Canadian Housing Statistics Program, 2017 (revised data)
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More detailed data on residential properties in British Columbia and Ontario
Single-detached houses dominate the Ontario housing market, accounting for almost two-thirds of residential properties in the province. In British Columbia, in turn, the proportion of this property type is less than half.
The findings come from the Canadian Housing Statistics Program's (CHSP) second release of data providing information on residential properties and their owners across British Columbia and Ontario, their census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and municipalities. This article includes: a profile of residential property types, estimates of non-resident property ownership, and demographic information on age and sex for individual resident owners for certain residential property types.
Single-detached homes dominate landscape in all census metropolitan areas
The overall mix of residential property types differs significantly in British Columbia and Ontario. Single-detached houses account for 44.1% of the close to 1.7 million residential properties in British Columbia compared to 64.2% of the close to 4.8 million residential properties in Ontario. Conversely, the proportion of condominium apartments is nearly twice as high in British Columbia as in Ontario (close to 20% versus 10%), while the share of properties with multiple residential units in British Columbia is nearly three times (10.1%) the proportion in Ontario (3.3%).
The Vancouver CMA contains 44.7% of all residential properties in British Columbia, followed by the CMAs of Victoria with 7.2%, Kelowna with 4.2%, and Abbotsford–Mission with 3.0%. In comparison, over one-third (36.0%) of all residential properties in Ontario are in the Toronto CMA, followed by the CMAs of Ottawa–Gatineau (Ontario part) at around 7%, Hamilton with about 5%, and London at almost 4% of all residential properties in the province.
Among the B.C. CMAs, the Kelowna CMA has the highest proportion of single-detached houses in the province (54.1%), followed by the CMAs of Victoria (47.5%), Abbotsford–Mission (45.1%) and Vancouver (36.4%). Similarly, the proportion of single-detached houses in the Toronto CMA is the lowest among the major metropolitan areas at almost 53%, followed by the CMAs of Ottawa–Gatineau (Ontario part) at 55.0%, London at almost 64%, and Hamilton at about 70%.
Over 70% of the respective provincial stock of condominium apartments are in the Toronto and Vancouver metropolitan areas. Almost one-third of Vancouver's residential properties are condominium apartments, while in the CMA of Victoria they constitute close to 21%, and in the CMAs of Kelowna and Abbotsford–Mission they comprise around 18%. In Ontario, the proportion of condominium apartments is highest in the CMA of Toronto at 20.7%, followed by the CMAs of London at 17.1%, and Ottawa–Gatineau (Ontario part) at 10.0%.
The largest proportion of row houses is in Ottawa–Gatineau (Ontario part), where they constitute 22.3% of all property types. Row houses make up slightly more than 13% of all residential properties in both Vancouver and Abbotsford–Mission. Properties with multiple residential units are more common in B.C. than in Ontario. Abbotsford–Mission and Victoria metropolitan areas each have the highest proportion at nearly 16%, followed by Vancouver at almost 14%.
In British Columbia, non-residents own 7.1% of condominium apartments
Non-residents of Canada own 3.5% of all residential properties in British Columbia, accounting for 4.3% of the total assessed value of all residential properties in the province. The proportion of non-resident ownership varies across different segments of the housing market, ranging from 2.3% of single-detached houses to 7.1% of condominium apartments.
In Ontario, the overall incidence of non-resident ownership is lower. Non-residents own 2.3% of all residential properties in Ontario, comprising 2.1% of total residential property value. Non-resident ownership also varies greatly by property type. For example, non-resident ownership ranges from 1.6% among single-detached homes to 5.0% for condominium apartments.
Almost 1 in 20 residential properties in the Vancouver CMA are owned by a non-resident of Canada. Both the cities of Vancouver and Richmond have a non-resident ownership rate just above 7%. The Toronto CMA has a rate a full two percentage points lower than the Vancouver CMA. Still, the city of Toronto has a non-resident ownership rate of 3.9%.
Lower prevalence of non-resident ownership outside of Toronto and Vancouver CMAs
In British Columbia, rates of non-resident ownership in CMAs outside Vancouver range from 2.7% in Victoria and 2.5% in Kelowna, to 1.4% in Abbotsford–Mission. The city of Victoria, however, has a non-resident ownership rate of 4.2%. In each of these metropolitan areas, non-resident ownership is more prevalent among condominium apartments than any other housing type. Non-residents own 4.8% of condominium apartments in Victoria, and 4.0% of condominium apartments in Kelowna.
In Ontario, non-resident ownership in most CMAs outside of Toronto is less prevalent. Among the larger CMAs of Ottawa–Gatineau (Ontario part), Hamilton, and London, non-resident ownership rates for all residential property types are well below 2%. Specifically, non-residents own 1.4% of residential properties in Ottawa–Gatineau (Ontario part), ranging from 0.9% of single-detached homes to 2.9% of condominium apartments. In Hamilton, 1.2% of all residential properties are owned by non-residents, compared with 1.0% in London.
Kingston (2.8%) and St. Catharines–Niagara (2.2%) are the only CMAs in Ontario other than Toronto where non-residents own more than 2% of residential properties. In each of these metropolitan areas, vacation properties comprise a substantial portion of non-resident owned residential properties. For example, in the Kingston CMA, the South Frontenac non-resident ownership rate is 6.7%; and in the St. Catharines–Niagara CMA, Fort Erie's rate is almost 9%.
Vacation and recreational destinations big attraction for non-residents
Outside of the census metropolitan areas, vacation and recreational destinations in British Columbia and Ontario appear to be attractive to non-residents. In British Columbia, Whistler has over 12,000 residential properties, and a non-resident ownership rate of 15.5%. Although smaller communities, mountain destinations such as Fernie (6.6%) and Revelstoke (5.2%) have non-resident ownership rates higher than the provincial average. Other vacation or recreational areas, like the Southern Gulf Islands, Saltspring Island, Nanaimo-B, and the Sunshine Coast-A, range between above 5% to almost 7%. In the interior, Kootenay Boundary-E/West Boundary has a non-resident ownership rate of 8.6%, while North Okanagan-C is at 7.8%.
In Ontario, Muskoka Lakes has close to 13,000 residential properties, and a non-resident ownership rate of almost 6%. With a little over 7,000 residential properties apiece, Lake of Bays' non-resident ownership rate is almost 5%, while Georgian Bay is slightly above 4%. Along the New York state border, the Central and North Frontenac, Rideau Lakes, Leeds and the Thousand Islands all have non-resident ownership rates ranging from 6.5% to 12.3%. Closer to Michigan, Huron Shores has a non-resident ownership rate of almost 14%. Further west, near Minnesota, Lake of the Woods has a rate of 47.7%.
Higher average property values for non-resident owned residential properties in the Vancouver and Toronto CMAs
In the Vancouver and Toronto CMAs, average residential property values for non-resident owned properties are higher than resident-owned properties for all standard housing types: single-detached homes, semi-detached houses, row houses and condominium apartments.
The difference in average values between resident and non-resident owned residential properties is greatest in the Vancouver CMA, particularly for single-detached houses. The average assessed value of single-detached non-resident owned houses is $2.3 million, or $775,000 higher than the average for resident-owned houses. While less extreme, there are notable differences in property value in other segments of Vancouver's housing market. The average value of non-resident owned condominium apartments is $703,000, $173,000 higher than that of resident-owned units.
Smaller differences in property value exist in the Toronto CMA across the different segments of the housing market. Single-detached houses owned by non-residents have an average value of $984,000, $144,000 higher than the average for resident-owned properties of this type. Similarly, the average assessed value of non-resident owned condominium apartments is $426,000, $36,000 higher than for resident-owned units.
Higher property values for non-resident owned properties in other CMAs in British Columbia
Property value differences between non-resident and resident-owned properties is also apparent in the CMAs of Victoria and Kelowna. In Victoria, the average value of single-detached houses owned by non-residents is $868,000, $146,000 higher than the average for resident-owned houses of this type. Similarly, the average value of non-resident owned condominium apartments is $422,000, $75,000 higher than the average for resident-owned units. In Kelowna, the differences are most apparent among single-detached homes.
Differences in property value for Ontario resident and non-resident owned properties are less marked outside of Toronto CMA
There is generally less evidence outside of the Toronto CMA of price differences between the average value for non-resident and resident-owned properties. The exceptions are in certain specific segments in the CMAs of Ottawa–Gatineau (Ontario part), St. Catharines–Niagara and Kingston.
In Ottawa–Gatineau (Ontario part), the average assessed value of single-detached homes owned by non-residents is $680,000 about $223,000 more than the average for resident-owned properties. By contrast, non-resident owned condominium apartments in Ottawa–Gatineau (Ontario part) are, on average, about $24,000 more expensive than resident-owned units. In St. Catharines–Niagara, the average value of condominium apartments owned by non-residents is $106,000 higher than resident-owned units, while in Kingston, non-resident owned condominium apartments are $37,000 more expensive.
In Hamilton and London, non-resident owned properties are either similarly valued or have a lower average assessment value than resident-owned properties. In Hamilton, the average assessment value for single-detached homes owned by non-residents is $42,000 less than the average for residents, while condominium apartments are similar in value. In London, there are little differences in average property values for residents or non-residents for both single-detached houses and condominium apartments.
For all property types, the majority of individual resident owners are women
This second release from the CHSP is also providing information on the age and sex of individual resident owners. Individual resident owners are individuals whose principal dwelling is in Canada and who own only one of the following residential property types: single-detached houses, semi-detached houses, row houses, or condominium apartments. The percentage of individual resident owners (e.g. % of women owners) applies to all property owners on the property title, whether there is one or more owners registered on the property title.
In British Columbia, slightly more than half (52.9%) of individual resident owners are women. The overall rate of female ownership among individual residents rises to 53.8% in the Vancouver CMA, and to 54.3% in the Victoria CMA. The rate of female ownership varies by property type across CMAs, from 51.3% for single-detached houses to 56.7% for condominium apartments. In the Vancouver and Victoria CMAs, women represent about 52% of all owners of single-detached houses.
In Ontario, the overall incidence and pattern of female ownership is similar: 52.4% of all individual resident owners are women. This ranges from 51.4% of single-detached homes to 57.3% of condominium apartments across the metropolitan areas. In the Toronto CMA, women represent 52.2% of all owners of single-detached homes, compared with 56.5% of condominium apartments.
Less than 10% of all individual resident owners are in the youngest age group
In British Columbia, just under nine percent (8.7%) of individual resident owners are under 35 years of age, while those between the ages of 35 and 54 constitute 37.0% of property owners, and 54.3% are aged 55 and over. The share of persons under the age of 35 is lowest in the Victoria CMA (6.6%) and highest in the CMA of Abbotsford–Mission (10.6%).
For all CMAs in British Columbia, the share of younger individual resident owners varies by property type. Persons under the age of 35 represent 6.6% of owners of single-detached houses, 9.9% of semi-detached houses, 12.1% of row houses, and 13.7% of condominium apartments. In the Vancouver CMA in particular, just under 5% of owners of single-detached houses are persons under the age of 35, compared with 14.8% of condominium apartments.
In Ontario, the overall incidence and pattern of ownership for younger individual residents are similar. Persons under the age of 35 represent 9.6% of owners in the province's metropolitan areas. Among different property types, these ownership rates range from 8.5% for single-detached houses and 11.4% for semi-detached houses, to 13.9% for condominium apartments, and 14.6% for row houses. In the Toronto CMA, persons under the age of 35 represent 6.6% of owners of single-detached houses, compared with 15.5% of condominium apartments.
Distribution of residential properties by property type, for census metropolitan areas (CMA), British Columbia and Ontario
Non-resident ownership rates for selected census subdivisions (CSDs) outside the census metropolitan areas (CMAs), British Columbia and Ontario
Distribution of properties by property type, sex and age groups of individual resident owners
Note to readers
The Canadian Housing Statistics Program's (CHSP) first dissemination was a preliminary data release on December 19, 2017. As anticipated, comparisons between this release and the preliminary version will show small but notable differences in variables such as the rate of non-resident ownership. This is due to a variety of factors, but two foremost: firstly, CHSP record linkage methodology has been expanded. Secondly, the reception of more recent versions of administrative files including tax, emigration and geo-location data has allowed for improved results in the derivation of CHSP variables (e.g., residency status). Moving forward, it is expected that these methodologies will continue to be refined as new data sources will allow CHSP to further improve strategies.
Target population for demographic profile
The target population for the demographic profile was selected using a multi-prong approach restricted to individuals who are residents of Canada and only own one residential property:
1. Individual owners. Properties owned by non-individuals or a combination of individuals and non-individuals were excluded.
2. Resident owners. Properties owned by non-residents or a combination of residents and non-residents were excluded.
3. Residential property types selected were single-detached house, semi-detached house, row house or condominium apartment. Examples of properties omitted from this analysis include, properties with multiple residential units and vacant land.
4. Owners of only one property. Owners who possess more than one property, whether within the same province or in another province, were excluded.
Residential property refers to all land and structures intended for private occupancy, whether on a permanent or a temporary basis.
Property type refers to property characteristics and/or dwelling configuration, on which there can be one or more residential structures. Property type includes single-detached house, semi-detached house, condominium apartment, property with multiple residential units, unspecified properties and vacant land.
Assessment value refers to the assessed value of the property for the purposes of determining property taxes. It is important to note that the assessed value does not necessarily represent the market value. Given that different provinces and territories have their own assessment periods and durations of the valuation roll, it is difficult to make accurate comparisons of similar properties from one province or territory to another. For properties that are being utilized for both residential and non-residential purposes, only the residential partitions' value has been taken into account.
Property owner refers to an individual or non-individual (such as a corporation, trust, state-owned entity or related groups) that has property title transferred to, recorded in, registered in or otherwise carried in their name. A property may have more than one owner or an owner may have more than one property, thus the count of owners and properties can differ. Demographics (age, sex, residency status) are reported at the owner-level.
Ownership type refers to whether an owner of a residential property is an individual or a non-individual entity, such as corporations, trusts, state-owned entities or related groups.
In the context of residential property, assignment of ownership type is as follows: A property is considered owned by an "individual" if all owners of a property are individuals. Conversely, properties are deemed owned by "non-individuals" if all owners are non-individuals, or if the owners are a combination of individuals and non-individuals.
Residency status is assigned based on whether the owner is an individual or a non-individual. An individual is considered a resident if his or her primary dwelling is in the economic territory of Canada. Non-individuals are considered residents if they engage in economic activities from a location in the economic territory of Canada. Similarly, an individual is considered a non-resident if his or her primary dwelling is outside the economic territory of Canada. Non-individuals are considered non-residents if they do not engage in economic activities from a location in the economic territory of Canada.
In the context of residential property, assignment of residency status is as follows: A property is considered owned by residents when the majority of owners is defined as resident. Conversely, a property is considered owned by non-residents when the majority of owners is defined as non-resident. In the situation where there is an equal number of resident and non-resident owners for the same property, the property is classified as owned by residents.
Age refers to the age of a person (or subject) of interest at last birthday (or relative to a specified, well-defined reference date).
Sex refers to sex assigned at birth. Sex is typically assigned based on a person's reproductive system and other physical characteristics.
Thematic Maps "British Columbia - Proportion of residential properties owned by non-residents, by census subdivision, 2017" and "Ontario - Proportion of residential properties owned by non-residents, by census subdivision, 2017" (39-26-0001), are available.
The infographics "A detailed look at residential properties in British Columbia" and "A detailed look at residential properties in Ontario," part of Statistics Canada - Infographics (11-627-M), are available.
For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; STATCAN.infostats-infostats.STATCAN@canada.ca) or Media Relations (613-951-4636; STATCAN.mediahotline-ligneinfomedias.STATCAN@canada.ca).