Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with various aspects of the Canadian economy

The production of goods and the delivery of services result in energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This visualization provides insights into the relationship between Canadian economic activity and the environment by presenting estimates of Canadian GHG emissions and energy use.

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Additional information

Totals may not add due to rounding.

Direct and indirect effects

The energy use and GHG emissions estimates presented specify either direct or direct plus indirect effects. Direct effects measure the inputs required (e.g., energy used) or wastes produced (e.g., GHGs emitted) by an industry directly delivering output. Indirect effects measure the impacts associated with economic activity upstream in the supply chain.

An example of direct GHG emissions would be those released by the combustion of natural gas in a restaurant kitchen to cook a hamburger, while indirect emissions would include the methane released from cattle farms to produce beef for the hamburger.

Environmental-economic linkages

Estimates for Canadian energy use and GHG emissions associated with various aspects of the Canadian economy are available through a series of linkages undertaken in collaboration with the Canadian Centre for Energy Information. These estimates are a subset of the Physical Flow Accounts compiled by Statistics Canada in accordance with the United Nations' System of Environmental-Economic Accounting.

This data visualization highlights results for three linkage Accounts: the Environmental and Clean Technology Products Economic Account (ECTPEA), the Provincial and Territorial Tourism Satellite Account (PTTSA), and the Natural Resource Satellite Account (NRSA). The linkage for the Infrastructure Economic Account is available in the Infrastructure Statistics Hub, under Environmental perspective. The Housing Economic Account linkage is available in table 36-10-0690-01.

Greenhouse gases (GHGs)

Greenhouse gas emissions are reported in CO2 equivalent.

Statistics Canada’s physical flow account for greenhouse gas emissions differs from Environment and Climate Change Canada’s official national greenhouse gas inventory.

Environment and Climate Change Canada is responsible for producing the official National inventory report: Greenhouse gas sources and sinks in Canada. This inventory, which fulfills Canada's reporting obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is consistent with guidelines published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and is the official benchmark for GHG emissions in Canada. National inventories under the UNFCCC and the GHG accounts under the United Nations System of Environmental–Economic Accounting are based on different methodological frameworks, and this results in different GHG estimates. The sector definitions of the two products differ and should therefore not be directly compared. For more information on these differences, see the physical flow accounts metadata page (5115) and the greenhouse gas webpage of the Canadian Centre for Energy Information.

Economic valuation

Because economic data can be presented in real (constant dollars) or nominal (current prices) terms, it is important to note which valuation is being used for which data. Data presented in constant dollars (constant or chained dollars) have been adjusted for price changes to reflect only volume changes. Conversely, data presented in current prices have not been adjusted for price changes and reflect both price and volume changes. When evaluating a time series, especially when comparing energy use or GHG emissions with economic data, it is essential to use only economic indicators expressed in constant dollar terms, as emissions are tied to the volume produced.

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