-15

    • Table: 51-004-X2009005
      Description:

      The air fare data included in this publication relate to the scheduled operations of major Canadian air carriers. This publication provides information on average fares by sector and fare type group and average domestic fares for ten selected cities of enplanement. It also provides information on the distribution of passengers and passenger-kilometres by sector and fare type group. A series of air fare indexes by sector and fare type group is also presented. In addition to annual data, this publication also presents quarterly data. It also includes data highlights and a brief analysis.

      Release date: 2009-10-09
    Analysis (297)

    Analysis (297) (0 to 10 of 297 results)

    • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2009063
      Description:

      This paper highlights the Canadian Tourism Satellite Account (CTSA) developed by Statistics Canada. The CTSA provides an economic measure of the importance of tourism in terms of expenditures, Gross Domestic Product and employment for Canada. It permits a comparison of tourism with other industries within Canada since the concepts and methods used are based on the framework of the Canadian System of National Accounts. The study revealed that tourism is an important part of Canada's well diversified economy. This paper presents the results of the CTSA for reference year 2004.

      This study was prepared by staff of the Research and Development Projects and Analysis Section, Income and Expenditure Accounts Division, Statistics Canada. The study was funded by the Canadian Tourism Commission.

      Release date: 2009-12-24

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211036
      Description:

      Surveys are frequently required to produce estimates for subpopulations, sometimes for a single subpopulation and sometimes for several subpopulations in addition to the total population. When membership of a rare subpopulation (or domain) can be determined from the sampling frame, selecting the required domain sample size is relatively straightforward. In this case the main issue is the extent of oversampling to employ when survey estimates are required for several domains and for the total population. Sampling and oversampling rare domains whose members cannot be identified in advance present a major challenge. A variety of methods has been used in this situation. In addition to large-scale screening, these methods include disproportionate stratified sampling, two-phase sampling, the use of multiple frames, multiplicity sampling, panel surveys, and the use of multi-purpose surveys. This paper illustrates the application of these methods in a range of social surveys.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211038
      Description:

      We examine overcoming the overestimation in using generalized weight share method (GWSM) caused by link nonresponse in indirect sampling. A few adjustment methods incorporating link nonresponse in using GWSM have been constructed for situations both with and without the availability of auxiliary variables. A simulation study on a longitudinal survey is presented using some of the adjustment methods we recommend. The simulation results show that these adjusted GWSMs perform well in reducing both estimation bias and variance. The advancement in bias reduction is significant.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211039
      Description:

      Propensity weighting is a procedure to adjust for unit nonresponse in surveys. A form of implementing this procedure consists of dividing the sampling weights by estimates of the probabilities that the sampled units respond to the survey. Typically, these estimates are obtained by fitting parametric models, such as logistic regression. The resulting adjusted estimators may become biased when the specified parametric models are incorrect. To avoid misspecifying such a model, we consider nonparametric estimation of the response probabilities by local polynomial regression. We study the asymptotic properties of the resulting estimator under quasi-randomization. The practical behavior of the proposed nonresponse adjustment approach is evaluated on NHANES data.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211040
      Description:

      In this paper a multivariate structural time series model is described that accounts for the panel design of the Dutch Labour Force Survey and is applied to estimate monthly unemployment rates. Compared to the generalized regression estimator, this approach results in a substantial increase of the accuracy due to a reduction of the standard error and the explicit modelling of the bias between the subsequent waves.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211041
      Description:

      Estimation of small area (or domain) compositions may suffer from informative missing data, if the probability of missing varies across the categories of interest as well as the small areas. We develop a double mixed modeling approach that combines a random effects mixed model for the underlying complete data with a random effects mixed model of the differential missing-data mechanism. The effect of sampling design can be incorporated through a quasi-likelihood sampling model. The associated conditional mean squared error of prediction is approximated in terms of a three-part decomposition, corresponding to a naive prediction variance, a positive correction that accounts for the hypothetical parameter estimation uncertainty based on the latent complete data, and another positive correction for the extra variation due to the missing data. We illustrate our approach with an application to the estimation of Municipality household compositions based on the Norwegian register household data, which suffer from informative under-registration of the dwelling identity number.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211042
      Description:

      This paper proposes an approach for small area prediction based on data obtained from periodic surveys and censuses. We apply our approach to obtain population predictions for the municipalities not sampled in the Brazilian annual Household Survey (PNAD), as well as to increase the precision of the design-based estimates obtained for the sampled municipalities. In addition to the data provided by the PNAD, we use census demographic data from 1991 and 2000, as well as a complete population count conducted in 1996. Hierarchically non-structured and spatially structured growth models that gain strength from all the sampled municipalities are proposed and compared.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211043
      Description:

      Business surveys often use a one-stage stratified simple random sampling without replacement design with some certainty strata. Although weight adjustment is typically applied for unit nonresponse, the variability due to nonresponse may be omitted in practice when estimating variances. This is problematic especially when there are certainty strata. We derive some variance estimators that are consistent when the number of sampled units in each weighting cell is large, using the jackknife, linearization, and modified jackknife methods. The derived variance estimators are first applied to empirical data from the Annual Capital Expenditures Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau and are then examined in a simulation study.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211044
      Description:

      In large scaled sample surveys it is common practice to employ stratified multistage designs where units are selected using simple random sampling without replacement at each stage. Variance estimation for these types of designs can be quite cumbersome to implement, particularly for non-linear estimators. Various bootstrap methods for variance estimation have been proposed, but most of these are restricted to single-stage designs or two-stage cluster designs. An extension of the rescaled bootstrap method (Rao and Wu 1988) to stratified multistage designs is proposed which can easily be extended to any number of stages. The proposed method is suitable for a wide range of reweighting techniques, including the general class of calibration estimators. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to examine the performance of the proposed multistage rescaled bootstrap variance estimator.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200900211045
      Description:

      In analysis of sample survey data, degrees-of-freedom quantities are often used to assess the stability of design-based variance estimators. For example, these degrees-of-freedom values are used in construction of confidence intervals based on t distribution approximations; and of related t tests. In addition, a small degrees-of-freedom term provides a qualitative indication of the possible limitations of a given variance estimator in a specific application. Degrees-of-freedom calculations sometimes are based on forms of the Satterthwaite approximation. These Satterthwaite-based calculations depend primarily on the relative magnitudes of stratum-level variances. However, for designs involving a small number of primary units selected per stratum, standard stratum-level variance estimators provide limited information on the true stratum variances. For such cases, customary Satterthwaite-based calculations can be problematic, especially in analyses for subpopulations that are concentrated in a relatively small number of strata. To address this problem, this paper uses estimated within-primary-sample-unit (within PSU) variances to provide auxiliary information regarding the relative magnitudes of the overall stratum-level variances. Analytic results indicate that the resulting degrees-of-freedom estimator will be better than modified Satterthwaite-type estimators provided: (a) the overall stratum-level variances are approximately proportional to the corresponding within-stratum variances; and (b) the variances of the within-PSU variance estimators are relatively small. In addition, this paper develops errors-in-variables methods that can be used to check conditions (a) and (b) empirically. For these model checks, we develop simulation-based reference distributions, which differ substantially from reference distributions based on customary large-sample normal approximations. The proposed methods are applied to four variables from the U.S. Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

      Release date: 2009-12-23
    Reference (23)

    Reference (23) (0 to 10 of 23 results)

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X200900211037
      Description:

      Randomized response strategies, which have originally been developed as statistical methods to reduce nonresponse as well as untruthful answering, can also be applied in the field of statistical disclosure control for public use microdata files. In this paper a standardization of randomized response techniques for the estimation of proportions of identifying or sensitive attributes is presented. The statistical properties of the standardized estimator are derived for general probability sampling. In order to analyse the effect of different choices of the method's implicit "design parameters" on the performance of the estimator we have to include measures of privacy protection in our considerations. These yield variance-optimum design parameters given a certain level of privacy protection. To this end the variables have to be classified into different categories of sensitivity. A real-data example applies the technique in a survey on academic cheating behaviour.

      Release date: 2009-12-23

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 82-230-X
      Description:

      This report presents the results of the 3rd Consensus Conference on Health Indicators that was convened in March 2009, including information that was presented at the conference, a summary of the consultation process leading up to the event, and the priority health areas deemed most important for future indicator development work.

      The conference marked the 10th anniversary of the Health Indicators project, a collaboration between Statistics Canada and Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). The goal of the project is to provide health regions, health care providers and the public in general with reliable and comparable data on the health of Canadians and to assist stakeholders and decision makers in the use and interpretation of the indicator data.

      Release date: 2009-12-21

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2009002
      Geography: Province or territory
      Description:

      This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending, which gathers information on the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households. The survey covers private households in the 10 provinces. (The territories are surveyed every second year, starting in 1999.)

      This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables, as well as descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. One section describes the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, aggregates and medians).

      Release date: 2009-12-18

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13-605-X200900211057
      Description:

      With the latest release of the bilateral Purchasing Power Parities estimates for Canada and the U.S., an improved projection methodology for the non-benchmark year has been employed. This note summarizes the new methodology and its rationale.

      Release date: 2009-12-10

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13-604-M2009062
      Description:

      Statistics Canada produces monthly import and export merchandise trade price indexes. For the majority of these prices, Statistics Canada uses a variety of proxy measures to derive the price index in lieu of collecting observed import and export prices. The ability of these proxy measures to reflect international trade price movements during times of exchange rate volatility is limited. For this reason, the constant dollar trade estimates derived using these proxy price indexes have been refined with constant dollar adjustments following the appreciation of the Canadian exchange rate beginning at the end of 2002. This paper explains the rational and methodology behind these adjustments, as well as the impact on published trade and GDP estimates.

      Release date: 2009-12-04

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 89-634-X2009008
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a parent-reported instrument designed to provide information on children's behaviours and relationships. The SDQ consists of 25 items which are grouped into five subscales: (1) pro-social, (2) inattention-hyperactivity, (3) emotional symptoms, (4) conduct problems, and (5) peer problems. The SDQ was used to provide information on children aged 2 to 5 years in the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Though validated on general populations, the constructs of the SDQ have not been validated for off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit children in Canada. The first objective of this evaluation is to examine if the five subscales of the SDQ demonstrate construct validity and reliability for off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit children. The second objective is to examine if an alternative set of subscales, using the 25 SDQ items, may be more valid and reliable for off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit children.

      Release date: 2009-11-25

    • Notices and consultations: 13-605-X200900111027
      Description:

      With the release of the Financial Flow Accounts (FFA) on December 1st and the National Balance Sheet Accounts (NBSA) on December 14th, the Income and Expenditure Accounts Division will be publishing revised sector and category detail on CANSIM.

      Release date: 2009-11-19

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 92-568-X
      Description:

      This report describes sampling and weighting procedures used in the 2006 Census. It reviews the history of these procedures in Canadian censuses, provides operational and theoretical justifications for them, and presents the results of the evaluation studies of these procedures.

      Release date: 2009-08-11

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 68F0023X
      Description:

      Government financial reports are based on the organisation of each individual government and on their accounting and reporting practices. There is therefore little uniformity from one level of government to another or from one province to another. The Financial Management System (FMS) is an analytical framework designed to produce statistical series that are both consistent and compatible.

      Written in plain English, the Financial Management System (FMS) manual was designed to assist you in better understanding the framework of the Financial Management System (FMS). It will explain the strengths and caveats of the FMS and will provide you with clear explanations of what is included in each revenue source and each expenditure function.

      Release date: 2009-07-27

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 16-001-M2009008
      Description:

      In 2008, Statistics Canada conducted the first Agricultural Water Use Survey. This pilot survey is part of the Canadian Environment Sustainability Indicators initiative and collects information on volumes of water used for irrigation, irrigated areas, irrigation practices and the quality of water used for agricultural purposes. This technical paper describes the methodology used for the pilot survey and includes recommendations for future cycles of the survey. The validation process seems to indicate that the method used to estimate the volumes of water used and the irrigated areas calculated underestimates the results. The report gives recommendations to minimize this bias in the next iterations of the survey. First, it is recommended to simplify the level of information collected by the survey; to review the sampling methodology; and to examine other means of collecting information on volumes of water used for irrigation. This pilot version of the survey remains a reliable source for consistent data on agricultural water use.

      Release date: 2009-06-26
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