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    • Journals and periodicals: 11-626-X
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Articles in the Economic Insights series highlight issues related to the growth and development of Canada's economy. In some cases, these articles highlight new insights or synthesize the results of previous research carried out by Statistics Canada; in others, they provide contextual information that accompanies the release of new data or updates from previous papers. The Economic Insights series features concise examinations of economic events, research results, trends, and important structural changes in the economy.

      Release date: 2020-11-02

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020008
      Description:

      Multinationals play an important role in the world economy because they are larger, innovate more, are more productive and pay higher wages compared with non-multinationals. Multinationals (i.e., firms that have established affiliates or subsidiaries in other countries) have played an increasingly important role in many economies. In Canada, multinationals accounted for only 0.8% of all enterprises in 2016, but they held 67% of all assets in the Canadian economy (Schaffter and Fortier-Labonté 2019). Given the importance of multinationals to the Canadian economy, it is essential for policy makers to understand the economic performance and productivity advantage of multinationals operating in Canada.

      To address policy-relevant research questions, a rich micro dataset covering all industries from 2000 to 2014 has been constructed for this study, using several administrative microdata files at Statistics Canada. This dataset is used to delve deeper into and estimate the productivity advantage of multinationals, including the selection and learning effects associated with multinationality. In addition, this study investigates whether and how research and development (R&D) investment contributes to the superior productivity performance of multinationals.

      Release date: 2020-05-26

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020001
      Description:

      Multifactor productivity (MFP) declined in Canada from 2000 to 2009 and then recovered after. The movements in productivity since 2000 have attracted great attention from researchers and policy makers because productivity is important both for economic growth and for improvements in living standards. This paper applies the stochastic frontier framework to decompose each firm’s MFP into two parts: its technological frontier and its technical efficiency. Change in the aggregate technological frontier refers to improvements in the productivity potential of an economy, i.e., the maximum productivity of an economy if all firms are fully efficient. Aggregate technical efficiency reflects the economy’s capacity to achieve that potential. The results of this decomposition can show whether the movements in productivity after 2000 in Canada were mainly the result of changes in the technological frontier and productivity potential or of changes in the technical efficiency.

      Release date: 2020-01-17

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019013
      Description:

      The need to measure both the desirable outputs (goods and services) and the undesirable outputs (emissions of greenhouse gases [GHGs] and criteria air contaminants [CACs]) from economic activity is becoming increasingly important as economic performance and environmental performance become ever more intertwined. Standard measures of multifactor productivity (MFP) growth provide insights into rising standards of living and the performance of economies, but they may be misleading if only desirable outputs are considered. This study presents estimates of environmentally adjusted multifactor productivity (EAMFP) growth using a new comprehensive database. This database contains information on GHG and CAC emissions, as well as on the production activities of Canadian manufacturers.

      Release date: 2019-05-08

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016384
      Description:

      In order to understand what drives aggregate fluctuations, many macroeconomic models point to aggregate shocks and discount the contribution of firm-specific shocks. Recent research from other developed countries, however, has found that aggregate fluctuations are in part driven by shocks to large firms. Using data on Canadian firms from the T2-LEAP database, which links financial statements from firms’ Corporate Income Tax Return with employment data from the Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program, this paper examines the contribution of large firms to industry-level fluctuations in gross output, investment and employment in the manufacturing sector.

      Release date: 2016-11-21

    • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2013087
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      The topic of firm size and performance continues to spark the interest of researchers and policy-makers. Small and medium-sized enterprises receive much of the attention, as they have the potential to grow significantly. However, compared with their larger counterparts, these firms are more likely to fail and are therefore riskier.

      Is risk important in explaining differences in profitability across firm size classes? This study uses a longitudinal firm-level dataset to examine determinants of profitability by firm size, with an emphasis on risk, or the volatility in rates of return. It builds on previous research that found firms with 10 to 20 employees tend to be the most profitable.

      Release date: 2013-12-19

    • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013028
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This article in the Economic Insights series reports on changes in the production of Canada's forest industries. This article is published as part of a program at Statistics Canada that examines the role of natural resources in the Canadian economy.

      Release date: 2013-07-10

    • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013025
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This article in the Economic Insights series reports on recent global movements in consumer prices. This article is published as part of a program at Statistics Canada that examines Canada's performance in a global context.

      Release date: 2013-05-30

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 15-206-X2013031
      Description:

      This paper describes the evolution of the Multifactor Productivity Program launched at Statistics Canada in 1987 and the improvements made in multifactor productivity measurement since then. The improvements were made in response to developments in the economic literature, better data sources, and the needs of the user community. The paper also summarizes research that uses alternate data and methodologies to assess the accuracy of the Multifactor Productivity Program and to provide insights into areas that traditional international multifactor productivity programs omit. Finally, the paper outlines future directions that are being contemplated to further improve the measurement of productivity at Statistics Canada.

      Release date: 2013-05-28

    • Journals and periodicals: 11-010-X
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This monthly periodical is Statistics Canada's flagship publication for economic statistics. Each issue contains a monthly summary of the economy, major economic events and a feature article. A statistical summary contains a wide range of tables and graphs on the principal economic indicators for Canada, the provinces and the major industrial nations. A historical listing of this same data is contained in the Canadian economic observer: historical supplement (Catalogue no. 11-210-XPB and XIB).

      Release date: 2012-06-15
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    • Journals and periodicals: 11-626-X
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Articles in the Economic Insights series highlight issues related to the growth and development of Canada's economy. In some cases, these articles highlight new insights or synthesize the results of previous research carried out by Statistics Canada; in others, they provide contextual information that accompanies the release of new data or updates from previous papers. The Economic Insights series features concise examinations of economic events, research results, trends, and important structural changes in the economy.

      Release date: 2020-11-02

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020008
      Description:

      Multinationals play an important role in the world economy because they are larger, innovate more, are more productive and pay higher wages compared with non-multinationals. Multinationals (i.e., firms that have established affiliates or subsidiaries in other countries) have played an increasingly important role in many economies. In Canada, multinationals accounted for only 0.8% of all enterprises in 2016, but they held 67% of all assets in the Canadian economy (Schaffter and Fortier-Labonté 2019). Given the importance of multinationals to the Canadian economy, it is essential for policy makers to understand the economic performance and productivity advantage of multinationals operating in Canada.

      To address policy-relevant research questions, a rich micro dataset covering all industries from 2000 to 2014 has been constructed for this study, using several administrative microdata files at Statistics Canada. This dataset is used to delve deeper into and estimate the productivity advantage of multinationals, including the selection and learning effects associated with multinationality. In addition, this study investigates whether and how research and development (R&D) investment contributes to the superior productivity performance of multinationals.

      Release date: 2020-05-26

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020001
      Description:

      Multifactor productivity (MFP) declined in Canada from 2000 to 2009 and then recovered after. The movements in productivity since 2000 have attracted great attention from researchers and policy makers because productivity is important both for economic growth and for improvements in living standards. This paper applies the stochastic frontier framework to decompose each firm’s MFP into two parts: its technological frontier and its technical efficiency. Change in the aggregate technological frontier refers to improvements in the productivity potential of an economy, i.e., the maximum productivity of an economy if all firms are fully efficient. Aggregate technical efficiency reflects the economy’s capacity to achieve that potential. The results of this decomposition can show whether the movements in productivity after 2000 in Canada were mainly the result of changes in the technological frontier and productivity potential or of changes in the technical efficiency.

      Release date: 2020-01-17

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019013
      Description:

      The need to measure both the desirable outputs (goods and services) and the undesirable outputs (emissions of greenhouse gases [GHGs] and criteria air contaminants [CACs]) from economic activity is becoming increasingly important as economic performance and environmental performance become ever more intertwined. Standard measures of multifactor productivity (MFP) growth provide insights into rising standards of living and the performance of economies, but they may be misleading if only desirable outputs are considered. This study presents estimates of environmentally adjusted multifactor productivity (EAMFP) growth using a new comprehensive database. This database contains information on GHG and CAC emissions, as well as on the production activities of Canadian manufacturers.

      Release date: 2019-05-08

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016384
      Description:

      In order to understand what drives aggregate fluctuations, many macroeconomic models point to aggregate shocks and discount the contribution of firm-specific shocks. Recent research from other developed countries, however, has found that aggregate fluctuations are in part driven by shocks to large firms. Using data on Canadian firms from the T2-LEAP database, which links financial statements from firms’ Corporate Income Tax Return with employment data from the Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program, this paper examines the contribution of large firms to industry-level fluctuations in gross output, investment and employment in the manufacturing sector.

      Release date: 2016-11-21

    • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2013087
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      The topic of firm size and performance continues to spark the interest of researchers and policy-makers. Small and medium-sized enterprises receive much of the attention, as they have the potential to grow significantly. However, compared with their larger counterparts, these firms are more likely to fail and are therefore riskier.

      Is risk important in explaining differences in profitability across firm size classes? This study uses a longitudinal firm-level dataset to examine determinants of profitability by firm size, with an emphasis on risk, or the volatility in rates of return. It builds on previous research that found firms with 10 to 20 employees tend to be the most profitable.

      Release date: 2013-12-19

    • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013028
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This article in the Economic Insights series reports on changes in the production of Canada's forest industries. This article is published as part of a program at Statistics Canada that examines the role of natural resources in the Canadian economy.

      Release date: 2013-07-10

    • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013025
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This article in the Economic Insights series reports on recent global movements in consumer prices. This article is published as part of a program at Statistics Canada that examines Canada's performance in a global context.

      Release date: 2013-05-30

    • Journals and periodicals: 11-010-X
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This monthly periodical is Statistics Canada's flagship publication for economic statistics. Each issue contains a monthly summary of the economy, major economic events and a feature article. A statistical summary contains a wide range of tables and graphs on the principal economic indicators for Canada, the provinces and the major industrial nations. A historical listing of this same data is contained in the Canadian economic observer: historical supplement (Catalogue no. 11-210-XPB and XIB).

      Release date: 2012-06-15

    • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2011001
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This Economic Insight looks at commonly-used measures that are employed to compare the relative economic performance of Canada and the United States. It is based on research undertaken at Statistics Canada aimed at improving information about how and why Canadian and U.S. economic progress differs.

      Release date: 2011-12-21
    Reference (5)

    Reference (5) ((5 results))

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 15-206-X2013031
      Description:

      This paper describes the evolution of the Multifactor Productivity Program launched at Statistics Canada in 1987 and the improvements made in multifactor productivity measurement since then. The improvements were made in response to developments in the economic literature, better data sources, and the needs of the user community. The paper also summarizes research that uses alternate data and methodologies to assess the accuracy of the Multifactor Productivity Program and to provide insights into areas that traditional international multifactor productivity programs omit. Finally, the paper outlines future directions that are being contemplated to further improve the measurement of productivity at Statistics Canada.

      Release date: 2013-05-28

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 15-206-X2007009
      Description:

      This paper examines the effects of alternative specifications of the user costs of capital on the estimated price and volume indices of capital services. It asks how sensitive the results are to the use of exogenous versus endogenous rates of return, to alternate ways of including capital gains, and to whether corrections are made for tax rates. The paper also examines the effect of the various user cost formulae on the measured multifactor productivity growth.

      Release date: 2007-04-04

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 15-206-X2007005
      Description:

      This paper generates depreciation profiles for a diverse set of assets based on patterns of resale prices and retirements. In doing so, it explores the sensitivity of estimates of the growth in capital stock and capital services to alternate estimates of depreciation.

      In the first instance, survival analysis techniques are used to estimate changes in valuation of assets over the course of their service life. In the second instance, a two-step procedure is utilized that first estimates the discard function for used assets (assets discarded at zero prices) and then uses the resulting estimates to correct for selection bias that arises when just positive used-asset prices are employed to estimate age-price profiles to produce depreciation rates. For the third method, a discard function and an asset efficiency function are jointly specified and estimated.

      These three different methods produce depreciation profiles that follow convex patterns. Accelerated profiles are apparent for many individual assets in the machinery and equipment and structures classes.

      We also compare the ex post estimates of length of life that are based on outcomes to ex ante expected lives and find they are much the same. We therefore choose ex ante lives along with information from the ex post rates on the rate of decline in an asset's value to generate a set of depreciation rates for use in the productivity accounts.

      We then use our depreciation model to produce estimates of the growth in capital stock and capital services over the 1961 to 1996 period. We find that the resulting estimates of capital stock and capital services are quite similar to those previously produced.

      Release date: 2007-02-12

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 15-547-X
      Description:

      Like most statistical agencies, Statistics Canada publishes three Gross Domestic Product (GDP) series. These are the output-based GDP, the income-based GDP and the expenditure-based GDP. This document is aimed at describing the concepts, definitions, classifications and statistical methods underlying the output-based GDP series, also known as GDP by industry or simply monthly GDP.

      The report is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 defines what GDP by industry is, describes its various uses and how it connects with the other components of the Canadian System of National Accounts. Chapter 2 deals with the calculation of the GDP by industry estimates. Chapter 3 examines industry and commodity classification schemes. Chapter 4 discusses the subject of deflation. The choice of deflators, the role of the base year and the method of rebasing are all addressed in this chapter. Chapter 5 looks at such technical issues as benchmarking, trading day and seasonal adjustment. Chapter 6 is devoted to the presentation of the GDP by industry, detailing the format, release dates and modes of dissemination, as well as the need and the frequency of revising the estimates. Finally, Chapter 7 reviews the historical development of monthly GDP from 1926 to the present.

      Release date: 2002-11-29

    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11-522-X19990015642
      Description:

      The Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB) links immigration and taxation administrative records into a comprehensive source of data on the labour market behaviour of the landed immigrant population in Canada. It covers the period 1980 to 1995 and will be updated annually starting with the 1996 tax year in 1999. Statistics Canada manages the database on behalf of a federal-provincial consortium led by Citizenship and Immigration Canada. The IMDB was created specifically to respond to the need for detailed and reliable data on the performance and impact of immigration policies and programs. It is the only source of data at Statistics Canada that provides a direct link between immigration policy levers and the economic performance of immigrants. The paper will examine the issues related to the development of a longitudinal database combining administrative records to support policy-relevant research and analysis. Discussion will focus specifically on the methodological, conceptual, analytical and privacy issues involved in the creation and ongoing development of this database. The paper will also touch briefly on research findings, which illustrate the policy outcome links the IMDB allows policy-makers to investigate.

      Release date: 2000-03-02
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