July 2023

Spotlight on data and research

Estimates of parental child care expenses in January to February 2022

Two goals specified in budget 2021 included a 50% reduction in fees for early learning and child care by the end of 2022, and an average fee of $10 a day by 2026 for all regulated child care spaces in Canada. This article finds that in early 2022, before full implementation of a Canada-wide child care system, parents reported paying an average of $7,790 per year ($649 per month or $31 per day) for the main full-time (30 or more hours per week) child care arrangement for their 0- to 5-year-old.

The amount parents paid for their child’s main child care arrangement varied by age of child, hours in care and type of child care arrangement. For example, parents paid between $3,520 (for care by a family member other than a parent) and $26,700 (for care by a non-relative in the child’s home, i.e., a nanny), per year for full-time child care for their 0- to 5-year-old child. This information can be used as context as the child care system is further developed by the provinces and territories.

Full article PDF version

Switching stores to cope with high inflation: Food sales at food and beverage stores and general merchandise stores

As food prices continue to rise, consumers have been changing their buying habits to help stretch their budgets. This article finds that consumers have been pivoting away from food and beverage stores towards general merchandise stores, a group of retailers that includes warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers.

As households consume less, and change how and where they shop, the volume of food purchased at food and beverage stores has been declining. Many Canadians are shifting to less expensive alternatives, brands, or items. Others have been searching out lower cost options such as discount grocers. Lower sales at food and beverages stores may also partly reflect other emerging trends as well that are harder to assess, for example the rising popularity of meal-prep kits delivered to the home, an increased use of coupons, switching only certain purchases from one store to another, or reducing food waste.

Full article PDF version

Highlights from a new study on the lifetime earnings growth of individuals with childhood-onset disabilities

Having a prolonged disability is generally known to be negatively associated with employment and earnings. The age of disability onset plays an especially important role in the lifetime labour market outcomes of individuals with disabilities. This article summarizes findings from a new study that examines the lifelong evolution of the earnings of individuals with a disability that started when they were children.

The study shows that the earnings of individuals with childhood-onset disability (COD) generally grow slower than the earnings of individuals without COD during their working careers. Those with COD experience very little earnings growth when they are in their mid-30s and 40s, while the earnings of those without COD grow steadily until they reach their late 40s and early 50s.

Full article PDF version


The changing nature of work since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic

While Canadian businesses were already becoming more automated and Canadian workers were moving towards more managerial, professional, and technical jobs, the COVID-19 pandemic may have accelerated these trends. This article finds that the increase in the share of workers in managerial, professional, and technical jobs between 2019 (32.3%) and 2022 (36.0%) accounted for almost one-third of the increase registered over the last 35 years. This increase in recent years was counterbalanced by declines in service jobs (from 21.3% in 2019 to 19.2% in 2022) and production, craft, repair and operative jobs (from 21.8% in 2019 to 20.5% in 2022).

Full article PDF version

Research articles

The Provincial Nominee Program: Its expansion in Canada

The expansion of the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP) has significantly transformed the selection process for economic immigrants in Canada since the 2000s. In 2000, the Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP) accounted for the majority (79%) of economic immigrants, but its share decreased to 30% by 2019. Meanwhile, the PNP emerged as the largest program, accounting for 35% of all economic immigrants to Canada. This study shows thatthe PNP has contributed to a more even regional distribution of new economic immigrants, with the share intending to settle in Ontario declined from 61% to 42% between 2000 and 2019. There were also notable changes in the characteristics of provincial nominees, including an increased proportion with pre-immigration Canadian work and study experience, an increased share in the 20 to 29 age group, higher educational attainment, and improved proficiency in official languages. 

Full article PDF version

What can be learned about caregivers in Canada from the analysis of families claiming the Canada caregiver credit?

This article uses national administrative data from 2017 to 2019 to spotlight the characteristics of Canadian families caring for family members who have severe and prolonged impairments in physical or mental functions. It found that about 2.5% of all families in Canada claimed some type of Canada caregiver credit (CCC), with the highest prevalence observed for the CCC for infirm adults (1.1% of all families).

Older families were more likely to claim the CCC for spouses and common-law partners than families younger than 70 years, while families in their 40s were particularly likely to claim the CCC for infirm children. Canadian-born couples were considerably more likely to claim the CCC for spouses than immigrant couples. By contrast, immigrant families were generally more likely to claim the CCC for infirm adults.

Full article PDF version

Date modified: