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  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2019002
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the representation of women in top earnings groups—specifically, the top 0.1%, next 0.9% and next 9% of earners—and the extent to which their under-representation in these groups contributes to the overall gender gap in annual earnings. Trends are documented over almost forty years from 1978 to 2015.

    Release date: 2019-03-07

  • Journals and periodicals: 71-222-X
    Description:

    Labour Statistics at a Glance features short analytical articles on specific topics of interest related to Canada's labour market. The studies examine recent or historical trends using data produced by the Labour Statistics Division, i.e., the Labour Force Survey, the Survey of Employment Payrolls and Hours, the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey, the Employment Insurance Coverage Survey and the Employment Insurance Statistics Program.

    Release date: 2019-02-13

  • Stats in brief: 89-28-0001201800100010
    Description:

    The purpose of this edition is to raise awareness about the gender wage gap. It does so by presenting "Equal Pay Day" on the date when women effectively start working for free in Canada, and by providing a general overview of women's experiences in the labour market.

    Release date: 2018-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201500114694
    Description:

    This chapter of Women in Canada examines women's labour market experiences in comparison to those of men and, where relevant, explores how they have evolved over time. Specifically, historical trends in participation, employment, and unemployment rates are documented. Then, using the most recent data available, employment patterns across a variety of personal and work characteristics are considered: province; educational attainment; marital status; parental status and age of youngest child/ren in the household; lone parenthood; work hours; self-employment; sector of employment (i.e., public or private); "precarious" (i.e., part-time and/or temporary) employment; industry; and occupation. Gender wage differentials are also explored within and between educational and occupational groups. Turning to unemployment, patterns by age, province, and reasons for job leaving/losing are considered, along with Employment Insurance claims and beneficiaries.

    Most analyses in this chapter focus on women (and men) in the core working ages of 25 to 54 years, as younger people's (15-24 years) labour market experiences are shaped by school attendance, and older people's (55 years and older) are shaped by retirement. However, gender differences in labour market indicators among youth and mature adults are considered separately at the end.

    Release date: 2017-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016379
    Description:

    Comparative studies of intergenerational earnings and income mobility largely rank Canada as one of the most mobile countries among advanced economies, such as Denmark, Finland and Norway. The assertion that Canada is a highly mobile society is drawn from intergenerational income elasticity estimates reported in Corak and Heisz (1999). Corak and Heisz used data from the earlier version of the Intergenerational Income Database (IID), which tracked income of Canadian youth only into their early thirties. Recent theoretical literature, however, suggests that the relationship between childrens’ and parents’ lifetime income may not be accurately estimated when children’s income are not observed from their mid-careers— known as lifecycle bias. The present study addresses this concern by re-examining the extent of intergenerational earnings and income mobility in Canada using the updated version of the IID, which tracks children well into their mid-forties, when mid-career income are observed.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014360
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines which factors underlie the narrowing of wage differences seen between young bachelor’s degree holders and high school graduates from the 2000-to-2002 period to the 2010-to-2012 period and the widening of differences in full-time paid employment rates between these two groups.

    Four types of factors are considered: those associated with changes in labour supply, labour demand, institutions and employer–employee contracts, and general economic conditions.

    Changes in the population of bachelor’s degree holders relative to the population of high school graduates are used to capture changes in relative labour supply.

    Release date: 2014-04-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012340
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper studies the effect of selective attrition on estimates of immigrant earnings growth based on repeated cross-sectional data in Canada. Longitudinal tax data linked to immigrant landing records are used in order to estimate the change in immigrant earnings and the immigrant-Canadian-born earnings gap. The results are compared with those from repeated cross-sectional data. This approach eliminates differences in results that may stem from variation in collection modes and procedures across datasets.

    Release date: 2012-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201011113260
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article tracks trends in temporary employment since the Labour Force Survey (LFS) began measuring it from 1997 to 2009 with particular attention to the recent economic downturn. It also examines the earnings gap between temporary and permanent positions and looks at whether that gap changed during the recent employment slowdown.

    Release date: 2010-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100111394
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The gender gap in hourly wages narrowed between the late 1980s and the late 2000s. This article analyses the narrowing wage gap according to the changing characteristics of men and women in paid work, the changes in pay received for those characteristics, and the extent to which who works in each period affects the results.

    Release date: 2010-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008311
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the variability of workers' earnings in Canada over the 1982-to-2000 period by a graphical descriptive approach using the Longitudinal Administrative Data base file. Following Gottschalk and Moffitt (1994), we decompose the total variance of workers' earnings into a 'permanent' or long-run component between workers and a 'transitory' or year-to-year earnings instability component over time for given workers. The decomposition is applied to a five-year moving window. Several results are found. First, the general rise in total earnings variance over the period reflects quite different patterns of change for its separate components. Long-run earnings inequality has generally increased over the period, while year-to-year earnings instability has pretty steadily decreased. Changes in the total earnings variability have been driven primarily by changes in long-run earnings inequality. Second, the patterns of change in the two variance components showed substantial differences between men and women. Since the early 1990s, long-run earnings inequality continued to rise for men, but it markedly decreased for women. Since the late 1980s, earnings instability fell quite steadily for women, but it showed a more cyclical pattern for men. Third, the patterns across ages of the two variance components are almost opposite. Long-run earnings inequality generally rises with age, so it is markedly highest among older-age workers. Earnings instability, in contrast, generally declines with age, so it is markedly highest among entry-age workers.

    Release date: 2008-12-18
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Analysis (56)

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  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2019002
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the representation of women in top earnings groups—specifically, the top 0.1%, next 0.9% and next 9% of earners—and the extent to which their under-representation in these groups contributes to the overall gender gap in annual earnings. Trends are documented over almost forty years from 1978 to 2015.

    Release date: 2019-03-07

  • Journals and periodicals: 71-222-X
    Description:

    Labour Statistics at a Glance features short analytical articles on specific topics of interest related to Canada's labour market. The studies examine recent or historical trends using data produced by the Labour Statistics Division, i.e., the Labour Force Survey, the Survey of Employment Payrolls and Hours, the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey, the Employment Insurance Coverage Survey and the Employment Insurance Statistics Program.

    Release date: 2019-02-13

  • Stats in brief: 89-28-0001201800100010
    Description:

    The purpose of this edition is to raise awareness about the gender wage gap. It does so by presenting "Equal Pay Day" on the date when women effectively start working for free in Canada, and by providing a general overview of women's experiences in the labour market.

    Release date: 2018-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201500114694
    Description:

    This chapter of Women in Canada examines women's labour market experiences in comparison to those of men and, where relevant, explores how they have evolved over time. Specifically, historical trends in participation, employment, and unemployment rates are documented. Then, using the most recent data available, employment patterns across a variety of personal and work characteristics are considered: province; educational attainment; marital status; parental status and age of youngest child/ren in the household; lone parenthood; work hours; self-employment; sector of employment (i.e., public or private); "precarious" (i.e., part-time and/or temporary) employment; industry; and occupation. Gender wage differentials are also explored within and between educational and occupational groups. Turning to unemployment, patterns by age, province, and reasons for job leaving/losing are considered, along with Employment Insurance claims and beneficiaries.

    Most analyses in this chapter focus on women (and men) in the core working ages of 25 to 54 years, as younger people's (15-24 years) labour market experiences are shaped by school attendance, and older people's (55 years and older) are shaped by retirement. However, gender differences in labour market indicators among youth and mature adults are considered separately at the end.

    Release date: 2017-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016379
    Description:

    Comparative studies of intergenerational earnings and income mobility largely rank Canada as one of the most mobile countries among advanced economies, such as Denmark, Finland and Norway. The assertion that Canada is a highly mobile society is drawn from intergenerational income elasticity estimates reported in Corak and Heisz (1999). Corak and Heisz used data from the earlier version of the Intergenerational Income Database (IID), which tracked income of Canadian youth only into their early thirties. Recent theoretical literature, however, suggests that the relationship between childrens’ and parents’ lifetime income may not be accurately estimated when children’s income are not observed from their mid-careers— known as lifecycle bias. The present study addresses this concern by re-examining the extent of intergenerational earnings and income mobility in Canada using the updated version of the IID, which tracks children well into their mid-forties, when mid-career income are observed.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014360
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines which factors underlie the narrowing of wage differences seen between young bachelor’s degree holders and high school graduates from the 2000-to-2002 period to the 2010-to-2012 period and the widening of differences in full-time paid employment rates between these two groups.

    Four types of factors are considered: those associated with changes in labour supply, labour demand, institutions and employer–employee contracts, and general economic conditions.

    Changes in the population of bachelor’s degree holders relative to the population of high school graduates are used to capture changes in relative labour supply.

    Release date: 2014-04-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012340
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper studies the effect of selective attrition on estimates of immigrant earnings growth based on repeated cross-sectional data in Canada. Longitudinal tax data linked to immigrant landing records are used in order to estimate the change in immigrant earnings and the immigrant-Canadian-born earnings gap. The results are compared with those from repeated cross-sectional data. This approach eliminates differences in results that may stem from variation in collection modes and procedures across datasets.

    Release date: 2012-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201011113260
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article tracks trends in temporary employment since the Labour Force Survey (LFS) began measuring it from 1997 to 2009 with particular attention to the recent economic downturn. It also examines the earnings gap between temporary and permanent positions and looks at whether that gap changed during the recent employment slowdown.

    Release date: 2010-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100111394
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The gender gap in hourly wages narrowed between the late 1980s and the late 2000s. This article analyses the narrowing wage gap according to the changing characteristics of men and women in paid work, the changes in pay received for those characteristics, and the extent to which who works in each period affects the results.

    Release date: 2010-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008311
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the variability of workers' earnings in Canada over the 1982-to-2000 period by a graphical descriptive approach using the Longitudinal Administrative Data base file. Following Gottschalk and Moffitt (1994), we decompose the total variance of workers' earnings into a 'permanent' or long-run component between workers and a 'transitory' or year-to-year earnings instability component over time for given workers. The decomposition is applied to a five-year moving window. Several results are found. First, the general rise in total earnings variance over the period reflects quite different patterns of change for its separate components. Long-run earnings inequality has generally increased over the period, while year-to-year earnings instability has pretty steadily decreased. Changes in the total earnings variability have been driven primarily by changes in long-run earnings inequality. Second, the patterns of change in the two variance components showed substantial differences between men and women. Since the early 1990s, long-run earnings inequality continued to rise for men, but it markedly decreased for women. Since the late 1980s, earnings instability fell quite steadily for women, but it showed a more cyclical pattern for men. Third, the patterns across ages of the two variance components are almost opposite. Long-run earnings inequality generally rises with age, so it is markedly highest among older-age workers. Earnings instability, in contrast, generally declines with age, so it is markedly highest among entry-age workers.

    Release date: 2008-12-18
Reference (2)

Reference (2) ((2 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2005009
    Description:

    The release of the 2003 data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) was accompanied by a historical revision which accomplished three things. First, the survey weights were updated to take into account new population projections based on the 2001 Census of Population, instead of the 1996 Census. Second, a new procedure in the weight adjustments was introduced to take into account an external source of information on the overall distribution of income in the population, namely the T4 file of employer remittances to Canada Revenue Agency. Third, the low income estimates were revised due to new low income cut-offs (LICOs). This paper describes the second of these improvements' the new weighting procedure to reflect the distribution of income in the population with greater accuracy. Part 1 explains in non-technical terms how this new procedure came about and how it works. Part 2 provides some examples of the impacts on the results for previous years.

    Release date: 2005-07-22

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 89F0123X
    Description:

    This web page contains examples of societal indicators identified in Managing for results, 1999 tabled in Parliament by the President of the Treasury Board of Canada. Information on societal trends is provided on three clusters of societal indicators: health, environment and physical security; economic opportunity and participation; and social participation and inclusion.

    Release date: 2001-01-23
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