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Canada's population estimates: Age and sex, July 1, 2022

Released: 2022-09-28

Canada sees record population growth

In 2021/2022, Canada's population grew by a record 703,404 people (+1.8%) to reach an estimated 38,929,902 on July 1, 2022. This surpasses the preceding high observed a year before the COVID-19 pandemic (2018/2019), when the population grew by 536,146 people (+1.4%).

After a year of record low growth early in the pandemic (+0.6% in 2020/2021), Canada's population growth rate in 2021/2022 (+1.8%) reached a level that has not been seen in more than 50 years (+1.9% since 1965/1966), when the country was witnessing the end of the Baby Boom.

The vast majority of this growth (93.5%) was due to international migration as a result of the easing of COVID-19 border restrictions, increased immigration targets by Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada and, to a lesser extent, people coming to Canada following the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Canada welcomed 492,984 immigrants in 2021/2022 and saw an increase in the number of non-permanent residents (+205,238), both of which are record highs since comparable records became available in 1971/1972.

Record growth seen in the Maritime provinces

Prince Edward Island (+3.5%), Nova Scotia (+2.8%), and New Brunswick (+2.7%) each saw their highest population growth rate since Confederation in 1867. International and interprovincial migration both contributed about equally to this growth.

Strong interprovincial migration out of Ontario continues

The number of people moving to another province or territory (349,563) was the highest since 1989/1990 (356,807) and was up 39.7% from 2020/2021 (250,297).

Ontario (-47,212), Manitoba (-10,203), and Saskatchewan (-7,829) each saw among their highest net losses to other provinces on record. In particular, large numbers of people moved to the Maritime provinces from Ontario: Nova Scotia (15,862), New Brunswick (12,607), and Prince Edward Island (3,962) each saw the highest number of movers from Ontario since comparable records have been available. In 2021/2022, other than to the Maritime provinces, people who left Ontario tended to go to British Columbia or Alberta.

In 2021/2022, more people left Ontario than in recent years across most age groups, but particularly young adults. The movement from Ontario to the Maritime provinces is the continuation and intensification of trends seen in 2020/2021 and may be in part related to an increased ability to work from home, resulting from the pandemic as well as housing prices. According to the New Housing Price Index, Ontario experienced a faster increase in new housing prices than the Maritime provinces over the previous three years.

Canada's population continues to age

On July 1, 2022, almost one in five Canadians (18.8% of the population; 7,329,910 people) were at least 65 years of age. The gap is widening between the number of people in this age group and that of children aged 0 to 14 years (15.6% of the population; 6,070,741 people).

Population aging continues, mainly a result of fertility being below the replacement level since the early 1970s and an almost continuous increase in life expectancy. The advancing age of baby boomers—large cohorts of those born between 1946 and 1965—is accelerating this demographic aging. On July 1, 2022, almost two in three people aged 65 years and older (63.8%) were baby boomers (aged 65 to 76 years), and more than half (50.8%) of all baby boomers were aged 65 years and older. The number of centenarians (aged 100 years and older) rose by 4.4% year over year to 13,484 as of July 1, 2022.

The average age in Canada on July 1, 2022 was 41.7 years. At the provincial and territorial level, Newfoundland and Labrador was the province with the highest average age (45.3 years), while the lowest average age was recorded in Nunavut (29.3 years).

  Note to readers

The estimates released today are based on 2016 Census counts, adjusted for census net undercoverage and incompletely enumerated reserves. To these counts, the population growth estimates for the period from May 10, 2016, to the date of the estimate are added. They are not to be confused with the 2021 Census age, sex at birth, and gender counts released on April 27, 2022. Population estimates based on the 2021 Census results will be disseminated in September 2023, when census coverage study results will become available.

Some of the estimation methods typically used were adjusted to account for the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that the adjustments closely follow what was done in the second quarter of 2020, please refer to the Technical Supplement: Production of Demographic Estimates for the Second Quarter of 2020 in the Context of COVID-19.

This analysis is based on preliminary data. These data will be revised over the coming year, and some of the trends described in this study may change as a result of these revisions. Therefore, this analysis should be interpreted with caution.

Canada's population clock (real-time model)

Canada's population clock (real-time model) was updated today with the most recent quarterly population estimates released by Statistics Canada.

Canada's population clock is an interactive learning tool that aims to give Canadians a sense of the pace of the country's population renewal. The population estimates and census counts remain the measures used by various government programs.


For the purpose of calculating rates, the denominator is the average population during the period (the average of the start-of-period and end-of-period populations). For the sake of brevity, the terms growth, population growth and population growth rate have the same meaning.

Net international migration refers to the total number of moves between Canada and abroad that result in a change in the usual place of residence. It is calculated by adding immigrants, returning emigrants and net non-permanent residents, then subtracting emigrants and net temporary emigration.

An immigrant (or permanent immigrant) refers to a person who is or has been a landed immigrant (permanent resident) and who has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants are either Canadian citizens by naturalization (the citizenship process) or permanent residents under Canadian legislation. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. Also, children born in other countries to parents who are Canadian citizens who are temporarily residing in another country are not included in the category as they are Canadian citizens at birth. The terms immigrant, landed immigrant and permanent resident are equivalent.

A non-permanent resident (or temporary immigrant) is a person who is lawfully in Canada on a temporary basis and who holds a work, study or other (excluding visitor visas) permit issued for that person along with members of their family living with them. This group also includes individuals who seek refugee status upon or after their arrival in Canada and remain in the country pending the outcome of processes relative to their claim. Note that Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada uses the term temporary resident rather than non-permanent resident. Net non-permanent residents is calculated by subtracting the number of non-permanent residents estimated at the beginning of the period from the number estimated at the end of the period.


The publication Annual Demographic Estimates: Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2022 (Catalogue number91-215-X) is now available.

The publication Quarterly Demographic Estimates, April to June 2022 (Catalogue number91-002-X) publication is now available.

The product Quarterly demographic estimates, provinces and territories: Interactive dashboard (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The product Demographic estimates by age and sex, provinces and territories: Interactive dashboard (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The product Interprovincial migrants by province or territory of origin and destination: Interactive dashboard (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The product Interprovincial migration indicators, provinces and territories: Interactive dashboard (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The product Fertility indicators, provinces and territories: Interactive dashboard (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available

The product Canada's population clock (real-time model) (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The updated Population and demography statistics and Older adults and population aging statistics portals are also available.

Contact information

For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; or Media Relations (

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