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  • Journals and periodicals: 71-222-X
    Description:

    Labour Statistics at a Glance features short analytical articles on specific topics of interest related to Canada's labour market. The studies examine recent or historical trends using data produced by the Labour Statistics Division, i.e., the Labour Force Survey, the Survey of Employment Payrolls and Hours, the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey, the Employment Insurance Coverage Survey and the Employment Insurance Statistics Program.

    Release date: 2019-10-28

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019065
    Description:

    Based on data from the Labour Force Survey, this infographic highlights the gender wage gap and its sources in 2018.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2019004
    Description:

    This study examines the evolution of the gender wage gap in Canada from 1998 to 2018 among employees aged 25 to 54. The contributions of various characteristics to the gap, and to the changes in the gap, are examined using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition on hourly wage data from the Labour Force Survey.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019018
    Description:

    This paper examines the impact of public sector salary disclosure laws on university faculty salaries in Canada. These laws, which give the public access to the salaries of individual faculty members if they exceed specified thresholds, were introduced in different provinces at different points in time. One of the most persistent and salient features of labour markets around the world is that women earn less than men. A hypothesis recently gaining traction among academic researchers and policy makers is that the gender earnings gap persists in part because it is hidden. There have also been calls in the private sector for more transparency on pay discrepancies between male and female workers. This paper provides new evidence on the causal effect of pay transparency laws on salaries.

    Release date: 2019-09-16

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022019001
    Description:

    Reducing pay inequality between women and men is a key priority, both nationally and internationally, for achieving gender equality. Documenting gender inequality in pay and tracking progress in this regard for policy purposes requires at least one indicator. The adjusted gender pay gap-the raw difference between the employment earnings of women and men, expressed either as a proportion of men's earnings (i.e., the "gender pay ratio") or one minus the gender pay ratio-typically serves this purpose. At present, there are no internationally-recognized standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap, leaving considerable scope for political choice.

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the development of international standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap by explaining the assumptions underlying, and the implications following from, various methods. Additionally, the paper strives to increase literacy about the meaning and interpretation of different estimates of the gender pay gap, and to bring together various explanations for the gender pay gap.

    Release date: 2019-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2019002
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the representation of women in top earnings groups—specifically, the top 0.1%, next 0.9% and next 9% of earners—and the extent to which their under-representation in these groups contributes to the overall gender gap in annual earnings. Trends are documented over almost forty years from 1978 to 2015.

    Release date: 2019-03-07

  • Stats in brief: 89-28-0001201800100010
    Description:

    The purpose of this edition is to raise awareness about the gender wage gap. It does so by presenting "Equal Pay Day" on the date when women effectively start working for free in Canada, and by providing a general overview of women's experiences in the labour market.

    Release date: 2018-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201500114694
    Description:

    This chapter of Women in Canada examines women's labour market experiences in comparison to those of men and, where relevant, explores how they have evolved over time. Specifically, historical trends in participation, employment, and unemployment rates are documented. Then, using the most recent data available, employment patterns across a variety of personal and work characteristics are considered: province; educational attainment; marital status; parental status and age of youngest child/ren in the household; lone parenthood; work hours; self-employment; sector of employment (i.e., public or private); "precarious" (i.e., part-time and/or temporary) employment; industry; and occupation. Gender wage differentials are also explored within and between educational and occupational groups. Turning to unemployment, patterns by age, province, and reasons for job leaving/losing are considered, along with Employment Insurance claims and beneficiaries.

    Most analyses in this chapter focus on women (and men) in the core working ages of 25 to 54 years, as younger people's (15-24 years) labour market experiences are shaped by school attendance, and older people's (55 years and older) are shaped by retirement. However, gender differences in labour market indicators among youth and mature adults are considered separately at the end.

    Release date: 2017-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016379
    Description:

    Comparative studies of intergenerational earnings and income mobility largely rank Canada as one of the most mobile countries among advanced economies, such as Denmark, Finland and Norway. The assertion that Canada is a highly mobile society is drawn from intergenerational income elasticity estimates reported in Corak and Heisz (1999). Corak and Heisz used data from the earlier version of the Intergenerational Income Database (IID), which tracked income of Canadian youth only into their early thirties. Recent theoretical literature, however, suggests that the relationship between childrens’ and parents’ lifetime income may not be accurately estimated when children’s income are not observed from their mid-careers— known as lifecycle bias. The present study addresses this concern by re-examining the extent of intergenerational earnings and income mobility in Canada using the updated version of the IID, which tracks children well into their mid-forties, when mid-career income are observed.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014360
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines which factors underlie the narrowing of wage differences seen between young bachelor’s degree holders and high school graduates from the 2000-to-2002 period to the 2010-to-2012 period and the widening of differences in full-time paid employment rates between these two groups.

    Four types of factors are considered: those associated with changes in labour supply, labour demand, institutions and employer–employee contracts, and general economic conditions.

    Changes in the population of bachelor’s degree holders relative to the population of high school graduates are used to capture changes in relative labour supply.

    Release date: 2014-04-28
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  • Journals and periodicals: 71-222-X
    Description:

    Labour Statistics at a Glance features short analytical articles on specific topics of interest related to Canada's labour market. The studies examine recent or historical trends using data produced by the Labour Statistics Division, i.e., the Labour Force Survey, the Survey of Employment Payrolls and Hours, the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey, the Employment Insurance Coverage Survey and the Employment Insurance Statistics Program.

    Release date: 2019-10-28

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019065
    Description:

    Based on data from the Labour Force Survey, this infographic highlights the gender wage gap and its sources in 2018.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2019004
    Description:

    This study examines the evolution of the gender wage gap in Canada from 1998 to 2018 among employees aged 25 to 54. The contributions of various characteristics to the gap, and to the changes in the gap, are examined using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition on hourly wage data from the Labour Force Survey.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019018
    Description:

    This paper examines the impact of public sector salary disclosure laws on university faculty salaries in Canada. These laws, which give the public access to the salaries of individual faculty members if they exceed specified thresholds, were introduced in different provinces at different points in time. One of the most persistent and salient features of labour markets around the world is that women earn less than men. A hypothesis recently gaining traction among academic researchers and policy makers is that the gender earnings gap persists in part because it is hidden. There have also been calls in the private sector for more transparency on pay discrepancies between male and female workers. This paper provides new evidence on the causal effect of pay transparency laws on salaries.

    Release date: 2019-09-16

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022019001
    Description:

    Reducing pay inequality between women and men is a key priority, both nationally and internationally, for achieving gender equality. Documenting gender inequality in pay and tracking progress in this regard for policy purposes requires at least one indicator. The adjusted gender pay gap-the raw difference between the employment earnings of women and men, expressed either as a proportion of men's earnings (i.e., the "gender pay ratio") or one minus the gender pay ratio-typically serves this purpose. At present, there are no internationally-recognized standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap, leaving considerable scope for political choice.

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the development of international standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap by explaining the assumptions underlying, and the implications following from, various methods. Additionally, the paper strives to increase literacy about the meaning and interpretation of different estimates of the gender pay gap, and to bring together various explanations for the gender pay gap.

    Release date: 2019-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2019002
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the representation of women in top earnings groups—specifically, the top 0.1%, next 0.9% and next 9% of earners—and the extent to which their under-representation in these groups contributes to the overall gender gap in annual earnings. Trends are documented over almost forty years from 1978 to 2015.

    Release date: 2019-03-07

  • Stats in brief: 89-28-0001201800100010
    Description:

    The purpose of this edition is to raise awareness about the gender wage gap. It does so by presenting "Equal Pay Day" on the date when women effectively start working for free in Canada, and by providing a general overview of women's experiences in the labour market.

    Release date: 2018-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201500114694
    Description:

    This chapter of Women in Canada examines women's labour market experiences in comparison to those of men and, where relevant, explores how they have evolved over time. Specifically, historical trends in participation, employment, and unemployment rates are documented. Then, using the most recent data available, employment patterns across a variety of personal and work characteristics are considered: province; educational attainment; marital status; parental status and age of youngest child/ren in the household; lone parenthood; work hours; self-employment; sector of employment (i.e., public or private); "precarious" (i.e., part-time and/or temporary) employment; industry; and occupation. Gender wage differentials are also explored within and between educational and occupational groups. Turning to unemployment, patterns by age, province, and reasons for job leaving/losing are considered, along with Employment Insurance claims and beneficiaries.

    Most analyses in this chapter focus on women (and men) in the core working ages of 25 to 54 years, as younger people's (15-24 years) labour market experiences are shaped by school attendance, and older people's (55 years and older) are shaped by retirement. However, gender differences in labour market indicators among youth and mature adults are considered separately at the end.

    Release date: 2017-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016379
    Description:

    Comparative studies of intergenerational earnings and income mobility largely rank Canada as one of the most mobile countries among advanced economies, such as Denmark, Finland and Norway. The assertion that Canada is a highly mobile society is drawn from intergenerational income elasticity estimates reported in Corak and Heisz (1999). Corak and Heisz used data from the earlier version of the Intergenerational Income Database (IID), which tracked income of Canadian youth only into their early thirties. Recent theoretical literature, however, suggests that the relationship between childrens’ and parents’ lifetime income may not be accurately estimated when children’s income are not observed from their mid-careers— known as lifecycle bias. The present study addresses this concern by re-examining the extent of intergenerational earnings and income mobility in Canada using the updated version of the IID, which tracks children well into their mid-forties, when mid-career income are observed.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014360
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines which factors underlie the narrowing of wage differences seen between young bachelor’s degree holders and high school graduates from the 2000-to-2002 period to the 2010-to-2012 period and the widening of differences in full-time paid employment rates between these two groups.

    Four types of factors are considered: those associated with changes in labour supply, labour demand, institutions and employer–employee contracts, and general economic conditions.

    Changes in the population of bachelor’s degree holders relative to the population of high school graduates are used to capture changes in relative labour supply.

    Release date: 2014-04-28
Reference (2)

Reference (2) ((2 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2005009
    Description:

    The release of the 2003 data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) was accompanied by a historical revision which accomplished three things. First, the survey weights were updated to take into account new population projections based on the 2001 Census of Population, instead of the 1996 Census. Second, a new procedure in the weight adjustments was introduced to take into account an external source of information on the overall distribution of income in the population, namely the T4 file of employer remittances to Canada Revenue Agency. Third, the low income estimates were revised due to new low income cut-offs (LICOs). This paper describes the second of these improvements' the new weighting procedure to reflect the distribution of income in the population with greater accuracy. Part 1 explains in non-technical terms how this new procedure came about and how it works. Part 2 provides some examples of the impacts on the results for previous years.

    Release date: 2005-07-22

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 89F0123X
    Description:

    This web page contains examples of societal indicators identified in Managing for results, 1999 tabled in Parliament by the President of the Treasury Board of Canada. Information on societal trends is provided on three clusters of societal indicators: health, environment and physical security; economic opportunity and participation; and social participation and inclusion.

    Release date: 2001-01-23
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