The Gender Wage Gap in 2018

Release date: October 7, 2019
Infographic: The Gender Wage Gap in 2018
Description: The Gender Wage Gap in 2018

The Gender Wage Gap in 2018

In 2018, employed core-aged men (25 to 54 years old) earned an average of $31.05 per hour, while women earned $26.92.

Women earned $4.13 less per hour than men, or $0.87 for every dollar earned by men.

Why did women earn less than men?

$1.85 of the gap was caused by the different distributions of men and women across industries and occupations.

For example, more men worked in the following higher-paying sectors and occupations:

  • Construction
  • Manufacturing
  • Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction
  • Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences

$0.38 was due to women's higher rate of part-time work, which generally pays less than full-time work.

Proportion working part-time
  %
Women 16.0
Men 4.8

$2.62 of the gap was unexplained. This portion includes gender differences in factors beyond the scope of analysis,Footnote1 such as work experience. Any gender-related biases contributing to the gender wage gap are also reflected in this portion.

What lessened the gender wage gap?

Women's higher rates of public sector work and unionization removed $0.36 from the gap.

Proportion of work in public sector and unionization, by sex
  Public sector (%) Unionization (%)
Women 34.1 35.4
Men 18.7 29.5

Women's higher educational attainment removed $0.20 from the gap.

Proportion with a degree at the bachelor's level or above
  %
Women 41.2
Men 32.3

Without this, the gap in 2018 would have been more than $4.13 per hour.

Note: Data shown are for employees between the ages of 25 and 54. Self-employed workers were not included in the study.

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

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