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All (21)

All (21) (0 to 10 of 21 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019011
    Description:

    Using data from Statistics Canada’s Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD), this paper has three objectives: (1) determining how the number of jobs created or destroyed by immigrant-owned private incorporated companies compared with that of firms with Canadian-born owners, (2) determining whether immigrant-owned firms were more likely than firms with Canadian-born owners to be high growth firms or rapidly shrinking firms, and (3) determining which immigrant characteristics were associated with a higher likelihood of immigrant-owned firms being high growth firms or rapidly shrinking firms.

    This paper addresses gross job creation (jobs created by expanding continuing firms and entering firms), gross job destruction (jobs terminated by contracting continuing firms and exiting firms), and net job change (the difference between gross job creation and gross job destruction).

    Release date: 2019-04-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2018401
    Description:

    It is well established that, in most Western countries, rates of small-business ownership tend to be higher among immigrants than among the native-born. In Canada, the overall shares of taxfilers who owned a private incorporated business in 2010 were similar for immigrants (4.6%) and the Canadian-born (4.8%). However, the rate of business ownership was substantially higher (5.8%) among immigrants who had been in Canada for 10 to 30 years. Much less is known about exit and survival patterns of immigrant-owned businesses as there is only a small body of international literature on this topic and little Canadian evidence. This paper addresses this gap by answering two questions. First, do exit and survival patterns (durations) of firm ownership differ between immigrants and individuals born in Canada? Second, what characteristics are associated with lower (or higher) exit rates from business ownership and longer ownership spells among immigrants? The analysis is limited to ownership of private incorporated firms.

    Release date: 2018-01-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016057
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article addresses the extent to which immigrants contribute to economic growth. For the first time, the business ownership and job-creation activities of immigrants are addressed. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016375
    Description:

    This paper provides, for the first time, an overview of immigrant business ownership and the associated job creation in Canada. This research is possible because a new dataset has been created in which the immigration status of business owners can be determined. The analysis focuses on two types of businesses: private incorporated businesses and the unincorporated self-employed. Results are presented for immigrants who have entered Canada since 1980 and who were in the country in 2010, hereafter simply referred to as immigrants in Canada. In addition, two entering cohorts of immigrants are tracked to determine the business ownership trajectory during the first 5 to 10 years in Canada.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X200800110581
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    When an existing firm decides not to commercially develop a discovery, enterprising entrepreneurs may establish a spinoff organization to pursue the venture. Of the 532 biotechnology firms in Canada in 2005, 179 reported that they were spinoffs from another organization.

    Release date: 2008-05-22

  • Articles and reports: 88F0006X2007007
    Description:

    Results from the Survey of Innovation 2003 raised some interesting questions. First, an unexpected one-third of establishments in R&D services were not innovative. According to the guidelines of the Oslo Manual, innovative establishments are those that introduced a new or significantly improved product or process on to the market or into production, within a specified interval. Second, many of these non-innovative establishments indicated that satisfying existing customers was irrelevant to their firms success. This was very different response from all other types of firms.

    This working paper provides a potential explanation of these unexpected results, as well as an overview of available information on establishments in R&D services (NAICS 5417) in the context of professional services generally. The paper assembles descriptive data to show that non-innovative establishments in R&D services differ significantly from other non-innovative establishments and, while not innovative, they are nevertheless highly inventive. It presents some evidence to suggest that they are venture firms (firms relying on infusions of investment capital rather than revenues from sales to sustain their operations) and proposes a specific set of indicators that would facilitate resolution of the nature of firms in this industry group.

    Release date: 2007-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005036
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Burkart and Ellingsen (2004) develop a model of trade credit and bank credit rationing which predicts that trade credit will be used by medium-wealth and low-wealth firms to help ease bank credit rationing. This paper tests this and other predictions of the Burkart and Ellingsen model using a large sample of more than 28,000 Canadian firms. The author uses an endogenous method to divide the firms into the appropriate wealth categories rather than arbitrarily selecting firms likely to be credit-rationed. The data support the main predictions of the model quite well. The author finds that medium-wealth firms substitute trade credit for bank credit consistent with using it to alleviate bank credit rationing. The low-wealth firms use trade credit but it is positively linked to bank credit, suggesting those firms are constrained in both bank credit and trade credit markets, and so cannot use trade credit to adjust as much to negative shocks. The findings also suggest that there are very few unconstrained, high-wealth Canadian firms. The author also finds low-wealth, declining and distressed firms supply proportionally more trade credit than firms with healthier balance sheets.

    Release date: 2005-11-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20040047777
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Self-employment is more common in rural than urban Canada. In 2001, about one in four workers in rural areas, villages and small towns earned at least some of their income from self-employment, compared with only one in six in Canada as a whole. Of course, farming is a key element explaining high self-employment rates in rural and small town Canada. But although farm self-employment remains a key source of income and employment for many, its importance has declined and self-employment activity on the non-farm side has been increasing rapidly.

    The forces driving self-employment in smaller labour markets may be complex, but there is no doubt that entrepreneurship is thriving in rural Canada, despite the waning importance of farm self-employment. This article uses data from the Census of Population to describe non-farm self-employment among workers aged 20 to 64 living in Canada's rural areas and small towns.

    Release date: 2005-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002189
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring size of entry. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the information we have on the amount of entry in Canada.

    The paper also fulfils another purpose. Some studies have focused on cross-country comparisons (Geroski and Schwalbach 1991; OECD 2001). Interpretation of the results of these studies is difficult unless methodological issues regarding how entry is measured are addressed. Without an understanding of the extent to which different databases produce different results, international comparisons are difficult to evaluate. Cross-country comparisons that are derived from extremely different data sources may be misleading because of the lack of comparability.

    Since there is more than one reliable database that can be used to estimate entry in Canada, this paper asks how measured entry rates vary across different Canadian databases. By examining the difference in entry rates produced by these databases, we provide an estimate of the range or confidence interval that should be used in evaluating whether there are real differences in measured entry rates across countries. We also offer guidance as to the questions that should be asked about the databases used by researchers who conduct international studies. Finally, we make suggestions as to areas of comparison on which international studies should focus.

    Release date: 2002-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000123
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Recent studies have demonstrated the quantitative importance of entry, exit, growth and decline in the industrial population. It is this turnover that rewards innovative activity and contributes to productivity growth.

    While the size of the entry population is impressive - especially when cumulated over time - the importance of entry is ultimately due to its impact on innovation in the economy. Experimentation is important in a dynamic, market-based economy. A key part of the experimentation comes from entrants. New entrepreneurs constantly offer consumers new products both in terms of the basic good and the level of service that accompanies it.

    This experimentation is associated with significant costs since many entrants fail. Young firms are most at risk of failure; data drawn from a longitudinal file of Canadian entrants in both the goods and service sectors show that over half the new firms that fail do so in the first two years of life. Life is short for the majority of entrants. Only 1 in 5 new firms survive to their tenth birthday.

    Since so many entrants fall by the wayside, it is of inherent interest to understand the conditions that are associated with success, the conditions that allow the potential in new entrepreneurs to come to fruition. The success of an entrant is due to its choosing the correct combination of strategies and activities. To understand how these capabilities contribute to growth, it is necessary to study how the performance of entrants relates to differences in strategies and pursued activities.

    This paper describes the environment and the characteristics of entrants that manage to survive and grow. In doing so, it focuses on two issues. The first is the innovativeness of entrants and the extent to which their growth depends on their innovativeness. The second is to outline how the stress on worker skills, which is partially related to training, complements innovation and contributes to growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-08
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Analysis (21)

Analysis (21) (0 to 10 of 21 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019011
    Description:

    Using data from Statistics Canada’s Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD), this paper has three objectives: (1) determining how the number of jobs created or destroyed by immigrant-owned private incorporated companies compared with that of firms with Canadian-born owners, (2) determining whether immigrant-owned firms were more likely than firms with Canadian-born owners to be high growth firms or rapidly shrinking firms, and (3) determining which immigrant characteristics were associated with a higher likelihood of immigrant-owned firms being high growth firms or rapidly shrinking firms.

    This paper addresses gross job creation (jobs created by expanding continuing firms and entering firms), gross job destruction (jobs terminated by contracting continuing firms and exiting firms), and net job change (the difference between gross job creation and gross job destruction).

    Release date: 2019-04-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2018401
    Description:

    It is well established that, in most Western countries, rates of small-business ownership tend to be higher among immigrants than among the native-born. In Canada, the overall shares of taxfilers who owned a private incorporated business in 2010 were similar for immigrants (4.6%) and the Canadian-born (4.8%). However, the rate of business ownership was substantially higher (5.8%) among immigrants who had been in Canada for 10 to 30 years. Much less is known about exit and survival patterns of immigrant-owned businesses as there is only a small body of international literature on this topic and little Canadian evidence. This paper addresses this gap by answering two questions. First, do exit and survival patterns (durations) of firm ownership differ between immigrants and individuals born in Canada? Second, what characteristics are associated with lower (or higher) exit rates from business ownership and longer ownership spells among immigrants? The analysis is limited to ownership of private incorporated firms.

    Release date: 2018-01-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016057
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article addresses the extent to which immigrants contribute to economic growth. For the first time, the business ownership and job-creation activities of immigrants are addressed. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016375
    Description:

    This paper provides, for the first time, an overview of immigrant business ownership and the associated job creation in Canada. This research is possible because a new dataset has been created in which the immigration status of business owners can be determined. The analysis focuses on two types of businesses: private incorporated businesses and the unincorporated self-employed. Results are presented for immigrants who have entered Canada since 1980 and who were in the country in 2010, hereafter simply referred to as immigrants in Canada. In addition, two entering cohorts of immigrants are tracked to determine the business ownership trajectory during the first 5 to 10 years in Canada.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X200800110581
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    When an existing firm decides not to commercially develop a discovery, enterprising entrepreneurs may establish a spinoff organization to pursue the venture. Of the 532 biotechnology firms in Canada in 2005, 179 reported that they were spinoffs from another organization.

    Release date: 2008-05-22

  • Articles and reports: 88F0006X2007007
    Description:

    Results from the Survey of Innovation 2003 raised some interesting questions. First, an unexpected one-third of establishments in R&D services were not innovative. According to the guidelines of the Oslo Manual, innovative establishments are those that introduced a new or significantly improved product or process on to the market or into production, within a specified interval. Second, many of these non-innovative establishments indicated that satisfying existing customers was irrelevant to their firms success. This was very different response from all other types of firms.

    This working paper provides a potential explanation of these unexpected results, as well as an overview of available information on establishments in R&D services (NAICS 5417) in the context of professional services generally. The paper assembles descriptive data to show that non-innovative establishments in R&D services differ significantly from other non-innovative establishments and, while not innovative, they are nevertheless highly inventive. It presents some evidence to suggest that they are venture firms (firms relying on infusions of investment capital rather than revenues from sales to sustain their operations) and proposes a specific set of indicators that would facilitate resolution of the nature of firms in this industry group.

    Release date: 2007-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005036
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Burkart and Ellingsen (2004) develop a model of trade credit and bank credit rationing which predicts that trade credit will be used by medium-wealth and low-wealth firms to help ease bank credit rationing. This paper tests this and other predictions of the Burkart and Ellingsen model using a large sample of more than 28,000 Canadian firms. The author uses an endogenous method to divide the firms into the appropriate wealth categories rather than arbitrarily selecting firms likely to be credit-rationed. The data support the main predictions of the model quite well. The author finds that medium-wealth firms substitute trade credit for bank credit consistent with using it to alleviate bank credit rationing. The low-wealth firms use trade credit but it is positively linked to bank credit, suggesting those firms are constrained in both bank credit and trade credit markets, and so cannot use trade credit to adjust as much to negative shocks. The findings also suggest that there are very few unconstrained, high-wealth Canadian firms. The author also finds low-wealth, declining and distressed firms supply proportionally more trade credit than firms with healthier balance sheets.

    Release date: 2005-11-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20040047777
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Self-employment is more common in rural than urban Canada. In 2001, about one in four workers in rural areas, villages and small towns earned at least some of their income from self-employment, compared with only one in six in Canada as a whole. Of course, farming is a key element explaining high self-employment rates in rural and small town Canada. But although farm self-employment remains a key source of income and employment for many, its importance has declined and self-employment activity on the non-farm side has been increasing rapidly.

    The forces driving self-employment in smaller labour markets may be complex, but there is no doubt that entrepreneurship is thriving in rural Canada, despite the waning importance of farm self-employment. This article uses data from the Census of Population to describe non-farm self-employment among workers aged 20 to 64 living in Canada's rural areas and small towns.

    Release date: 2005-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002189
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring size of entry. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the information we have on the amount of entry in Canada.

    The paper also fulfils another purpose. Some studies have focused on cross-country comparisons (Geroski and Schwalbach 1991; OECD 2001). Interpretation of the results of these studies is difficult unless methodological issues regarding how entry is measured are addressed. Without an understanding of the extent to which different databases produce different results, international comparisons are difficult to evaluate. Cross-country comparisons that are derived from extremely different data sources may be misleading because of the lack of comparability.

    Since there is more than one reliable database that can be used to estimate entry in Canada, this paper asks how measured entry rates vary across different Canadian databases. By examining the difference in entry rates produced by these databases, we provide an estimate of the range or confidence interval that should be used in evaluating whether there are real differences in measured entry rates across countries. We also offer guidance as to the questions that should be asked about the databases used by researchers who conduct international studies. Finally, we make suggestions as to areas of comparison on which international studies should focus.

    Release date: 2002-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000123
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Recent studies have demonstrated the quantitative importance of entry, exit, growth and decline in the industrial population. It is this turnover that rewards innovative activity and contributes to productivity growth.

    While the size of the entry population is impressive - especially when cumulated over time - the importance of entry is ultimately due to its impact on innovation in the economy. Experimentation is important in a dynamic, market-based economy. A key part of the experimentation comes from entrants. New entrepreneurs constantly offer consumers new products both in terms of the basic good and the level of service that accompanies it.

    This experimentation is associated with significant costs since many entrants fail. Young firms are most at risk of failure; data drawn from a longitudinal file of Canadian entrants in both the goods and service sectors show that over half the new firms that fail do so in the first two years of life. Life is short for the majority of entrants. Only 1 in 5 new firms survive to their tenth birthday.

    Since so many entrants fall by the wayside, it is of inherent interest to understand the conditions that are associated with success, the conditions that allow the potential in new entrepreneurs to come to fruition. The success of an entrant is due to its choosing the correct combination of strategies and activities. To understand how these capabilities contribute to growth, it is necessary to study how the performance of entrants relates to differences in strategies and pursued activities.

    This paper describes the environment and the characteristics of entrants that manage to survive and grow. In doing so, it focuses on two issues. The first is the innovativeness of entrants and the extent to which their growth depends on their innovativeness. The second is to outline how the stress on worker skills, which is partially related to training, complements innovation and contributes to growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-08
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