Annual Demographic Estimates: Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2018
Analysis: Population by age and sex

For the purposes of this article, various indicators will be used to measure population aging. These include the number, proportion and distribution of the population aged 0 to 14 years and 65 years and older, the demographic dependency ratio, and the median age. The median age is age “x”, as it divides a population into two groups of equal size, one with individuals older than “x” and the other with individuals younger than “x”.

This section presents an analysis of the population estimates by age and sex for Canada, the provinces and territories on July 1, 2018, compared with July 1 estimates in previous years.

Canada’s population aging is fuelled by the advancing age of baby boomers

Population aging represents one of the major changes associated with Canada’s age-sex structure, and it continues to shape the transformation of the country’s population. It is the result of baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1965) reaching more advanced ages, combined with a fertility rate below the replacement level (2.1 children per woman) since 1972Note 1 and an increase in life expectancy for both men and women.Note 2

The age pyramid opposite shows the aging of Canada’s population in recent decades by comparing the age-sex structure of the population on July 1 in 1998 and 2018. On July 1, 1998, baby boomers were in their 30s, 40s and early 50s, as can be seen in the bulge in the pyramid at these ages. On July 1, 2018, individuals in the baby boom generation were between 52 and 72 years of age, as illustrated by the upward shift in the largest bulge in the pyramid observed 20 years earlier. Therefore, the number of people aged 52 and over was proportionally higher in 2018 (35.5%) than in 1998 (24.5%). In contrast, the number of younger people, particularly people in their 30s and early 40s, as well as individuals aged 0 to 19, has proportionally decreased.

pyramid2.1

Description for Figure 2.1

This stacked column graph or age pyramid compares the age structure of the 1998 and the 2018 population at July 1st in relative value.

The left side shows males and the right side shows females.

The horizontal axis shows the population in relative value and the vertical axis shows age.

This table displays the results of Pyramid data table 1. The information is grouped by Age (appearing as row headers), 1998, 2018, Males and Females, calculated using per thousand units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age 1998 2018
Males Females Males Females
per thousand
0 5.8 5.6 5.3 5.1
1 6.1 5.8 5.3 5.1
2 6.5 6.2 5.4 5.1
3 6.6 6.3 5.4 5.2
4 6.7 6.3 5.5 5.2
5 6.8 6.5 5.5 5.3
6 7.0 6.7 5.6 5.3
7 7.1 6.8 5.6 5.3
8 7.1 6.8 5.7 5.4
9 6.9 6.6 5.7 5.5
10 6.7 6.4 5.7 5.5
11 6.8 6.5 5.5 5.3
12 7.0 6.6 5.4 5.2
13 7.0 6.6 5.3 5.1
14 7.0 6.6 5.4 5.2
15 7.0 6.6 5.4 5.2
16 7.0 6.6 5.5 5.3
17 7.1 6.7 5.7 5.4
18 7.1 6.7 6.1 5.8
19 7.0 6.6 6.5 6.0
20 6.8 6.5 6.6 6.1
21 6.9 6.6 6.7 6.1
22 6.9 6.6 6.9 6.3
23 6.9 6.6 7.1 6.4
24 6.7 6.5 7.0 6.5
25 6.7 6.5 7.1 6.6
26 6.9 6.7 7.1 6.7
27 7.2 7.1 7.2 6.8
28 7.3 7.1 7.3 6.9
29 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.7
30 7.2 7.2 6.9 6.7
31 7.5 7.4 6.9 6.7
32 7.9 7.8 7.0 6.9
33 8.6 8.4 7.0 6.9
34 8.9 8.8 7.0 6.9
35 9.1 8.9 6.9 6.9
36 8.9 8.8 6.8 6.9
37 9.0 8.9 6.8 6.9
38 8.9 8.9 6.7 6.8
39 8.7 8.7 6.5 6.7
40 8.7 8.6 6.4 6.5
41 8.5 8.5 6.4 6.5
42 8.2 8.3 6.4 6.5
43 8.2 8.3 6.4 6.5
44 7.9 8.0 6.2 6.4
45 7.6 7.7 6.2 6.3
46 7.3 7.4 6.4 6.4
47 7.2 7.3 6.6 6.7
48 7.1 7.1 6.6 6.6
49 7.0 7.0 6.5 6.6
50 7.0 7.0 6.4 6.5
51 7.0 7.0 6.5 6.6
52 6.0 6.0 6.9 6.9
53 5.6 5.6 7.3 7.3
54 5.4 5.5 7.5 7.5
55 5.3 5.3 7.6 7.6
56 4.9 5.0 7.4 7.4
57 4.7 4.8 7.4 7.5
58 4.4 4.5 7.2 7.4
59 4.3 4.4 7.0 7.2
60 4.1 4.3 6.9 7.1
61 4.0 4.1 6.7 6.9
62 4.0 4.1 6.5 6.7
63 3.9 4.0 6.4 6.6
64 3.8 3.9 6.0 6.4
65 3.8 4.0 5.7 6.0
66 3.8 4.0 5.5 5.8
67 3.7 4.0 5.3 5.6
68 3.6 3.9 5.1 5.5
69 3.3 3.8 5.0 5.3
70 3.2 3.7 4.9 5.3
71 3.1 3.6 4.8 5.2
72 2.9 3.6 4.1 4.4
73 2.8 3.5 3.7 4.0
74 2.6 3.4 3.5 3.9
75 2.4 3.3 3.3 3.7
76 2.3 3.2 3.0 3.4
77 2.1 3.0 2.8 3.2
78 1.9 2.8 2.5 3.0
79 1.6 2.4 2.3 2.8
80 1.4 2.2 2.2 2.6
81 1.3 2.1 2.0 2.4
82 1.1 1.9 1.8 2.3
83 1.1 1.9 1.7 2.2
84 0.9 1.7 1.5 2.0
85 0.8 1.5 1.4 1.9
86 0.6 1.3 1.2 1.8
87 0.5 1.1 1.1 1.7
88 0.4 1.0 0.9 1.5
89 0.3 0.8 0.8 1.3
90 0.3 0.7 0.6 1.2
91 0.2 0.5 0.5 1.0
92 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.9
93 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.7
94 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.6
95 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.5
96 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.4
97 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3
98 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2
99 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1
100 and over 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2

Canada remains younger than most G7 countries

Population aging is a widespread phenomenon in the whole world, and is currently more important in the industrialized countries. In recent years, the proportion of persons aged 65 and older has increased in every G7 country. Of these countries, Canada has the second-lowest proportion of persons aged 65 and older (17.2%), just behind the United States,Note 3 with 15%.Note 4 Conversely, Japan’s population is among the oldest in the world, with the highest proportion of persons aged 65 and older among the G7 countries (28%), or just over one in four people.

The proportion of children aged 0 to 14 is higher in Canada (16.1%) than in Japan (12%), Germany and Italy (13% each). A higher fertility rate in Canada than in these countriesNote 5 is the main reason why Canada has a higher proportion of children aged 0 to 14 years.Note 6 However, the proportion of children is lower in Canada than in the United States (19%), France and the United Kingdom (18% each), where the fertility rate is higher than in Canada, though below the replacement level in the last decade.

Moreover, Canada is the G7 country with the largest proportion of working-age people; two-thirds of its population (66.7%) is in the 15-to-64 age group. Japan has the lowest proportion in the G7 (60%). The fact that the baby boom was greater in Canada than in most other G7 countries explains why it has the highest proportion of people in this age group.Note 7 As all Canadian baby boomers turn 65, the proportion of the working-age population in Canada should move closer to the levels observed in the other G7 countries.

Text table 2.1
Age distribution of the population, Canada and other G7 countries, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Age distribution of the population 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years and 65 years and over, calculated using percentage units of measure (appearing as column headers).
0 to 14 years 15 to 64 years 65 years and over
percentage
Canada 16.1 66.7 17.2
Germany 13 66 21
United States 19 66 15
Italy 13 64 23
United Kingdom 18 64 18
France 18 62 20
Japan 12 60 28

The gap widens between children and seniors

Since 2011, baby boomers have played a significant role in the increase in the number of people aged 65 and older. In fact, people aged 65 and older outnumbered children under 15 years between July 1, 2015, and July 1, 2016. In the last annual period, the difference between the number of people in these two age groups increased. On July 1, 2018, a record number of Canadians—6,358,220, or more than one out of six people (17.2%)—was at least 65 years of age, compared with 5,972,733 children aged 0 to 14 (16.1%). In other words, there were an additional 385,487 people in the 65-and-older age group than in the 0-to-14 group. By comparison, prior to 1987, there were two to three times more children aged 0 to 14 than people aged 65 and older.

According to the medium growth (M1) scenario in the most recent population projections, the proportion of people 65 and older should continue to grow, increasingly widening the gap with the proportion of children aged 0 to 14.Note 8 The proportion of people aged 65 and older should reach 20% in 2024 and 25% in 2055, while the proportion of children aged 0 to 14 should remain stable at around 15% to 16% over the same period. Thus, the proportion of working-age people (aged 15 to 64) should decline over the next few decades. It is currently estimated at 66.7% and is expected to fall below 60% in 2051.

Chart 2.1

Data table for Chart 2.1 
Data table for Chart 2.1
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2.1. The information is grouped by Year ending June 30 (appearing as row headers), 0 to 14 years (population estimates), 0 to 14 years (population projections based on M1 scenario), 65 years and over (population estimates) and 65 years and over (population projections based on M1 scenario), calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year ending June 30 0 to 14 years (population estimates) 0 to 14 years (population projections based on M1 scenario) 65 years and over (population estimates) 65 years and over (population projections based on M1 scenario)
number
1998 5,958,467 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 3,724,074 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
1999 5,919,034 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 3,785,489 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2000 5,883,491 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 3,851,253 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2001 5,851,142 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 3,921,849 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2002 5,826,792 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 3,989,384 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2003 5,792,083 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,060,711 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2004 5,751,912 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,136,349 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2005 5,697,557 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,213,993 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2006 5,648,161 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,318,906 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2007 5,621,320 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,421,379 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2008 5,616,339 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,541,116 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2009 5,620,154 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,669,325 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2010 5,622,173 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,804,015 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2011 5,628,821 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,955,235 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2012 5,660,294 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,154,937 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2013 5,704,052 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,352,983 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2014 5,752,008 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,542,326 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2015 5,793,833 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,722,237 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2016 5,865,824 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,920,968 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2017 5,913,180 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,135,967 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2018 5,972,733 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,358,220 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2019 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,060,400 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,616,600
2020 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,135,500 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,857,000
2021 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,205,100 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 7,097,400
2022 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,265,500 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 7,346,200
2023 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,315,600 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 7,601,100
2024 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,363,900 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 7,856,200
2025 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,411,900 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 8,116,800
2026 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,460,700 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 8,380,400
2027 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,507,600 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 8,631,400
2028 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,549,800 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 8,886,500
2029 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,585,400 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,130,900
2030 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,615,200 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,354,100
2031 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,639,500 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,539,100
2032 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,659,100 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,693,800
2033 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,674,700 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,837,600
2034 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,687,000 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,978,200
2035 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,697,100 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,115,500
2036 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,705,900 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,249,400
2037 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,714,200 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,358,300
2038 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,724,900 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,455,600

Chart 2.2

Data table for Chart 2.2 
Data table for Chart 2.2
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2.2. The information is grouped by Year ending June 30 (appearing as row headers), 0 to 14 years (population estimates), 0 to 14 years (population projections based on M1 scenario), 15 to 64 years (population estimates), 15 to 64 years (population projections based on M1 scenario), 65 years and over (population estimates) and 65 years and over (population projections based on M1 scenario), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year ending June 30 0 to 14 years (population estimates) 0 to 14 years (population projections based on M1 scenario) 15 to 64 years (population estimates) 15 to 64 years (population projections based on M1 scenario) 65 years and over (population estimates) 65 years and over (population projections based on M1 scenario)
percent
1998 19.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 67.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
1999 19.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2000 19.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2001 18.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2002 18.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2003 18.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2004 18.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2005 17.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2006 17.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2007 17.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2008 16.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2009 16.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2010 16.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2011 16.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2012 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2013 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2014 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2015 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 67.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2016 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 67.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2017 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 67.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2018 16.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 66.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 17.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2019 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 66.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 17.7
2020 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 65.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 18.2
2021 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 65.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 18.7
2022 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 64.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 19.2
2023 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 64.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 19.6
2024 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 63.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 20.1
2025 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 63.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 20.6
2026 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 62.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 21.1
2027 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 62.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 21.5
2028 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 22.0
2029 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 22.4
2030 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 22.8
2031 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 60.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.1
2032 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 60.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.3
2033 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 60.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.4
2034 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 60.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.6
2035 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 60.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.7
2036 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 60.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.9
2037 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 60.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 24.0
2038 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 60.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 24.0

In the latest annual period, the growth rate of the 65-and-older population was 3.6%, or about two-and-a-half times the growth rate for the entire population (1.4%). Children aged 0 to 14 had a growth rate of 1.0% in the last annual period. While this group grew by 1.0% on average in the last three years, which has not been seen since the end of the echo boom generation (1989 to 1992),Note 9 its growth rate is still lower than that of the 65-and-older age group, thereby contributing to population aging.

Children still outnumber seniors in the Prairies and the territories

At the provincial and territorial level, the number of people 65 years and older and the number of children 0 to 14 years vary widely. In Canada’s eastern and central provinces and in British Columbia, the number of people 65 years and older was higher than the number of children 0 to 14 years on July 1, 2018. However, the Prairie provinces and the territories had more children aged 0 to 14 than people 65 years and older. In 2009, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were the top two provinces where the number of people aged 65 and older exceeded that of children aged 0 to 14.

On July 1, 2018, New Brunswick had the highest proportion of people aged 65 and older (20.8%) among the provinces, and Alberta the lowest (12.8%). Moreover, the highest proportion of children aged 0 to 14 years was observed in Saskatchewan (19.6%) and the lowest in Newfoundland and Labrador (13.9%). The last finding is explained by, amongst other things, higher fertility in Saskatchewan than in Newfoundland and Labrador.

The situation in the territories is unique, in that the populations are considerably younger than in the rest of Canada, with fertility levels among the highest in the country.Note 10 Nunavut stood out in particular, with children aged 0 to 14 making up 31.8% of the population, while people aged 65 and older represented 3.9% of the population.

Currently, almost half of all seniors are baby boomers

Both the proportion of people aged 65 and older and the annual growth of this age group have been increasing rapidly since the start of the decade, specifically since 2011 when the first baby boomers turned 65. On July 1, 2018, almost one in two people aged 65 or older (46.3%) was a baby boomer, compared with 41.3% in 2017. This proportion is rising quickly.

Moreover, nearly one-third of baby boomers (31.0%) were 65 and older in 2018, compared with 26.5% in 2017. In 2031, the last of the baby boomers will have turned 65.

Canada has one child or senior for every two working-age people

The demographic dependency ratio represents the number of children (0 to 14 years) and seniors (65 years and older) per 100 working-age people (15 to 64 years). On July 1, 2018, the ratio was 49.9. This indicator has been rising steadily since 2009 (44.1), and more prominently since 2011 (44.6) when the first baby boomers started turning 65. It will continue to rise until 2031 and even beyond. According to the medium growth (M1) scenario in the most recent population projections, the demographic dependency ratio should be 64.2 in 2031.

Chart 2.3

Data table for Chart 2.3 
Data table for Chart 2.3
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2.3. The information is grouped by Year ending June 30 (appearing as row headers), Persons aged 0 to 14 years and Persons aged 65 years and over, calculated using per 100 persons aged 15 to 64 years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year ending June 30 Persons aged 0 to 14 years Persons aged 65 years and over
per 100 persons aged 15 to 64 years
1973 43.3 12.9
1974 41.6 12.9
1975 40.1 12.9
1976 38.5 13.1
1977 37.2 13.2
1978 35.8 13.4
1979 34.6 13.7
1980 33.5 13.9
1981 32.7 14.1
1982 32.2 14.2
1983 31.8 14.4
1984 31.5 14.6
1985 31.1 15.0
1986 30.7 15.3
1987 30.6 15.7
1988 30.5 16.0
1989 30.4 16.3
1990 30.4 16.6
1991 30.5 16.9
1992 30.6 17.1
1993 30.6 17.4
1994 30.4 17.5
1995 30.1 17.7
1996 29.9 17.9
1997 29.5 18.0
1998 29.1 18.2
1999 28.6 18.3
2000 28.1 18.4
2001 27.5 18.5
2002 27.0 18.5
2003 26.6 18.6
2004 26.1 18.8
2005 25.5 18.9
2006 25.0 19.1
2007 24.6 19.4
2008 24.3 19.7
2009 24.1 20.0
2010 23.8 20.4
2011 23.7 20.9
2012 23.7 21.6
2013 23.7 22.3
2014 23.8 23.0
2015 24.0 23.7
2016 24.1 24.3
2017 24.1 25.1
2018 24.2 25.7

The current trend in the demographic dependency ratio is the opposite of what was observed in the 1970s. Between 1971 (the beginning of the period covered by the current demographic accounting system) and 1986, the demographic dependency ratio fell from 59.5 to 46.0. This phenomenon was also due to the baby boom, people born over this period having successively turned 15 years old from 1961 to 1980. Canada has therefore seen years when the demographic dependency ratio was much higher than in 2018. The main difference lies in its age composition: in 1971, children (aged 0 to 14) represented 78.5% of the non-working-age population, compared with 48.4% in 2018.

The demographic dependency ratio recorded in 2018 (49.9) was the highest since 1978, when Canada had 49.3 children or seniors per 100 working-age people. Since 1978, the demographic dependency ratio has remained below 50, at a relatively stable level, because the majority of baby boomers have been of working age.

The number of people aged 55 to 64 exceeds those aged 15 to 24 years

Generally speaking, individuals aged 15 to 24 years have recently, or are about to enter the labour market for the first time. In contrast, people aged 55 to 64 are often on the cusp of, or in retirement. On July 1, 2018, there was less than one labour market potential entrant (0.9) for each person potentially leaving. By comparison, in 1984, Canada had two people aged 15 to 24 per person aged 55 to 64. Subsequent years were marked by a steady decrease in this ratio, such that starting in 2013, the number of people potentially leaving outnumbered the number of those potentially entering the labour market. According to the most recent population projections, this ratio should remain stable in the coming decades.

A generally younger population from Central to Western Canada and in the territories

The demographic dependency ratio by province and territory differs from one jurisdiction to another. In 2018, the Atlantic provinces and Quebec had a higher dependency ratio than the national average (49.9) due to a high proportion of people aged 65 and older. Manitoba and Saskatchewan also exceeded the national dependency ratio with 52.2 and 53.8 respectively. This was mainly due to high proportion of children aged 0 to 14 years. Among the provinces, the only exception was Alberta, which had not only a lower dependency ratio (46.5) than the Canadian average, but also a larger proportion of children aged 0 to 14 (18.9%), reflecting a younger population overall. A similar situation was noted in Yukon (40.1) and the Northwest Territories (39.5). At the other end of the spectrum, Nunavut had 49.4 children aged 0 to 14 per 100 working-age people, and only 6.0 people aged 65 and older per 100 people aged 15 to 64.

Chart 2.4

Data table for Chart 2.4 
Data table for Chart 2.4
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2.4. The information is grouped by Provinces and territories (appearing as row headers), 0 to 14 years and 65 years and over, calculated using per 100 persons aged 15 to 64 years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Provinces and territories 0 to 14 years 65 years and over
per 100 persons aged 15 to 64 years
Canada 24.2 25.7
N.L. 21.2 31.3
P.E.I. 24.3 30.3
N.S. 21.6 31.1
N.B. 22.3 32.1
Que. 24.2 28.8
Ont. 23.5 25.2
Man. 28.8 23.4
Sask. 30.1 23.6
Alta. 27.7 18.8
B.C. 21.1 27.1
Y.T. 23.5 16.6
N.W.T. 28.5 11.0
Nvt. 49.4 6.0
Text table 2.2
Population estimatesPopulation estimates1, Note 1, age distribution and median age as of July 1, 2018, Canada, provinces and territories
Table summary
This table displays the results of Population estimates Population, 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years, 65 years and over and Median age, calculated using number, % and years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Population 0 to 14 years 15 to 64 years 65 years and over Median age
number % years
Canada 37,058,856 16.1 66.7 17.2 40.8
Newfoundland and Labrador 525,355 13.9 65.6 20.5 46.5
Prince Edward Island 153,244 15.7 64.7 19.6 43.6
Nova Scotia 959,942 14.1 65.5 20.4 45.1
New Brunswick 770,633 14.4 64.8 20.8 45.9
Quebec 8,390,499 15.8 65.4 18.8 42.5
Ontario 14,322,757 15.8 67.2 16.9 40.6
Manitoba 1,352,154 18.9 65.7 15.4 37.3
Saskatchewan 1,162,062 19.6 65.0 15.4 37.3
Alberta 4,307,110 18.9 68.3 12.8 36.9
British Columbia 4,991,687 14.2 67.5 18.3 42.2
Yukon 40,476 16.8 71.4 11.8 38.9
Northwest Territories 44,541 20.4 71.7 7.9 34.8
Nunavut 38,396 31.8 64.3 3.9 26.1

The number of centenarians continues to grow

Because of increased life expectancy and population aging, more and more Canadians are reaching the age of 100. On July 1, 2018, preliminary estimates indicate that there were 9,968 centenarians in Canada, or 26.9 per 100,000 population. In 2001,Note 11 the proportion was 11.4 centenarians per 100,000 population. By comparison, in Japan, which has one of the oldest populations in the world, there were about 56 centenarians per 100,000 population in May 2018.Note 12

Low female mortality is a factor in population aging

The main population aging indicators are all higher for females. On July 1, 2018, the proportion of women 65 and older (18.5%) was higher than the corresponding proportion of men (15.8%). The median age was also higher for women (41.8 years) than for men (39.7 years). Furthermore, the centenarian group was still comprised mostly of women (82.2%). These differences are mainly due to the fact that women, at all ages, have lower mortality levels than men. These mortality levels create a persistent, yet narrowing gap in life expectancy in favour of females. The most recent data (2014-2016) show that the life expectancy at birth of females was 84.0 years, compared with 79.9 years for males, with females living an average of 4.1 years longer than males. Twenty years earlier, this gap was 5.8 years.Note 13

One in two Canadians is at least 40 years of age

In 2018, one out of two Canadians was at least 40.8 years. The median ageNote 14 has increased by just over 10 years since 1984, when it was 30.6 years.

Median age varies considerably from province to province. On July 1, 2018, there was a difference of 9.6 years between the province with the highest median age (46.5 years in Newfoundland and Labrador) and the lowest median age (36.9 years in Alberta). Taken the territories into consideration, Nunavut had the lowest median age at 26.1 years.

In 1998, the differences between the provinces were much smaller, with a gap of 3.2 years. The highest median age was in Quebec (37.1 years) and the lowest in Alberta (33.9 years).

The situation in Newfoundland and Labrador indicates an especially rapid aging of its population. Between 1993 and 2005, it province went from having the lowest median age (31.8 years) to the highest (40.7 years). During this period, Newfoundland and Labrador experienced negative population growth. The main contributing factor is the departure of many young adults to other provinces and territories. Consequently, the province registered fewer births.

Conversely, the Prairie provinces now top the list of the youngest provinces. This is mainly on account of a higher proportion of Aboriginal people (Manitoba, Saskatchewan),Note 15 younger populations with higher fertility rates, and more young adults and families moving from other provinces and countries (Alberta).

Chart 2.5

Data table for Chart 2.5 
Data table for Chart 2.5
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2.5 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2013 and 2018 (appearing as column headers).
1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 2013 2018
N.L.
Median Age 23.7 26.2 29 31.8 35.9 39.4 42.3 44.3 46.5
Rank 1 1 1 1 6 9 10 10 10
P.E.I.
Median Age 27.5 29.5 31.5 33.6 35.9 38.7 41.4 43.2 43.6
Rank 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 7 7
N.S.
Median Age 27.9 29.9 31.9 34.2 36.8 39.5 42.1 43.9 45.1
Rank 6 6 7 8 9 10 9 8 8
N.B.
Median Age 26.5 28.9 31.5 33.9 36.5 39.3 42 44 45.9
Rank 3 3 5 7 8 8 8 9 9
Que.
Median Age 28.4 30.5 32.8 34.9 37.1 39.3 41 41.8 42.5
Rank 7 8 9 10 10 8 6 6 6
Ont.
Median Age 29.2 31 32.4 33.9 35.8 37.5 39 40.3 40.6
Rank 9 9 8 7 4 4 4 4 4
Man.
Median Age 28.7 30.2 31.7 33.5 35.4 37 37.8 37.8 37.3
Rank 8 7 6 4 3 2 2 3 3
Sask.
Median Age 27.8 29.1 30.9 33.3 35 37.1 37.9 37.2 37.3
Rank 5 4 3 3 2 3 3 2 3
Alta.
Median Age 26.4 27.6 29.9 32 33.9 35.1 35.6 36 36.9
Rank 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
B.C.
Median Age 29.7 31.4 33.5 34.9 36.5 38.9 40.5 41.7 42.2
Rank 10 10 10 10 8 6 5 5 5

Women outnumber men slightly

On July 1, 2018, the sex ratio for the entire Canadian population was estimated at 98.6 males per 100 females. This ratio has changed very little over the last 20 years, with 98.0 males per 100 females observed in 1998. Males outnumber females in ages 0 to 34 years, mainly because of the sex ratio at birth, which averages 105 males per 100 females. When people reach their early-60s, the number of men starts to fall significantly below the number of women because of excess mortality among males. This gap widens at more advanced ages: in the 65-to-79 age group, there were an estimated 91.8 males per 100 females on July 1, 2018. However, the gap between the sexes seems to be narrowing. Twenty years ago, for every 100 females aged 65 to 79, there were 82.1 males. In the population aged 80 and older, there were an estimated 66.2 males per 100 females on July 1, 2018, compared with 51.3 males per 100 females on July 1, 1998. The estimate for centenarians in 2018 was 21.6 males per 100 females.

Chart 2.6

Data table for Chart 2.6 
Data table for Chart 2.6
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2.6. The information is grouped by Age group (appearing as row headers), 1998 and 2018, calculated using number of males for 100 females units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age group 1998 2018
number of males for 100 females
Total 98.0 98.6
0 to 14 years 105.2 104.3
15 to 39 years 102.8 104.2
40 to 64 years 98.8 98.4
65 to 79 years 82.1 91.8
80 years and over 51.3 66.2

The sex ratio varies from one province and territory to another

There are some regional differences in the sex structure in Canada. On July 1, 2018, the lowest sex ratio in the country was in Nova Scotia, with 95.8 males per 100 females, and the highest was in Saskatchewan (101.6 males per 100 females). The sex ratios in the Atlantic provinces were below the national average (98.6 males per 100 females), while in the Prairie provinces, they were all higher. Among other factors, this situation can be attributed to differences in the aging of Canada's regions: a younger population is usually a more masculine population, and an older population is usually a more feminine population.

In 2018, males outnumbered females in all the territories. The main differences between the sex structure in the territories and in Canada as a whole are at higher ages. At age 50 and older, Yukon and the Northwest Territories had 105.0 and 112.0 males per 100 females, respectively, compared with 92.0 males per 100 females nationally. In Nunavut, it was even higher, with 113.7 males per 100 females.

Chart 2.7

Data table for Chart 2.7 
Data table for Chart 2.7
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2.7. The information is grouped by Provinces and territories (appearing as row headers), Total, 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years, 65 years and over, Total (Canada), 0 to 14 years (Canada), 15 to 64 years (Canada) and 65 years and over (Canada), calculated using number of males for 100 females units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Provinces and territories Total 0 to 14 years 15 to 64 years 65 years and over Total (Canada) 0 to 14 years (Canada) 15 to 64 years (Canada) 65 years and over (Canada)
number of males for 100 females
N.L. 98.0 106.4 98.8 90.3 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
P.E.I. 96.3 102.3 98.5 85.0 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
N.S. 95.8 104.7 97.8 84.2 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
N.B. 98.0 104.3 100.8 85.6 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
Que. 99.5 104.1 102.9 85.1 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
Ont. 97.5 104.3 100.0 82.5 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
Man. 99.9 103.6 102.9 84.0 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
Sask. 101.6 103.4 105.4 85.2 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
Alta. 101.3 104.3 103.4 86.8 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
B.C. 98.0 105.1 99.4 88.1 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
Y.T. 103.5 110.5 100.8 110.5 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
N.W.T. 105.9 103.0 106.2 111.8 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
Nvt. 105.9 104.3 106.4 112.0 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7

Mobile individuals are much younger than the entire population

The age pyramid opposite highlights the differences in the age-sex structure of interprovincial migrants, immigrants, non-permanent residents and the total population.Note 16 On July 1, 2018, the proportion of the working-age population (aged 15 to 64) was considerably higher among immigrants (78.2%), interprovincial migrants (77.5%) and non-permanent residents (95.4%). These subgroups also had a high concentration of young adults. A majority of non-permanent residents (61.0%) were between 18 and 29 years of age. Immigrants were slightly older and less concentrated in some age groups, since 57.3% were in the 25-to-44 group. Lastly, 54.9% of interprovincial migrants were aged 20 to 44. Similarly, the median age of interprovincial migrants (31.0 years), non-permanent residents (25.5 years) and immigrants (30.6 years) was below the national level (40.8 years) on July 1, 2018.

pyramid2.2

Description for Figure 2.2

This stacked column graph or age pyramid compares the age structure of the population and of non-permanent residents as of July 1st, 2018, as well as of interprovincial migrants and immigrants who migrated between July 1st, 2017 and June 30th, 2018, in relative value.

The left side shows males and the right side shows females.

The horizontal axis shows the population in relative value and the vertical axis shows age.

This table displays the results of Pyramid table 2. The information is grouped by Age (appearing as row headers), Interprovincial migrants, Non-permanent residents, Immigrants, Population, Males and Females, calculated using per thousand units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age Interprovincial migrants Non-permanent residents Immigrants Population
Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females
per thousand
0 3.8 3.3 0.2 0.2 1.4 1.4 5.3 5.1
1 7.8 6.5 0.6 0.6 5.8 5.3 5.3 5.1
2 7.5 6.5 0.9 0.8 6.7 6.1 5.4 5.1
3 7.2 6.5 0.9 0.9 7.1 6.5 5.4 5.2
4 6.8 6.3 1.0 1.0 7.5 7.0 5.5 5.2
5 6.3 6.0 1.3 1.2 7.4 6.9 5.5 5.3
6 5.9 5.7 1.6 1.5 7.4 6.8 5.6 5.3
7 5.5 5.3 1.8 1.7 6.9 6.2 5.6 5.3
8 5.1 4.9 1.8 1.7 6.6 6.4 5.7 5.4
9 4.7 4.5 1.9 1.7 6.3 6.0 5.7 5.5
10 4.3 4.2 1.8 1.8 6.1 5.4 5.7 5.5
11 4.0 3.9 1.9 1.7 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.3
12 3.8 3.6 1.8 1.6 5.4 5.0 5.4 5.2
13 3.6 3.5 2.0 1.7 4.9 4.8 5.3 5.1
14 3.7 3.6 2.2 2.1 5.0 4.4 5.4 5.2
15 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.5 4.7 4.5 5.4 5.2
16 4.0 4.2 5.8 5.9 4.6 4.4 5.5 5.3
17 4.3 4.5 9.2 9.5 4.6 4.2 5.7 5.4
18 4.9 5.2 18.1 16.7 4.5 4.0 6.1 5.8
19 5.7 6.0 30.9 26.0 4.4 4.2 6.5 6.0
20 6.9 7.3 34.6 27.9 4.2 4.4 6.6 6.1
21 8.1 8.6 33.6 26.6 3.9 4.2 6.7 6.1
22 9.2 9.8 33.1 26.3 4.2 5.1 6.9 6.3
23 10.5 11.1 34.1 26.3 5.5 6.5 7.1 6.4
24 12.2 12.7 32.5 25.3 7.8 9.8 7.0 6.5
25 14.1 14.3 30.6 24.1 11.3 14.2 7.1 6.6
26 16.1 16.1 27.4 21.6 15.8 18.4 7.1 6.7
27 18.0 17.8 24.1 18.7 20.9 22.9 7.2 6.8
28 18.9 18.5 21.6 16.7 23.7 24.9 7.3 6.9
29 18.3 17.7 18.6 14.3 23.2 24.7 7.0 6.7
30 16.7 16.0 16.4 12.5 22.6 23.1 6.9 6.7
31 15.1 14.3 14.9 11.1 21.1 21.4 6.9 6.7
32 13.4 12.4 13.4 9.7 19.6 19.9 7.0 6.9
33 11.9 10.9 12.0 8.5 18.4 18.4 7.0 6.9
34 11.0 10.1 11.1 7.7 17.4 16.4 7.0 6.9
35 10.5 9.7 10.8 7.3 15.8 15.2 6.9 6.9
36 9.8 9.1 9.7 6.6 14.3 13.6 6.8 6.9
37 9.0 8.5 8.6 5.9 12.7 11.6 6.8 6.9
38 8.4 7.9 8.1 5.2 11.5 10.8 6.7 6.8
39 7.9 7.4 7.4 4.7 9.9 9.1 6.5 6.7
40 7.6 7.0 6.8 4.2 8.7 8.1 6.4 6.5
41 7.3 6.6 6.5 4.0 7.7 7.1 6.4 6.5
42 7.0 6.3 5.9 3.5 6.7 6.2 6.4 6.5
43 6.7 6.0 5.7 3.4 5.9 5.6 6.4 6.5
44 6.4 5.5 5.2 3.1 5.3 5.2 6.2 6.4
45 6.0 5.1 4.9 2.9 5.0 4.7 6.2 6.3
46 5.6 4.7 4.5 2.5 4.5 4.4 6.4 6.4
47 5.3 4.3 4.2 2.2 4.1 3.9 6.6 6.7
48 5.1 4.1 3.7 1.9 3.6 3.5 6.6 6.6
49 5.0 4.1 3.3 1.6 3.4 3.1 6.5 6.6
50 4.9 4.3 3.0 1.4 2.8 2.8 6.4 6.5
51 4.8 4.4 2.6 1.2 2.5 2.3 6.5 6.6
52 4.7 4.7 2.5 1.1 2.4 2.2 6.9 6.9
53 4.7 4.8 2.3 1.0 2.3 2.0 7.3 7.3
54 4.6 4.7 2.1 0.8 2.0 2.1 7.5 7.5
55 4.6 4.6 1.9 0.8 1.8 2.0 7.6 7.6
56 4.5 4.5 1.6 0.6 1.5 1.8 7.4 7.4
57 4.5 4.4 1.6 0.6 1.3 1.8 7.4 7.5
58 4.4 4.3 1.3 0.5 1.4 2.0 7.2 7.4
59 4.3 4.2 1.2 0.5 1.4 1.8 7.0 7.2
60 4.1 4.0 1.1 0.4 1.6 2.0 6.9 7.1
61 3.9 3.9 0.9 0.4 1.5 2.1 6.7 6.9
62 3.7 3.7 0.8 0.3 1.6 2.2 6.5 6.7
63 3.5 3.6 0.7 0.3 1.7 2.3 6.4 6.6
64 3.3 3.5 0.6 0.3 1.7 2.2 6.0 6.4
65 3.2 3.5 0.5 0.2 1.5 2.1 5.7 6.0
66 3.1 3.4 0.4 0.2 1.5 2.0 5.5 5.8
67 3.0 3.4 0.3 0.2 1.5 1.7 5.3 5.6
68 2.8 3.3 0.3 0.2 1.4 1.6 5.1 5.5
69 2.5 3.0 0.2 0.1 1.3 1.7 5.0 5.3
70 2.2 2.6 0.2 0.1 1.3 1.5 4.9 5.3
71 1.9 2.2 0.2 0.1 1.1 1.4 4.8 5.2
72 1.6 1.8 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.2 4.1 4.4
73 1.4 1.5 0.1 0.1 0.9 1.1 3.7 4.0
74 1.2 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.9 3.5 3.9
75 1.1 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.8 3.3 3.7
76 1.1 1.2 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.7 3.0 3.4
77 1.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.7 2.8 3.2
78 0.9 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.7 2.5 3.0
79 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 2.3 2.8
80 0.7 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.5 2.2 2.6
81 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.4 2.0 2.4
82 0.5 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 1.8 2.3
83 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.7 2.2
84 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.5 2.0
85 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 1.4 1.9
86 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.2 1.8
87 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.1 1.7
88 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.9 1.5
89 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 1.3
90 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 1.2
91 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0
92 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.9
93 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.7
94 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.6
95 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.5
96 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4
97 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3
98 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2
99 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
100 and over 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2

Immigrants stood out for having a higher proportion of children under 15 years of age (18.3%) than the total Canadian population (16.1%). However, the proportion of immigrant children aged 0 to 14 was down from the previous year (20.0%). By comparison, in 2018, 4.2% of non-permanent residents were in the 0-to-14 age group. The distinct age structure of non-permanent residents is mostly due to the fact that these people come to Canada mainly for the purpose of work or study, which mostly involves young adults and applies less to children.

Females slightly outnumber males among immigrants, contrary to non-permanent residents

The sex structure of the three subgroups also differs. Males were slightly underrepresented among immigrants (98.4 males per 100 females), but were significantly overrepresented among non-permanent residents (132.6 males per 100 females) and to a lesser degree, among interprovincial migrants (102.8 males per 100 females). By comparison, the sex ratio for the entire Canadian population is almost equal, with 98.6 males per 100 females. More careful analysis of the sex ratio in each subgroup by age reveals that men are generally overrepresented among interprovincial migrants under 62 years of age,Note 17 among immigrants under 19 years as well as those aged 32 to 52 years, and among non-permanent residents of all ages, with some exceptions.

Chart 2.8

Data table for Chart 2.8 
Data table for Chart 2.8
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2.8 Total, 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years and 65 years and over, calculated using number of males for 100 females units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Total 0 to 14 years 15 to 64 years 65 years and over
number of males for 100 females
Population 98.6 104.3 101.2 84.7
Interprovincial migrants 102.8 107.1 103.7 83.7
Immigrants 98.4 107.3 97.1 83.0
Non permanent residents 132.6 107.9 133.6 164.5
 
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