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Canada's population estimates: Age and sex, July 1, 2019

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Released: 2019-09-30

Canada posts the largest annual population increase in numbers

Canada's population was estimated at 37,589,262 on July 1, 2019, up 531,497 compared with July 1, 2018. Such an annual increase in the number of people living in the country is the highest ever observed. This growth also corresponds to adding just over one person every minute.

The country's population aging continues, with the number of centenarians topping 10,000 for the first time. In addition, baby boomers now account for the majority of seniors.

The infographic "Canada's Population, July 1, 2019" (Catalogue number11-627-M), published today and based on this release, provides an overview of the most recent demographic trends in Canada. A more detailed analysis is available in Annual Demographic Estimates: Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2019 (Catalogue number91-215-X).

Canada's population growth is the highest among G7 countries

The country's annual population growth rate for 2018/2019 was 1.4%, the highest percentage growth rate since 1989/1990 (+1.5%).

Canada's population growth rate is the highest among G7 countries. It is more than twice that of the United States and the United Kingdom (+0.6% each) and exceeds the growth in Germany (+0.3%) and in France (+0.2%). In the last year, Italy and Japan both recorded a population decline (-0.2% each).

Chart 1  Chart 1: Population growth rate, 1998/1999 to 2018/2019, Canada
Population growth rate, 1998/1999 to 2018/2019, Canada

Permanent and temporary immigration accelerating growth

Canada's sustained population growth is driven mostly (82.2%) by the arrival of a large number of immigrants and non-permanent residents. The difference between births and deaths accounted for a small portion (17.8%) of the growth, a share that is decreasing year after year.

Canada admitted 313,580 immigrants in 2018/2019, one of the highest levels in Canadian history. In 2015/2016, Canada received 323,192 permanent immigrants, including nearly 30,000 Syrian refugees.

The number of non-permanent residents rose by 171,536 in 2018/2019, the largest increase in the country's history. While also fuelled by rapid growth in asylum claimants, this gain was mainly led by an increase in the number of work and study permit holders. Temporary immigration assists Canada in meeting its labour market needs.

Population growth intensifies in several provinces

The increase in international migration was felt throughout the country. Several provinces saw strong population growth rarely been seen before.

Population growth in the Atlantic provinces in 2018/2019 was among the highest observed since the 1970s. Prince Edward Island (+2.2%) had the highest population growth rate in the country. Newfoundland and Labrador remained the exception, posting a population decrease (-0.8%) for a third consecutive year.

In 2018/2019, Quebec (+1.2%) saw its largest population increase in 30 years, while Ontario (+1.7%) recorded one of the highest growth rates for the same period.

Alberta's population growth (+1.6%) accelerated for a second consecutive year, owing in part to interprovincial migration exchanges, which were positive after three consecutive years of losses.

The high population growth in most provinces was driven by significant international migratory growth. Levels unequalled since the beginning of the current demographic estimate program (July 1971) were observed in all provinces except Newfoundland and Labrador, Manitoba and Alberta, where international migratory growth remained strong nonetheless.

Chart 2  Chart 2: Population growth rate, 2017/2018 and 2018/2019, Canada, provinces and territories
Population growth rate, 2017/2018 and 2018/2019, Canada, provinces and territories

Baby boomers now account for the majority of seniors

On July 1, 2019, the Canadian population included 6,592,611 seniors. Of this number, which is increasing quickly, more than one in two people (51.1%) were born during the baby boom (1946 to 1965).

Seniors accounted for 17.5% of the Canadian population on July 1, 2019, while children aged 0 to 14 made up 16.0% of the population.

Although the proportion of seniors in Canada has been increasing over time, it remains lower than the proportion observed in the other G7 countries, except the United States (16%). With nearly 3 in 10 people (28%) aged 65 and older, Japan has one of the oldest populations in the world.

The proportion of seniors could continue to increase quickly in the coming years. According to the medium growth scenario from Statistics Canada's most recent population projections, this proportion could reach 22.7% in 2031, the year when the last baby boomers will turn 65.

Chart 3  Chart 3: Population aged 0 to 14 and 65 and older, 1999 to 2019 (estimates) and 2020 to 2039 (projections), Canada
Population aged 0 to 14 and 65 and older, 1999 to 2019 (estimates) and 2020 to 2039 (projections), Canada

For the first time, there are more than 10,000 centenarians in Canada

On July 1, 2019, Canada had 10,795 centenarians, topping 10,000 for the first time. The number of centenarians has more than tripled since 2001, as a result of increased life expectancy. Because women have a higher life expectancy than men, the vast majority of centenarians were women (82.0%).

The Prairie provinces and the territories have the youngest populations

The age structure of the population varies considerably from one province or territory to another. These variations are most often due to gaps in fertility levels, but also partly to internal migration. In general, the youngest populations are in the Prairie provinces and the territories, whereas the oldest are in the Atlantic provinces.

On July 1, 2019, Newfoundland and Labrador had the highest proportion of people aged 65 and older (21.5%). This was the first time that this province topped this list. Over the past decade, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick have successively held the top spot. These three provinces have experienced interprovincial migratory losses over the past few decades, with many young people of reproductive age moving to other provinces and territories, thus contributing to the acceleration of population aging.

Chart 4  Chart 4: Proportion of the population aged 0 to 14 and 65 and older, July 1, 2019, Canada, provinces and territories
Proportion of the population aged 0 to 14 and 65 and older, July 1, 2019, Canada, provinces and territories

Nunavut had the country's youngest population, with nearly one-third of individuals aged 0 to 14 (31.8%). This is mainly the result of a higher fertility level combined with a lower life expectancy than elsewhere in Canada.

New today!

Statistics Canada is pleased to unveil the new Population and Demography Statistics Portal.

As part of the agency's commitment to making information more accessible and increasing Canadians' statistical literacy, the new portal provides a single access point for users to find, use and analyze population- and demography-related information.

  Note to readers

The estimates released today are based on 2016 Census counts adjusted for census net undercoverage and incompletely enumerated Indian reserves, to which are added the population growth estimates for the period from May 10, 2016, to the date of the estimate.

This analysis is based on preliminary data. These data will be revised over the coming year, and it is possible that some trends described in this study will change as a result of these revisions. Therefore, this analysis should be interpreted with caution.

The population projections in this release are based on the medium growth M1 scenario presented in the publication Population Projections for Canada (2018 to 2068), Provinces and Territories (2018 to 2043) (Catalogue number91-520-X).

Canada's population clock (real-time model)

Canada's population clock has been updated with the most recent data from quarterly population estimates released by Statistics Canada.

Canada's population clock is an interactive learning tool aiming to give Canadians a sense of the pace of the country's population renewal. The population estimates and Census counts remain the measures used by various government programs.


For the purpose of calculating rates, the denominator is the average population during the period (the average of the start-of-period and end-of-period populations). For the sake of brevity, the terms growth, population growth and population growth rate have the same meaning.

Natural increase is the difference between the number of births and deaths.

Net international migration basically refers to the total number of moves between Canada and abroad that result in a change in the usual place of residence. It is calculated by adding immigrants, returning emigrants and net non-permanent residents, then subtracting emigrants and net temporary emigration.

An immigrant (or permanent immigrant) refers to a person who is or has been a landed immigrant (permanent resident) and who has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants are either Canadian citizens by naturalization (the citizenship process) or permanent residents under Canadian legislation. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. Also, children born in other countries to parents who are Canadian citizens who are temporarily residing in another country are not included in the category as they are Canadian citizens at birth. The terms immigrant, landed immigrant and permanent resident are equivalent.

A non-permanent resident (or temporary immigrant) is a person lawfully in Canada on a temporary basis under the authority of a valid document (work permit, study permit, ministerial permit) issued to that person along with members of their family living with them. This group also includes individuals who seek refugee status upon or after their arrival in Canada and remain in the country pending the outcome of processes relative to their claim. Note that Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada uses the term temporary resident rather than non-permanent resident. The number of net non-permanent residents is calculated by subtracting the number of non-permanent residents estimated at the beginning of the period from the number estimated at the end of the period.

A senior or an older person is designated as a person aged 65 and older.

Baby boom cohorts or baby boomers include people born between 1946 and 1965.

The Group of Seven (G7) is an informal grouping of seven of the world's advanced economies consisting of the United States, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Canada. Population growth data on these countries (excluding Canada) are from the U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2017, to July 1, 2018), the Statistics Bureau of Japan (July 1, 2018, to July 1, 2019), the Federal Statistical Office of Germany (December 31, 2017, to December 31, 2018), the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies of France (January 1, 2018, to January 1, 2019), the Office for National Statistics of the United Kingdom (July 1, 2017, to July 1, 2018), and the National Institute of Statistics of Italy (January 1, 2018, to January 1, 2019). The calculations were performed by Statistics Canada. Data on the proportion of persons aged 65 years and older in these countries (excluding Canada) are from the Population Reference Bureau, 2019 World Population Data Sheet. Data are rounded to the unit as shown in the source used.


The Annual Demographic Estimates: Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2019 (Catalogue number91-215-X) is now available.

The infographic "Canada's Population, July 1, 2019," part of Statistics Canada — Infographics (Catalogue number11-627-M), is now available.

Contact information

For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; or Media Relations (613-951-4636;

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