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Health Reports, January 2023

Released: 2023-01-18

The January 2023 issue of Health Reports contains two articles.

First national study on changes to acute-care hospitalizations of children and youth, disaggregated by Indigenous population groups

The study "Changes to acute-care hospitalizations among Indigenous children and youth: Results from the 2006 and 2011 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohorts" is the first national study to present differences in hospitalization rates over time among Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and youth in Canada (excluding Quebec), separately for First Nations children and youth living on and off reserve, Inuit children and youth living in Inuit Nunangat (excluding Nunavik), Métis children and youth, and non-Indigenous children and youth.

In both 2006 and 2011, hospitalization rates were generally higher for First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children and youth compared with non-Indigenous children and youth. However, from 2006 to 2011, all-cause and several specific-cause hospitalization rates decreased significantly within Indigenous population groups. With childbirth excluded, all-cause hospitalizations were significantly lower in 2011 than in 2006 for First Nations children and youth living on reserve, Métis children and non-Indigenous children, among others. Hospitalizations for diseases of the respiratory system as well as for injuries significantly decreased from 2006 to 2011 among First Nations children and First Nations youth living on reserve.

Significant increases were observed for mental health-related hospitalizations in 2011 compared with 2006 for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth. Mental health-related hospitalizations were higher for the 2011 cohort than the 2006 cohort for Métis youth (+53%), First Nations youth living on reserve (+51%) and First Nations youth living off reserve (+49%). Among non-Indigenous youth, mental health-related hospitalizations increased by 73% from 2006 to 2011. However, in 2011, mental health-related hospitalization rates were higher for every Indigenous youth group compared with non-Indigenous youth.

Reporting on emerging trends in health outcomes for Indigenous children and youth aligns with priorities such as the federal response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's calls to action. in Call to Action #19, the Commission called upon the federal government to identify gaps in health between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples, including measures of long-term trends.

First ever Canadian estimates of five-year cancer survival by stage at diagnosis

The probability of surviving most common cancers in Canada decreases the more advanced the stage of disease is at diagnosis. The article "Five-year cancer survival by stage at diagnosis in Canada" presents the first ever Canadian estimates of five-year cancer survival by stage at diagnosis. The results reflect cases diagnosed from 2010 to 2017 and cover the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Canada—lung, breast, prostate, colon and rectum—which collectively account for almost half of all diagnosed cases.

Female breast cancer five-year net survival estimates were 100% (stage I), 92% (stage II), 74% (stage III) and 23% (stage IV). For colon cancer, five-year net survival decreased from 92% at stage I to 11% at stage IV, whereas for prostate cancer, the prognosis was close to 100% for the first three stages, then declined to 41% at stage IV. Survival for cases diagnosed at stage I exceeded 90% for each cancer studied, except lung cancer (62%). Between the 2010-to-2012 and 2015-to-2017 periods, five-year net survival improved among stage IV prostate, female breast, and lung cancer cases, as well as for stage I and III lung cancer cases. However, it did not improve at any stage for colon or rectal cancer cases. The study also provides stage-specific survival estimates by age group and by sex for each cancer type.

This study fills an important gap in providing Canadian stage-specific cancer survival estimates. At a population level, the findings could help health professionals evaluate the effectiveness of early detection. Meanwhile, at an individual level, they may help guide clinical decisions regarding the course of treatment. The study also offers data to inform health policy, including screening and clinical decisions regarding cancer treatment.

  Note to readers

Data for "Five-year cancer survival by stage at diagnosis in Canada" are from the Canadian Cancer Registry, with mortality follow-up to December 31, 2017. The results pertain to Canada excluding Quebec as cases diagnosed in that province from 2011 onward had not been submitted to the Canadian Cancer Registry.


The articles "Five-year cancer survival by stage at diagnosis in Canada" and "Changes to acute-care hospitalizations among Indigenous children and youth: Results from the 2006 and 2011 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohorts" are now available in the January 2023 online issue of Health Reports, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Catalogue number82-003-X).

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