Analysis

COVID-19 A data perspective

COVID-19: A data perspective: Explore key economic trends and social challenges that arise as the COVID-19 situation evolves.

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All (42) (0 to 10 of 42 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214500
    Description:

    The Canadian General Social Survey is an annual survey that aims to provide data on the demographic and social characteristics of Canadians. This paper provides an overview of the program, based on the experience of the first five surveys. The objectives of the program, the methodology used, the themes and issues addressed, the program outputs and the plans for the future are all discussed.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214501
    Description:

    Although farm surveys carried out by the USDA are used to estimate crop production at the state and national levels, small area estimates at the county level are more useful for local economic decision making. County estimates are also in demand by companies selling fertilizers, pesticides, crop insurance, and farm equipment. Individual states often conduct their own surveys to provide data for county estimates of farm production. Typically, these state surveys are not carried out using probability sampling methods. An additional complication is that states impose the constraint that the sum of county estimates of crop production for all counties in a state be equal to the USDA estimate for that state. Thus, standard small area estimation procedures are not directly applicable to this problem. In this paper, we consider using regression models for obtaining county estimates of wheat production in Kansas. We describe a simulation study comparing the resulting estimates to those obtained using two standard small area estimators: the synthetic and direct estimators. We also compare several strategies for scaling the initial estimates so that they agree with the USDA estimate of the state production total.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214502
    Description:

    A sample design for the initial selection, sample rotation and updating for sub-annual business surveys is proposed. The sample design is a stratified clustered design, with the stratification being carried out on the basis of industry, geography and size. Sample rotation of the sample units is carried out under time-in and time-out constraints. Updating is with respect to the selection of births (new businesses), removal of deaths (defunct businesses) and implementation of changes in the classification variables used for stratification, i.e. industry, geography and size. A number of alternate estimators, including the simple expansion estimator and Mickey’s (1959) unbiased ratio-type estimator have been evaluated for this design in an empirical study under various survey conditions. The problem of variance estimation has also been considered using the Taylor linearization method and the jackknife technique.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214503
    Description:

    Surveys are often conducted of flows of persons, such as: visitors to museums, libraries and parks; voters; shoppers; hospital outpatients; tourists; international travellers; and car occupants. The sample designs for such surveys usually involve sampling in time and space. Methods for sampling flows of human populations are reviewed and illustrated.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214504
    Description:

    Simple or marginal quota surveys are analyzed using two methods: (1) behaviour modelling (superpopulation model) and prediction estimation, and (2) sample modelling (simple restricted random sampling) and estimation derived from the sample distribution. In both cases the limitations of the theory used to establish the variance formulas and estimates when measuring totals are described. An extension of the quota method (non-proportional quotas) is also briefly described and analyzed. In some cases, this may provide a very significant improvement in survey precision. The advantages of the quota method are compared with those of random sampling. The latter remains indispensable in the case of large scale surveys within the framework of Official Statistics.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214505
    Description:

    The X-11-ARIMA seasonal adjustment method and the Census X-11 variant use a standard ANOVA-F-test to assess the presence of stable seasonality. This F-test is applied to a series consisting of estimated seasonals plus irregulars (residuals) which may be (and often are) autocorrelated, thus violating the basic assumption of the F-test. This limitation has long been known by producers of seasonally adjusted data and the nominal value of the F statistic has been rarely used as a criterion for seasonal adjustment. Instead, producers of seasonally adjusted data have used rules of thumb, such as, F equal to or greater than 7. This paper introduces an exact test which takes into account autocorrelated residuals following an SMA process of the (0, q) (0, Q)_s type. Comparisons of this modified F-test and the standard ANOVA test of X-11-ARIMA are made for a large number of Canadian socio-economic series.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214506
    Description:

    This paper compares the magnitude and nature of attrition in two separate RDD panel surveys conducted in the City of Chicago (i.e. the surveys were independent studies and were not conducted as part of a planned experiment), each with a between-wave lag of approximately one year. For each survey, sampling at Wave 1 was performed via one-stage (i.e. simple) random-digit dialing. In Study 1, respondents’ names were not elicited; thus, when telephone calls were made at Wave 2 of Study 1 interviewers could not ask for respondents by name. Instead, interviewers asked for respondents by using a gender-age identifier. In Study 2, respondent name identifiers were gathered during Wave 1 and were used in Wave 2 re-contact attempts. The magnitude of the attrition in Study 1 (i.e. the proportion of Wave 1 respondents not re-interviewed at Wave 2) was 47%, whereas in Study 2 it was 43%: a marginal difference in attrition rates. In both surveys, age, race, education and income were significantly related to attrition. Discussion is presented on the trade-off between minimizing attrition vs. minimizing respondent reactivity as potential sources of total survey error. Suggestions for decreasing the size of attrition in RDD panel surveys are discussed.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214507
    Description:

    For estimating the proportion and total of an item for the present occasion, independent estimates at the current and previous occasions are combined through three different procedures. In the first one, trend over the occasions is utilized. For the second one, the One-Way Random Effects Model is employed. The third procedure uses the Empirical Bayes approach. All the three procedures are seen to perform better than the sample estimates obtained from the data of the current occasion alone. Advantages of these methods and their limitations are discussed. All the procedures are illustrated with the data from the National Health Discharge Survey.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214508
    Description:

    The usual dual system estimator for population size can be severely biased, if there is population heterogeneity in the capture probabilities. In this note we investigate the bias of the corresponding variance estimator under heterogeneity. We show that the usual estimator is conservative, i.e., it gives too large values, if the two registration systems are negatively correlated, uncorrelated, or when the correlation is positive, but small. In the case of high positive correlation the usual estimator may yield too low values. Two alternative estimators are proposed. One is conservative under arbitrary heterogeneity. The other is conservative under Gaussian heterogeneity. The methods are applied to occupational disease data from Finland.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X1991004123
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Is income the determining factor in taking an early retirement? This article sheds new light on the retirement decision-making process.

    Release date: 1991-12-02
Stats in brief (2)

Stats in brief (2) ((2 results))

  • Stats in brief: 75-001-X199100451
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Self-employment is an increasingly popular form of non-standard work.

    Release date: 1991-12-02

  • Stats in brief: 75-001-X199100462
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    How does the Work Sharing Program prevent layoffs?

    Release date: 1991-12-02
Articles and reports (40)

Articles and reports (40) (0 to 10 of 40 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214500
    Description:

    The Canadian General Social Survey is an annual survey that aims to provide data on the demographic and social characteristics of Canadians. This paper provides an overview of the program, based on the experience of the first five surveys. The objectives of the program, the methodology used, the themes and issues addressed, the program outputs and the plans for the future are all discussed.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214501
    Description:

    Although farm surveys carried out by the USDA are used to estimate crop production at the state and national levels, small area estimates at the county level are more useful for local economic decision making. County estimates are also in demand by companies selling fertilizers, pesticides, crop insurance, and farm equipment. Individual states often conduct their own surveys to provide data for county estimates of farm production. Typically, these state surveys are not carried out using probability sampling methods. An additional complication is that states impose the constraint that the sum of county estimates of crop production for all counties in a state be equal to the USDA estimate for that state. Thus, standard small area estimation procedures are not directly applicable to this problem. In this paper, we consider using regression models for obtaining county estimates of wheat production in Kansas. We describe a simulation study comparing the resulting estimates to those obtained using two standard small area estimators: the synthetic and direct estimators. We also compare several strategies for scaling the initial estimates so that they agree with the USDA estimate of the state production total.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214502
    Description:

    A sample design for the initial selection, sample rotation and updating for sub-annual business surveys is proposed. The sample design is a stratified clustered design, with the stratification being carried out on the basis of industry, geography and size. Sample rotation of the sample units is carried out under time-in and time-out constraints. Updating is with respect to the selection of births (new businesses), removal of deaths (defunct businesses) and implementation of changes in the classification variables used for stratification, i.e. industry, geography and size. A number of alternate estimators, including the simple expansion estimator and Mickey’s (1959) unbiased ratio-type estimator have been evaluated for this design in an empirical study under various survey conditions. The problem of variance estimation has also been considered using the Taylor linearization method and the jackknife technique.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214503
    Description:

    Surveys are often conducted of flows of persons, such as: visitors to museums, libraries and parks; voters; shoppers; hospital outpatients; tourists; international travellers; and car occupants. The sample designs for such surveys usually involve sampling in time and space. Methods for sampling flows of human populations are reviewed and illustrated.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214504
    Description:

    Simple or marginal quota surveys are analyzed using two methods: (1) behaviour modelling (superpopulation model) and prediction estimation, and (2) sample modelling (simple restricted random sampling) and estimation derived from the sample distribution. In both cases the limitations of the theory used to establish the variance formulas and estimates when measuring totals are described. An extension of the quota method (non-proportional quotas) is also briefly described and analyzed. In some cases, this may provide a very significant improvement in survey precision. The advantages of the quota method are compared with those of random sampling. The latter remains indispensable in the case of large scale surveys within the framework of Official Statistics.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214505
    Description:

    The X-11-ARIMA seasonal adjustment method and the Census X-11 variant use a standard ANOVA-F-test to assess the presence of stable seasonality. This F-test is applied to a series consisting of estimated seasonals plus irregulars (residuals) which may be (and often are) autocorrelated, thus violating the basic assumption of the F-test. This limitation has long been known by producers of seasonally adjusted data and the nominal value of the F statistic has been rarely used as a criterion for seasonal adjustment. Instead, producers of seasonally adjusted data have used rules of thumb, such as, F equal to or greater than 7. This paper introduces an exact test which takes into account autocorrelated residuals following an SMA process of the (0, q) (0, Q)_s type. Comparisons of this modified F-test and the standard ANOVA test of X-11-ARIMA are made for a large number of Canadian socio-economic series.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214506
    Description:

    This paper compares the magnitude and nature of attrition in two separate RDD panel surveys conducted in the City of Chicago (i.e. the surveys were independent studies and were not conducted as part of a planned experiment), each with a between-wave lag of approximately one year. For each survey, sampling at Wave 1 was performed via one-stage (i.e. simple) random-digit dialing. In Study 1, respondents’ names were not elicited; thus, when telephone calls were made at Wave 2 of Study 1 interviewers could not ask for respondents by name. Instead, interviewers asked for respondents by using a gender-age identifier. In Study 2, respondent name identifiers were gathered during Wave 1 and were used in Wave 2 re-contact attempts. The magnitude of the attrition in Study 1 (i.e. the proportion of Wave 1 respondents not re-interviewed at Wave 2) was 47%, whereas in Study 2 it was 43%: a marginal difference in attrition rates. In both surveys, age, race, education and income were significantly related to attrition. Discussion is presented on the trade-off between minimizing attrition vs. minimizing respondent reactivity as potential sources of total survey error. Suggestions for decreasing the size of attrition in RDD panel surveys are discussed.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214507
    Description:

    For estimating the proportion and total of an item for the present occasion, independent estimates at the current and previous occasions are combined through three different procedures. In the first one, trend over the occasions is utilized. For the second one, the One-Way Random Effects Model is employed. The third procedure uses the Empirical Bayes approach. All the three procedures are seen to perform better than the sample estimates obtained from the data of the current occasion alone. Advantages of these methods and their limitations are discussed. All the procedures are illustrated with the data from the National Health Discharge Survey.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199100214508
    Description:

    The usual dual system estimator for population size can be severely biased, if there is population heterogeneity in the capture probabilities. In this note we investigate the bias of the corresponding variance estimator under heterogeneity. We show that the usual estimator is conservative, i.e., it gives too large values, if the two registration systems are negatively correlated, uncorrelated, or when the correlation is positive, but small. In the case of high positive correlation the usual estimator may yield too low values. Two alternative estimators are proposed. One is conservative under arbitrary heterogeneity. The other is conservative under Gaussian heterogeneity. The methods are applied to occupational disease data from Finland.

    Release date: 1991-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X1991004123
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Is income the determining factor in taking an early retirement? This article sheds new light on the retirement decision-making process.

    Release date: 1991-12-02
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