Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada
Fertility: Overview, 2012 to 2016

by Claudine Provencher, Anne Milan, Stacey Hallman and Carol D’Aoust, Demography Division

Release date: June 5, 2018

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Highlights

  • In Canada, there were 383,102 births in 2016. Births have been fluctuating between 377,000 and 384,000 per year since 2008.
  • Canada’s total fertility rate has been falling since 2009, from 1.68 children per woman to 1.54 in 2016, the lowest level observed since 2003.
  • The gap between the fertility rate of women aged 30 to 34 years and those aged 25 to 29 years continued to widen between 2012 and 2016, a result of decreasing fertility rates among women aged 25 to 29.
  • The fertility rate of women aged 35 to 39 years continued to rise to 56 births per 1,000 women in 2016. It has been higher than the fertility rate of women aged 20 to 24 years since 2010, which has been falling.
  • For all births, the average age of mothers at childbirth has been over the age of 30 since 2010 (30.8 years in 2016).
  • The average age of mothers at first birth was 28.7 years in 2012 and 29.2 years in 2016. It has been rising steadily since the mid-1960s.

Key indicators

  • Number of births:
    2012: 381,869
    2013: 380,323
    2014: 384,100
    2015: 382,392
    2016: 383,102
  • Total fertility rate (children per woman):
    2012: 1.62
    2013: 1.59
    2014: 1.58
    2015: 1.56
    2016: 1.54
  • Average age at maternity for all births:
    2012: 30.3 years
    2013: 30.4 years
    2014: 30.5 years
    2015: 30.7 years
    2016: 30.8 years
  • Average age at maternity at first birth:
    2012: 28.7 years
    2013: 28.8 years
    2014: 29.0 years
    2015: 29.2 years
    2016: 29.2 years
  • Fertility rate by age group in 2016 (per thousand women):
    15 to 19 years: 8.4
    20 to 24 years: 37.6
    25 to 29 years: 87.6
    30 to 34 years: 107.6
    35 to 39 years: 56.0
    40 to 44 years: 11.5
    45 to 49 years: 0.7
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Introduction

This article analyzes the recent changes in fertility in Canada, with a focus on the years 2012 to 2016 and a selected historical perspective.

The indicators analyzed include the annual and daily number of births, total fertility rate, age-specific fertility rates, average age at childbirth, including by birth order, cohort completed fertility rate and multiple births. This article also includes results and a brief analysis at the provincial and territorial levels.

Data on the number of births come from the Canadian Vital Statistics Births DatabaseNote 1. The birth data in conjunction with the most recent annual population estimates for that year are used to calculate fertility rates.

Number of births

There were 381,869 births in Canada in 2012, 380,323 in 2013, 384,100 in 2014, 382,392 in 2015 and 383,102 in 2016. These figures reflect a period of slow growth in births, following rapid growth between 2003 and 2008. The rise in the number of births starting in 2009, although less marked, was attributable to an increase in the number of women in their prime productive years, since the total fertility rate decreased slightly between 2009 and 2016 (see Total fertility rate section).

Table 1
Number of births, crude birth rate and annual variation in the number of births, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Number of births. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T., Nvt. and Canada, calculated using number, crude birth rate and annual variation in the number of births units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt. Canada
number
2006 4,542 1,413 8,485 7,030 81,938 135,597 14,565 12,288 45,230 41,730 364 687 747 354,617
2007 4,553 1,389 8,868 7,146 84,387 138,436 15,285 13,248 49,028 43,649 355 725 794 367,864
2008 4,898 1,483 9,188 7,402 87,870 140,791 15,485 13,737 50,856 44,276 373 721 805 377,886
2009 4,915 1,457 8,989 7,391 88,868 140,372 15,940 14,243 51,722 44,993 383 711 877 380,863
2010 4,900 1,403 8,879 7,360 88,419 139,611 15,776 14,296 50,847 43,810 382 700 828 377,213
2011 4,478 1,436 8,862 7,124 88,583 140,135 15,620 14,271 51,040 44,129 431 690 837 377,636
2012 4,382 1,312 8,774 7,059 88,929 141,597 16,358 14,850 52,634 44,008 435 688 843 381,869
2013 4,525 1,409 8,439 6,959 88,821 139,736 16,468 14,798 53,410 43,779 396 669 914 380,323
2014 4,569 1,420 8,616 6,982 88,036 140,181 16,566 15,550 55,835 44,376 406 665 898 384,100
2015 4,475 1,345 8,204 6,603 87,050 139,500 16,689 15,309 56,940 44,298 434 683 862 382,392
2016 4,442 1,399 8,309 6,623 86,261 140,424 16,896 15,557 55,936 45,268 440 642 905 383,102
crude birth rate (per thousand)
2006 8.9 10.2 9.0 9.4 10.7 10.7 12.3 12.4 13.2 9.8 11.3 15.9 24.2 10.9
2007 8.9 10.1 9.5 9.6 11.0 10.8 12.9 13.2 14.0 10.2 10.9 16.7 25.3 11.2
2008 9.6 10.7 9.8 9.9 11.3 10.9 12.9 13.5 14.1 10.2 11.3 16.6 25.2 11.4
2009 9.5 10.4 9.6 9.9 11.3 10.8 13.2 13.8 14.1 10.2 11.4 16.5 26.9 11.3
2010 9.4 9.9 9.4 9.8 11.2 10.6 12.9 13.6 13.6 9.8 11.0 16.2 24.8 11.1
2011 8.5 10.0 9.4 9.4 11.1 10.6 12.7 13.4 13.5 9.8 12.2 15.9 24.5 11.0
2012 8.3 9.0 9.3 9.3 11.0 10.6 13.1 13.7 13.6 9.7 12.1 15.8 24.3 11.0
2013 8.6 9.7 8.9 9.2 10.9 10.3 13.0 13.4 13.4 9.5 10.9 15.3 25.8 10.8
2014 8.6 9.7 9.1 9.3 10.7 10.2 12.9 13.9 13.6 9.6 11.0 15.2 24.9 10.8
2015 8.5 9.2 8.7 8.8 10.5 10.1 12.9 13.5 13.6 9.4 11.6 15.4 23.5 10.7
2016 8.4 9.4 8.8 8.7 10.4 10.0 12.8 13.5 13.2 9.5 11.6 14.4 24.3 10.6
annual variation in the number of births (percent)
2006 0.9 5.5 -0.8 2.0 7.3 1.4 3.0 2.7 7.4 2.2 13.8 -3.5 6.9 3.6
2007 0.2 -1.7 4.5 1.6 3.0 2.1 4.9 7.8 8.4 4.6 -2.5 5.5 6.3 3.7
2008 7.6 6.8 3.6 3.6 4.1 1.7 1.3 3.7 3.7 1.4 5.1 -0.6 1.4 2.7
2009 0.3 -1.8 -2.2 -0.1 1.1 -0.3 2.9 3.7 1.7 1.6 2.7 -1.4 9.0 0.8
2010 -0.3 -3.7 -1.2 -0.4 -0.5 -0.5 -1.0 0.4 -1.7 -2.6 -0.3 -1.5 -5.6 -1.0
2011 -8.6 2.4 -0.2 -3.2 0.2 0.4 -1.0 -0.2 0.4 0.7 12.8 -1.4 1.1 0.1
2012 -2.1 -8.6 -1.0 -0.9 0.4 1.0 4.7 4.1 3.1 -0.3 0.9 -0.3 0.7 1.1
2013 3.3 7.4 -3.8 -1.4 -0.1 -1.3 0.7 -0.4 1.5 -0.5 -9.0 -2.8 8.4 -0.4
2014 1.0 0.8 2.1 0.3 -0.9 0.3 0.6 5.1 4.5 1.4 2.5 -0.6 -1.8 1.0
2015 -2.1 -5.3 -4.8 -5.4 -1.1 -0.5 0.7 -1.5 2.0 -0.2 6.9 2.7 -4.0 -0.4
2016 -0.7 4.0 1.3 0.3 -0.9 0.7 1.2 1.6 -1.8 2.2 1.4 -6.0 5.0 0.2

Figure 1 Number of births, Canada, 2001 to 2016

Data table for Figure 1
Data table for Figure 1
Number of births, Canada, 2001 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Number of births. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), Number (appearing as column headers).
Year Number
2001 333,744
2002 328,802
2003 335,202
2004 337,072
2005 342,176
2006 354,617
2007 367,864
2008 377,886
2009 380,863
2010 377,213
2011 377,636
2012 381,869
2013 380,323
2014 384,100
2015 382,392
2016 383,102

Figure 2 Population of women aged 25 to 34 years and total number of births, Canada, 2001 to 2017

Data table for Figure 2
Data table for Figure 2
Population of women aged 25 to 34 years and total number of births, Canada, 2001 to 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Population of women aged 25 to 34 years and total number of births. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), 25 to 29 years, 30 to 34 years and Births (total), calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year 25 to 29 years 30 to 34 years Births (total)
number
2001 1,020,911 1,110,228 333,744
2002 1,028,289 1,104,280 328,802
2003 1,036,166 1,095,451 335,202
2004 1,051,482 1,086,524 337,072
2005 1,066,535 1,082,638 342,176
2006 1,085,489 1,079,108 354,617
2007 1,105,939 1,088,238 367,864
2008 1,129,690 1,103,779 377,886
2009 1,154,214 1,124,642 380,863
2010 1,172,819 1,144,782 377,213
2011 1,181,076 1,167,005 377,636
2012 1,191,600 1,192,470 381,869
2013 1,199,472 1,219,780 380,323
2014 1,212,273 1,242,247 384,100
2015 1,226,153 1,253,582 382,392
2016 1,250,801 1,269,053 383,102
2017 1,278,499 1,281,058 Note ...: not applicable

The annual growth in the number of births in the past five years has fluctuated, compared with the period from 2002/2003 to 2008/2009, when it remained positive and stronger (2.1% on average). Between 2011 and 2012 and between 2013 and 2014, the number of births rose around 1.0% across Canada, while they fell 0.4% from 2012 to 2013 and from 2014 to 2015. There was only a small increase of 0.2% between 2015 and 2016. Since 2001, the total number of births fell only four times, in 2001/2002 and 2009/2010, and more recently in 2012/2013 and 2014/2015. In contrast, the growth in the number of women aged 25 to 34 has remained positive since 2003/2004.

Figure 3 Annual percentage variation in the number of births and in the population of women aged 25 to 34, and the crude birth rate of women aged 25 to 34, Canada, 2001/2002 to 2015/2016

Data table for Figure 3
Data table for Figure 3
Annual percentage variation in the number of births and in the population of women aged 25 to 34, and the crude birth rate of women aged 25 to 34, Canada, 2001/2002 to 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Annual percentage variation in the number of births and in the population of women aged 25 to 34. The information is grouped by Period (appearing as row headers), Birth growth, Population growth and Crude birth rate, calculated using percent and thousands units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Period Birth growth Population growth Crude birth rate
percent thousands
2001/2002 -1.5 0.1 94.4
2002/2003 1.9 0.0 97.0
2003/2004 0.6 0.3 98.0
2004/2005 1.5 0.5 99.2
2005/2006 3.6 0.7 101.9
2006/2007 3.7 1.4 103.9
2007/2008 2.7 1.8 105.0
2008/2009 0.8 2.0 104.3
2009/2010 -1.0 1.7 101.8
2010/2011 0.1 1.3 101.4
2011/2012 1.1 1.5 101.5
2012/2013 -0.4 1.5 100.1
2013/2014 1.0 1.5 99.9
2014/2015 -0.4 1.0 98.5
2015/2016 0.2 1.6 97.7

Provincial/territorial variation

Between 2012 and 2016, Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia recorded 71.3% of all births on average during the period. However, the annual growth (positive or negative) in the number of births for these three most populous provinces was often below that of Canada. In contrast, the number of births generally increased year over year in the Prairie provinces. These latter provinces also most frequently posted the highest annual increases in the number of births. The Atlantic provinces and the territories had the smallest numbers of births, with annual fluctuations leading to increased variation in annual growth.

Focusing on the last two years, between 2015 and 2016, there was positive growth in the annual number of births in most provinces and territories, above Canadian growth (0.2%). The strongest growth took place in Nunavut (5.0%), followed by Prince Edward Island (4.0%) and British Columbia (2.2%). Three provinces and one territory recorded decreases in the number of births: the Northwest Territories (-6.0%), Alberta (-1.8%), Quebec (-0.9%) and Newfoundland and Labrador (-0.7%).

Number of births by day of the week and time of year

On a quarterly basis, which corresponds closely with the four seasons, there are seasonal birth patterns over the course of a year. Thus, more babies are born during the summer months, from July to September. In contrast, fewer births take place during the winter, from January to March.Note 2 It seems that many couples plan the conception of their child so that the baby is born during the summer.Note 3

In Canada, the daily change in birthsNote 4 over the course of a year follows a similar trend to the ones recently observed in England and Wales,Note 5 New Zealand,Note 6 and the United States.Note 7 Between 2001 and 2016, the average number of births per day in Canada was at its lowest on December 25, 26 and 24 respectively, followed closely by January 1. Other times of the year show marked drops in the number of daily births, namely July 1, August 2, October 13, October 31 and November 11. These dates correspond to statutory or other holidays celebrated by most provinces and territories: New Year’s Day (January 1), Canada Day (July 1), the provincial holiday (first Monday in August, generally between August 1 and 7), Thanksgiving (second Monday in October, generally between October 8 and 14), Halloween (October 31), Remembrance Day (November 11) and Christmas (December 25). More recently (from 2012 to 2016), Christmas Day was almost always the day of the year with the lowest number of births. A reduction in hospital resources during these holidays may explain the lower number of births, given that some deliveries are planned.

Figure 4 Number of births per day on average, Canada, 2001 to 2016

Data table for Figure 4
Data table for Figure 4
Number of births per day on average, Canada, 2001 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Number of births per day on average. The information is grouped by Date (appearing as row headers), Number (appearing as column headers).
Date Number
January 1 816
January 2 850
January 3 931
January 4 950
January 5 955
January 6 967
January 7 969
January 8 973
January 9 956
January 10 942
January 11 933
January 12 932
January 13 922
January 14 948
January 15 943
January 16 959
January 17 938
January 18 945
January 19 930
January 20 936
January 21 938
January 22 959
January 23 967
January 24 944
January 25 939
January 26 957
January 27 950
January 28 963
January 29 952
January 30 956
January 31 953
February 1 943
February 2 944
February 3 948
February 4 957
February 5 963
February 6 976
February 7 957
February 8 958
February 9 951
February 10 956
February 11 963
February 12 991
February 13 962
February 14 992
February 15 952
February 16 946
February 17 948
February 18 958
February 19 991
February 20 973
February 21 956
February 22 972
February 23 968
February 24 970
February 25 984
February 26 975
February 27 981
February 28 948
February 29 933
March 1 971
March 2 964
March 3 968
March 4 986
March 5 973
March 6 985
March 7 986
March 8 982
March 9 973
March 10 988
March 11 984
March 12 997
March 13 964
March 14 989
March 15 982
March 16 964
March 17 972
March 18 976
March 19 990
March 20 982
March 21 998
March 22 997
March 23 970
March 24 978
March 25 985
March 26 1,002
March 27 991
March 28 1,005
March 29 971
March 30 985
March 31 991
April 1 952
April 2 999
April 3 1,003
April 4 1,014
April 5 991
April 6 958
April 7 999
April 8 1,012
April 9 989
April 10 983
April 11 1,022
April 12 1,007
April 13 971
April 14 999
April 15 1,015
April 16 1,020
April 17 1,010
April 18 995
April 19 1,003
April 20 995
April 21 1,000
April 22 1,011
April 23 1,024
April 24 1,022
April 25 1,011
April 26 1,010
April 27 999
April 28 1,010
April 29 1,023
April 30 1,021
May 1 1,012
May 2 1,029
May 3 1,008
May 4 1,008
May 5 1,015
May 6 1,015
May 7 1,025
May 8 1,018
May 9 1,029
May 10 1,014
May 11 1,009
May 12 1,013
May 13 1,015
May 14 1,019
May 15 1,032
May 16 1,031
May 17 1,023
May 18 978
May 19 977
May 20 1,013
May 21 994
May 22 1,006
May 23 1,020
May 24 1,005
May 25 1,023
May 26 1,030
May 27 1,028
May 28 1,032
May 29 1,019
May 30 1,035
May 31 1,000
June 1 1,016
June 2 1,002
June 3 1,035
June 4 1,020
June 5 1,015
June 6 1,015
June 7 1,005
June 8 1,008
June 9 1,008
June 10 1,014
June 11 1,026
June 12 1,025
June 13 1,014
June 14 1,018
June 15 1,016
June 16 1,013
June 17 1,025
June 18 1,032
June 19 1,028
June 20 1,048
June 21 1,044
June 22 1,025
June 23 1,019
June 24 999
June 25 1,025
June 26 1,056
June 27 1,073
June 28 1,057
June 29 1,057
June 30 1,045
July 1 930
July 2 973
July 3 1,035
July 4 1,073
July 5 1,056
July 6 1,056
July 7 1,059
July 8 1,066
July 9 1,056
July 10 1,043
July 11 1,070
July 12 1,050
July 13 1,034
July 14 1,031
July 15 1,063
July 16 1,052
July 17 1,040
July 18 1,048
July 19 1,042
July 20 1,032
July 21 1,049
July 22 1,044
July 23 1,051
July 24 1,042
July 25 1,048
July 26 1,040
July 27 1,037
July 28 1,040
July 29 1,044
July 30 1,054
July 31 1,047
August 1 1,047
August 2 1,013
August 3 1,012
August 4 998
August 5 1,033
August 6 1,029
August 7 1,027
August 8 1,078
August 9 1,042
August 10 1,040
August 11 1,049
August 12 1,055
August 13 1,043
August 14 1,042
August 15 1,051
August 16 1,037
August 17 1,022
August 18 1,021
August 19 1,041
August 20 1,043
August 21 1,030
August 22 1,043
August 23 1,022
August 24 1,005
August 25 1,019
August 26 1,022
August 27 1,034
August 28 1,033
August 29 1,036
August 30 1,037
August 31 1,032
September 1 987
September 2 1,017
September 3 1,020
September 4 1,031
September 5 1,019
September 6 1,023
September 7 1,019
September 8 1,055
September 9 1,092
September 10 1,085
September 11 1,059
September 12 1,084
September 13 1,071
September 14 1,072
September 15 1,072
September 16 1,107
September 17 1,097
September 18 1,095
September 19 1,087
September 20 1,105
September 21 1,086
September 22 1,081
September 23 1,089
September 24 1,110
September 25 1,088
September 26 1,085
September 27 1,071
September 28 1,069
September 29 1,060
September 30 1,068
October 1 1,054
October 2 1,051
October 3 1,051
October 4 1,029
October 5 1,042
October 6 1,031
October 7 1,033
October 8 1,001
October 9 1,009
October 10 993
October 11 978
October 12 971
October 13 950
October 14 982
October 15 1,038
October 16 1,013
October 17 1,022
October 18 1,002
October 19 984
October 20 981
October 21 991
October 22 997
October 23 988
October 24 999
October 25 974
October 26 967
October 27 975
October 28 992
October 29 985
October 30 975
October 31 939
November 1 985
November 2 979
November 3 972
November 4 976
November 5 1,002
November 6 997
November 7 991
November 8 988
November 9 971
November 10 973
November 11 920
November 12 948
November 13 948
November 14 982
November 15 970
November 16 957
November 17 952
November 18 959
November 19 970
November 20 956
November 21 954
November 22 950
November 23 931
November 24 934
November 25 954
November 26 941
November 27 949
November 28 963
November 29 937
November 30 935
December 1 928
December 2 954
December 3 949
December 4 915
December 5 938
December 6 925
December 7 938
December 8 930
December 9 938
December 10 951
December 11 943
December 12 960
December 13 933
December 14 945
December 15 939
December 16 972
December 17 981
December 18 970
December 19 1,013
December 20 1,015
December 21 1,007
December 22 964
December 23 927
December 24 804
December 25 673
December 26 702
December 27 853
December 28 940
December 29 951
December 30 968
December 31 894

In contrast, September was the month with the highest number of births during the period from 2001 to 2016. Specifically, September 24 was, on average, the day of the year with the highest number of births. September 16 and 20 were in second and third place for the year’s most popular day of birth. These three dates occur about 38 to 39 weeks after Christmas, and 37 to 38 weeks after New Year’s Day. In recent years (from 2012 to 2016), the number of births tended to peak in September, June and July.

Differences in the timing of births can also be observed through the day of the week. Over the past 16 years, there have been more births during the week (particularly from Tuesday to Friday) than on weekends (Saturday and Sunday). On average, there were 1,088 births per day from Tuesday to Friday and 975 births on Mondays. In comparison, there were, on average, 858 births per day on Saturdays and 792 births on Sundays. Since some births are scheduled in advance, such as planned Caesarean sections or births induced for medical reasons (e.g., a previous Caesarean section, preeclampsia, hypertension, diabetes, multiple pregnancy, more than 41 weeks of pregnancy), these births are more likely to occur between Monday and Friday, as hospitals have more human and technical resources during the week.Note 8 Note 9 Note 10 Note 11

Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate refers to the number of children that a woman would have over the course of her reproductive life if she experienced the age-specific fertility rates observed in a particular calendar year. An advantage of the total fertility rate is that it is easily calculated and is not affected by variations in the size or age structure of the population, facilitating annual, provincial/territorial and international comparisons.

The cohort replacement level is 2.1 children per woman, i.e., the fertility level required to replace the population in the absence of migration, and taking into account mortality conditions between 0 and 15 years old, usually when the fertility period starts. In 1972, Canada’s total fertility rate fell below the cohort replacement level for the first time, reaching 1.97 children per woman.

Despite a general upward trend in the annual number of births since 2012, the total fertility rate has been declining since 2009. This seeming paradox is related to the fact that the total fertility rate is based on a compilation of the fertility experiences of several generations of women in a given year and treats it as if it was representative of one generation. The total fertility rate is influenced by fluctuations in the tempo of fertility (age of mother at childbirth) of current generations of women, many of whom are delaying childbearing to a later age. As for the number of births, it is impacted not only by fertility levels but also by the size and the growth of the actual female population in their childbearing ages.

The total fertility rate in Canada in 2012 was 1.62 children per woman, the same as in 2011. In 2013, the total fertility rate fell to 1.59 children per woman, then decreased further to 1.54 in 2016. The 2016 level is close to the lowest total fertility rate observed in Canadian history (1.51 children per woman in 2000 and 2002).

Figure 5 Total fertility rate (number of children per woman), Canada, 1921 to 2016

Data table for Figure 5
Data table for Figure 5
Total fertility rate (number of children per woman), Canada, 1921 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Total fertility rate (number of children per woman). The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), Total fertility rate, calculated using number of children per woman units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year Total fertility rate
number of children per woman
1921 3.48
1922 3.40
1923 3.23
1924 3.22
1925 3.13
1926 3.36
1927 3.32
1928 3.30
1929 3.22
1930 3.28
1931 3.20
1932 3.09
1933 2.87
1934 2.80
1935 2.75
1936 2.70
1937 2.64
1938 2.70
1939 2.65
1940 2.76
1941 2.83
1942 2.96
1943 3.03
1944 3.00
1945 3.01
1946 3.36
1947 3.58
1948 3.43
1949 3.44
1950 3.44
1951 3.49
1952 3.63
1953 3.71
1954 3.82
1955 3.82
1956 3.86
1957 3.92
1958 3.88
1959 3.94
1960 3.91
1961 3.86
1962 3.78
1963 3.69
1964 3.52
1965 3.16
1966 2.83
1967 2.60
1968 2.46
1969 2.41
1970 2.34
1971 2.13
1972 1.97
1973 1.88
1974 1.83
1975 1.83
1976 1.78
1977 1.75
1978 1.70
1979 1.70
1980 1.68
1981 1.65
1982 1.63
1983 1.62
1984 1.62
1985 1.61
1986 1.59
1987 1.58
1988 1.60
1989 1.66
1990 1.71
1991 1.72
1992 1.71
1993 1.68
1994 1.69
1995 1.67
1996 1.63
1997 1.57
1998 1.56
1999 1.54
2000 1.51
2001 1.54
2002 1.51
2003 1.54
2004 1.55
2005 1.57
2006 1.61
2007 1.66
2008 1.69
2009 1.68
2010 1.64
2011 1.62
2012 1.62
2013 1.59
2014 1.58
2015 1.56
2016 1.54

Many other industrialized countries also have fertility levels below the replacement level. Based on 2014 data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) or the most recent available year, the lowest total fertility rates were in South Korea (1.21 children per woman), Portugal (1.23 children per woman), Poland (1.29 children per woman) and Greece (1.30 children per woman).Note 12 Japan, for its part, had a total fertility rate of 1.45 children per woman in 2015.Note 13 Closer to Canada, the United States had a total fertility rate of 1.82 children per woman in 2016.Note 14

The most recent total fertility rate for the world as a whole was 2.5 children per woman in 2017.Note 15 This global rate masks great disparities among the regions studied. Among the continents, Africa had the highest rate, with 4.6 children per woman, compared with Europe which had a total fertility rate of 1.6 children per woman. There are a number of countries where the total fertility rate exceeds six children per woman, mostly African countries: Niger (7.3 children per woman), Chad and Somalia (6.4 children per woman), the Democratic Republic of Congo (6.3 children per woman) and Angola (6.2 children per woman).

Provincial/territorial variation

Since its creation in 1999, Nunavut has always had the highest total fertility rate in Canada, with an average of 2.93 children per woman between 2006 and 2016. The total fertility rate was 2.85 children per woman in 2012 and 2.99 children per woman in 2016. Among all jurisdictions, Nunavut is the only one to surpass the replacement level of generations since its foundation. The residents of Nunavut are predominantly Inuit and they have relatively high fertility.Note 16 Similarly, the Northwest Territories (1.94 children per woman in 2012 and 1.79 in 2016) and Yukon (1.69 children per woman in 2012 and 1.62 in 2016) often have a total fertility rate above that of Canada, partly because these territories have a higher percentage of Aboriginal population.

Table 2
Total fertility rate, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Total fertility rate. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T., Nvt. and Canada, calculated using number of children per woman units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt. Canada
number of children per woman
2006 1.41 1.65 1.40 1.48 1.65 1.55 1.89 1.91 1.81 1.47 1.61 2.01 2.82 1.61
2007 1.44 1.64 1.49 1.53 1.68 1.58 1.96 2.03 1.89 1.52 1.56 2.11 2.95 1.66
2008 1.55 1.74 1.55 1.60 1.73 1.60 1.96 2.05 1.90 1.52 1.62 2.08 2.93 1.69
2009 1.55 1.71 1.52 1.61 1.73 1.59 1.99 2.07 1.86 1.51 1.62 2.05 3.16 1.68
2010 1.53 1.65 1.51 1.61 1.70 1.56 1.93 2.03 1.80 1.45 1.56 1.99 2.90 1.64
2011 1.40 1.66 1.51 1.57 1.68 1.55 1.88 1.98 1.77 1.45 1.67 1.96 2.85 1.62
2012 1.37 1.52 1.50 1.57 1.67 1.55 1.93 2.00 1.77 1.43 1.69 1.94 2.85 1.62
2013 1.43 1.63 1.46 1.57 1.65 1.51 1.91 1.94 1.73 1.41 1.54 1.88 3.04 1.59
2014 1.45 1.65 1.49 1.60 1.63 1.50 1.89 2.00 1.74 1.41 1.55 1.87 2.97 1.58
2015 1.43 1.56 1.43 1.54 1.61 1.48 1.88 1.94 1.75 1.39 1.67 1.90 2.81 1.56
2016 1.42 1.58 1.42 1.55 1.59 1.46 1.85 1.93 1.69 1.40 1.62 1.79 2.99 1.54

Provincially, the total fertility rate was above the Canadian level in the Prairie provinces: Saskatchewan (2.00 children per woman in 2012 and 1.93 in 2016), Manitoba (1.93 children per woman in 2012 and 1.85 in 2016) and Alberta (1.77 children per woman in 2012 and 1.69 in 2016), which, like the territories, average younger populations. Also similar to the territories, in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, a comparatively higher proportion of their populations have an Aboriginal identity, which contributes to their higher fertility level. In contrast, the total fertility rate in the Atlantic provinces—which have the oldest populations in CanadaNote 17—was below that of Canada, particularly in Newfoundland and Labrador (1.37 children per woman in 2012 and 1.42 in 2016). It was also lower in British Columbia (1.43 children per woman in 2012 and 1.40 in 2016) and in Ontario (1.55 children per woman in 2012 and 1.46 in 2016).

Age-specific fertility rates

The overall decrease in the total fertility rate in Canada over the past four decades is due to relatively steady declines in the age-specific fertility rates of all age groups under 30 years. In contrast, the fertility rates of those aged 30 and older have generally increased during this period.

The fertility rate for women aged 15 to 19 years has been steadily declining since its peak in 1959 (59.9 births per 1,000 women). In contrast, the fertility rate of women aged 40 to 44 years has been increasing since 1986, after reaching its lowest level on record (3.0 births per 1,000 women) in 1985. Over the past decade, the gap has narrowed between the fertility of older women (40- to 44-year-olds) and those at the beginning of their reproductive years (15 to 19 years). In 2013, fertility rates of these two age groups were similar, with 10.7 births per 1,000 women aged 40 to 44 years and 11.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15 to 19 years. Since then, the gap has widened such that the fertility rate of 40- to 44-year-old women exceeded that of women aged 15 to 19 years starting in 2014, a first in the history of Canadian fertility. The fertility rate was at 11.5 and 8.4 births per 1,000 women respectively in 2016.

Since 2005, the fertility rate for women aged 30 to 34 has surpassed that of women aged 25 to 29. The gap between these two age groups progressively widened during the 2012 to 2016 period, mostly as a result of the decreased fertility rate among women aged 25 to 29 since the rates among women aged 30 to 34 have stabilized since 2007. The fertility rate for women in their early thirties was 107.3 births per 1,000 women in 2012 and 107.6 in 2016, compared with 95.7 births per 1,000 women in 2012 and 87.6 in 2016 among women aged 25 to 29.

Figure 6 Fertility rate by age group of mother, Canada, 2001 to 2016

Data table for Figure 6
Data table for Figure 6
Fertility rate by age group of mother, Canada, 2001 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Fertility rate by age group of mother. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), 15 to 19 years, 20 to 24 years, 25 to 29 years, 30 to 34 years, 35 to 39 years and 40 to 44 years, calculated using per 1,000 units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year 15 to 19 years 20 to 24 years 25 to 29 years 30 to 34 years 35 to 39 years 40 to 44 years
per thousand
2001 16.0 56.5 100.4 91.4 35.7 6.1
2002 14.9 54.1 97.9 91.3 36.4 6.2
2003 14.4 52.9 99.6 94.6 38.8 6.5
2004 13.5 51.2 98.7 97.3 40.3 6.9
2005 13.1 50.7 99.0 99.3 42.6 7.1
2006 13.4 51.4 100.5 103.3 45.8 7.4
2007 13.9 52.6 101.8 106.1 48.5 7.9
2008 14.1 53.2 102.4 107.6 50.2 8.5
2009 14.1 51.5 101.3 107.4 50.7 9.3
2010 13.2 48.3 97.3 106.3 51.7 9.9
2011 12.3 46.1 96.2 106.6 52.4 10.3
2012 11.9 44.1 95.7 107.3 53.4 10.7
2013 11.0 41.9 93.0 107.2 53.6 10.7
2014 10.2 41.0 92.1 107.6 54.6 10.9
2015 9.4 39.3 89.5 107.4 55.6 11.5
2016 8.4 37.6 87.6 107.6 56.0 11.5

For the first time in 2010, the age-specific fertility rate for women aged 35 to 39 (51.7 births per 1,000 women) was higher than for women aged 20 to 24 (48.3 births per 1,000 women). By 2016, this gap had widened to 56.0 births and 37.6 births per 1,000 women in each age group, respectively.

Provincial/territorial variation

There were important variations in the fertility rates by age at the provincial/territorial level.

In Ontario, which has the highest number of births, the fertility rate of women aged 30 to 34 has been higher than the rate for women aged 25 to 29 years since 2001. This did not occur in Quebec until 2013. The most recent fertility rate of women in their thirties in Ontario was actually very close to that of women in Quebec, although the increase in recent years has been more modest for women in Ontario. However, there was a much greater difference between these two provinces in the fertility rate of women in their twenties.

The fertility rate of women aged 25 to 29 in Ontario was 85.9 births per 1,000 women in 2012 and 76.5 in 2016. It was considerably higher for women in the same age group in Quebec, at 111.7 births per 1,000 women in 2012 and 100.9 in 2016. The fertility rate was also slightly higher for women in their early twenties in Quebec (43.8 births per 1,000 women in 2012 and 38.7 in 2016) compared with women in the same age group in Ontario (35.8 births per 1,000 women in 2012 and 29.7 in 2016). In British Columbia, fertility rates variations have been similar to those in Ontario in the last 40 years. In addition to having fewer births overall, fertility rates by age group in British Columbia were generally lower than those in Ontario.

Table 3
Fertility rate by age group of mother, Canada, provinces and territories, 2012 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Fertility rate by age group of mother. The information is grouped by Year and age group (appearing as row headers), N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T., Nvt. and Canada, calculated using for 1,000 women units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year and age group N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt. Canada
for thousand women
2012
15 to 19 years 14.6 13.4 17.4 20.0 8.9 9.3 27.1 33.0 15.9 7.9 10.9 29.8 97.8 11.9
20 to 24 years 49.9 45.1 52.4 67.0 43.8 35.8 73.2 77.0 57.4 33.3 63.9 85.7 185.7 44.1
25 to 29 years 85.2 103.1 92.8 103.4 111.7 85.9 114.2 122.6 105.3 76.8 91.3 105.2 129.1 95.7
30 to 34 years 85.0 93.7 90.7 86.8 109.4 109.9 111.2 113.6 110.2 99.3 101.6 99.1 93.6 107.3
35 to 39 years 34.0 40.3 40.0 31.5 50.6 57.2 50.2 46.7 55.1 56.3 58.5 49.8 49.9 53.4
40 to 44 years 5.1 6.0 7.0 4.8 10.0 11.7 9.8 8.4 11.0 11.7 12.6 17.9 10.5 10.7
45 to 49 years 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.2 0.0 0.5
2013
15 to 19 years 16.1 12.0 16.6 16.0 8.1 8.4 25.3 29.0 15.1 7.5 17.8 26.3 124.3 11.0
20 to 24 years 50.5 47.3 50.5 61.5 42.8 33.3 68.8 73.2 54.9 31.3 48.9 82.6 192.4 41.9
25 to 29 years 88.1 109.0 83.9 106.1 108.5 82.8 114.1 120.1 102.2 74.7 86.0 95.8 130.7 93.0
30 to 34 years 90.0 107.7 91.7 93.0 109.8 109.4 111.4 110.0 109.5 98.7 94.5 109.8 94.5 107.2
35 to 39 years 34.8 42.0 41.1 32.4 51.6 56.6 52.9 48.5 54.5 57.0 53.1 53.1 58.9 53.6
40 to 44 years 5.5 6.5 7.0 5.0 10.5 11.4 9.8 9.3 10.9 12.1 8.6 6.6 5.8 10.7
45 to 49 years 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.1 0.6
2014
15 to 19 years 15.8 9.4 13.9 17.0 7.5 7.7 23.9 28.2 13.6 6.7 14.2 35.7 102.3 10.2
20 to 24 years 51.6 51.5 51.8 62.2 41.2 32.8 69.5 75.6 52.9 30.0 43.2 73.9 170.7 41.0
25 to 29 years 90.7 112.3 84.4 106.7 106.1 81.5 111.2 122.6 102.8 74.2 87.8 103.6 153.4 92.1
30 to 34 years 91.2 105.7 97.0 95.7 108.9 108.4 111.7 115.1 111.6 100.7 97.2 107.1 102.7 107.6
35 to 39 years 35.9 42.2 44.1 33.3 51.9 57.5 52.1 50.9 57.6 57.6 54.4 45.0 52.2 54.6
40 to 44 years 4.9 6.4 7.2 4.8 10.7 11.7 9.4 9.0 11.5 12.0 11.9 10.1 10.9 10.9
45 to 49 years 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.7 1.5 0.7 1.0 0.6
2015
15 to 19 years 11.3 10.5 12.6 15.3 7.2 7.0 21.7 24.9 12.9 6.1 9.5 31.1 110.3 9.4
20 to 24 years 51.9 48.8 47.4 60.3 39.6 30.9 65.1 72.7 52.6 28.7 52.2 69.8 161.8 39.3
25 to 29 years 89.4 104.6 82.2 101.2 103.1 78.7 108.0 117.2 102.6 71.8 116.1 98.8 147.7 89.5
30 to 34 years 91.3 96.7 93.8 91.3 108.3 107.4 116.5 114.4 113.6 101.2 95.5 116.0 91.1 107.4
35 to 39 years 37.3 41.7 41.8 34.5 52.5 59.5 54.1 50.2 57.1 57.9 48.1 54.1 41.8 55.6
40 to 44 years 4.7 6.7 7.3 4.3 11.4 12.1 10.0 10.2 12.0 12.7 11.4 14.2 9.3 11.5
45 to 49 years 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.8 0.8 1.4 0.0 0.7
2016
15 to 19 years 12.5 8.4 11.3 12.3 6.7 6.1 20.5 23.7 11.2 5.2 6.8 25.0 110.2 8.4
20 to 24 years 48.3 44.7 48.2 59.2 38.7 29.7 63.4 71.2 48.5 26.7 51.7 66.8 162.7 37.6
25 to 29 years 87.8 93.4 81.1 104.1 100.9 76.5 105.5 120.0 98.1 72.7 75.0 90.4 151.9 87.6
30 to 34 years 91.8 120.3 94.6 92.7 107.9 108.5 114.4 111.9 111.3 103.1 105.1 101.8 99.6 107.6
35 to 39 years 37.8 38.2 42.3 35.3 52.0 59.0 55.2 51.7 58.8 60.4 73.3 64.8 47.0 56.0
40 to 44 years 5.9 7.5 7.1 5.1 11.3 12.0 10.7 9.1 12.5 12.7 9.9 11.1 21.0 11.5
45 to 49 years 0.2 1.0 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.4 0.7 1.0 0.7

Overall, a large part of the difference in fertility levels between the provinces and territories between 2012 and 2016 was due to the fertility of women in their twenties. Across Canada, British Columbia had the lowest fertility rates for women in their twenties between 2012 and 2016, followed closely by Ontario; these rates have been declining for both provinces since the early 1990s. Alberta also registered a decline in the fertility rate of women in their twenties in the late 2000s, leading to a decrease in the total fertility rate for the province (from 1.90 children per woman in 2008 to 1.77 in 2012 and 1.69 in 2016). The lowest total fertility rate observed in Alberta over the last 43 years was 1.66 children per woman in 2000, still above that of Canada. Lastly, between 2012 and 2016, Manitoba and Saskatchewan posted some of the highest fertility rates for those under 35 years of age, along with Nunavut (under 30 years of age) and the Northwest Territories (under 25 years of age).

Age of mother at childbirth and birth order

In Canada, the average age of mothersNote 18 at childbirth has been increasing fairly steadily for the last 40 years, as successive generations of women have delayed childbearing to pursue educational and employment opportunities, among other factors. Easy access to effective contraceptive methods, diversification of conjugal life and changes in values ​​have also contributed to delaying entry into parenthood.Note 19 Since 2010, the average age of mothers at childbirth has been over 30 years, edging up to 30.3 years in 2012 and to 30.8 years in 2016, compared with 29.0 years in 2001. Moreover, fathers are generally older than mothers; for example, the average age of fathers at childbirth was 33.2 years in 2012 and 33.7 years in 2016.

Similarly, the average age at first birth (1st order) has been increasing since the late 1960s, reaching 28.7 years in Canada in 2012 and 29.2 years in 2016, compared with 27.3 years in 2001. The average age of fathers at the birth of their first child (1st order) was 31.6 years in 2012 and 32.2 years in 2016.

Figure 7 Average age of mother by birth order, Canada, 2001 to 2016

Data table for Figure 7
Data table for Figure 7
Average age of mother by birth order, Canada, 2001 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Average age of mother by birth order. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), 1st order, 2nd order, 3rd order, 4th order, 5th order and over and Total, calculated using in years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year 1st order 2nd order 3rd order 4th order 5th order and over Total
in years
2001 27.3 29.8 31.0 31.8 33.2 29.0
2002 27.5 30.0 31.1 31.8 33.3 29.2
2003 27.8 30.1 31.2 31.9 33.3 29.3
2004 27.9 30.3 31.3 32.0 33.5 29.5
2005 28.0 30.4 31.4 32.1 33.4 29.6
2006 28.0 30.6 31.5 32.0 33.5 29.7
2007 28.1 30.6 31.6 32.2 33.6 29.7
2008 28.1 30.6 31.7 32.2 33.6 29.8
2009 28.2 30.7 31.8 32.3 33.7 29.9
2010 28.4 30.8 31.9 32.5 33.8 30.1
2011 28.5 30.9 31.9 32.6 33.9 30.2
2012 28.7 31.0 32.0 32.6 34.0 30.3
2013 28.8 31.1 32.2 32.7 34.1 30.4
2014 29.0 31.2 32.2 32.7 34.1 30.5
2015 29.2 31.3 32.3 32.9 34.3 30.7
2016 29.2 31.4 32.3 33.0 34.3 30.8

Provincial/territorial variation

Between 2012 and 2016, the average age of mothers at childbirth continued to increase in all provinces, with half of them reaching or surpassing the 30-year mark during this period: British Columbia (31.0 years in 2012 and 31.6 in 2016), Ontario (30.9 years in 2012 and 31.3 in 2016), Quebec (30.2 years in 2012 and 30.6 in 2016), Alberta (29.8 years in 2012 and 30.4 in 2016), and Prince Edward Island (29.5 years in 2012 and 30.0 in 2016). In both British Columbia and Ontario, the average age of mothers at birth has been over 30 years since 2004. Yukon was the only territory to reach the level of the provinces with an average age of mothers at childbirth over 30 (30.1 years in 2012 and 30.9 in 2016). The lowest average age of mothers at birth was in Nunavut (26.1 years in 2012 and 26.4 in 2016), followed by New Brunswick (28.5 years in 2012 and 29.1 in 2016), Saskatchewan (28.6 years in 2012 and 29.1 in 2016), the Northwest Territories (28.8 years in 2012 and 29.5 in 2016) and Newfoundland and Labrador (29.1 years in 2012 and 29.5 in 2016).

Figure 8 Average age of the mother at birth, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006, 2012 to 2016

Data table for Figure 8
Data table for Figure 8
Average age of the mother at birth, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006, 2012 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Average age of the mother at birth. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), Canada, N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T. and Nvt., calculated using in years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year Canada N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt.
in years
2006 29.7 28.6 29.3 29.1 28.3 29.6 30.3 28.4 27.9 29.2 30.2 29.0 28.2 25.8
2012 30.3 29.1 29.5 29.3 28.5 30.2 30.9 29.0 28.6 29.8 31.0 30.1 28.8 26.1
2013 30.4 29.2 29.6 29.5 28.8 30.3 31.0 29.2 28.8 29.9 31.2 29.9 28.9 25.7
2014 30.5 29.2 29.6 29.7 28.8 30.4 31.1 29.2 28.9 30.1 31.3 30.4 28.8 26.4
2015 30.7 29.3 29.6 29.8 28.9 30.5 31.2 29.5 29.1 30.2 31.4 29.9 29.4 25.8
2016 30.8 29.5 30.0 29.8 29.1 30.6 31.3 29.6 29.1 30.4 31.6 30.9 29.5 26.4

Figure 9 Average age of the mother at first birth, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006, 2012 to 2016

Data table for Figure 9
Data table for Figure 9
Average age of the mother at first birth, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006, 2012 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Average age of the mother at first birth. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), Canada, N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T. and Nvt., calculated using in years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year Canada N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt.
in years
2006 28.0 27.0 27.4 27.4 26.7 28.0 28.6 26.5 25.6 27.4 28.7 27.5 26.2 22.8
2012 28.7 27.6 27.5 27.6 26.8 28.6 29.3 26.9 26.4 28.1 29.6 28.6 27.1 22.6
2013 28.8 27.8 28.0 27.8 27.4 28.7 29.4 27.2 26.6 28.2 29.8 28.5 27.5 21.9
2014 29.0 27.6 27.9 28.1 27.2 28.9 29.6 27.3 26.7 28.5 29.9 28.9 27.8 23.1
2015 29.2 27.9 27.5 28.3 27.4 29.0 29.8 27.5 26.9 28.6 30.1 28.6 27.5 22.2
2016 29.2 27.9 28.1 28.2 27.5 29.0 29.8 27.6 27.2 28.7 30.3 29.2 27.8 22.4
Table 4
Average age of mothers at birth by birth order, Canada, provinces and territories, 2012 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Average age of mothers at birth by birth order. The information is grouped by Year and order (appearing as row headers), N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T., Nvt. and Canada, calculated using years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year and order N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt. Canada
in years
2012
1st order 27.6 27.5 27.6 26.8 28.6 29.3 26.9 26.4 28.1 29.6 28.6 27.1 22.6 28.7
2nd order 30.3 30.1 30.0 29.3 30.8 31.5 29.5 29.0 30.5 31.9 31.0 29.0 25.0 31.0
3rd order 30.9 31.6 31.4 30.6 32.3 32.6 30.2 30.4 31.5 32.6 32.3 30.3 26.4 32.0
4th order 32.0 32.4 32.4 31.6 33.1 33.1 31.0 31.2 32.3 33.3 32.4 31.3 28.4 32.6
5th order and over 32.9 34.5 34.2 33.3 34.6 34.6 32.9 33.1 34.1 34.2 33.0 34.3 31.3 34.0
2013
1st order 27.8 28.0 27.8 27.4 28.7 29.4 27.2 26.6 28.2 29.8 28.5 27.5 21.9 28.8
2nd order 30.0 30.3 30.2 29.5 30.9 31.7 29.7 29.3 30.6 32.0 30.3 29.3 24.9 31.1
3rd order 31.1 31.1 31.6 30.7 32.4 32.7 30.3 30.6 31.6 32.8 32.0 30.6 26.3 32.2
4th order 32.0 32.4 32.4 31.6 33.3 33.2 30.8 31.3 32.4 33.2 33.0 32.0 28.5 32.7
5th order and over 32.6 34.4 34.2 33.0 34.8 34.6 32.8 33.2 33.9 34.6 36.4 33.5 31.5 34.1
2014
1st order 27.6 27.9 28.1 27.2 28.9 29.6 27.3 26.7 28.5 29.9 28.9 27.8 23.1 29.0
2nd order 30.3 30.5 30.3 29.6 31.0 31.8 29.7 29.5 30.8 32.1 31.0 28.7 24.7 31.2
3rd order 31.2 30.9 31.5 30.5 32.4 32.6 30.4 30.6 31.8 32.8 32.6 30.3 27.1 32.2
4th order 32.2 32.3 32.2 31.6 33.4 33.3 30.8 31.1 32.5 33.2 32.7 31.4 28.3 32.7
5th order and over 33.5 34.1 34.3 32.3 34.8 34.7 32.8 33.0 34.2 34.4 38.1 34.1 31.9 34.1
2015
1st order 27.9 27.5 28.3 27.4 29.0 29.8 27.5 26.9 28.6 30.1 28.6 27.5 22.2 29.2
2nd order 30.2 30.3 30.4 29.6 31.1 31.8 29.9 29.6 30.8 32.2 30.7 30.0 24.5 31.3
3rd order 31.1 31.7 31.3 30.4 32.6 32.8 30.7 30.8 31.8 32.9 31.6 31.0 26.2 32.3
4th order 31.1 32.3 32.5 31.7 33.3 33.4 31.1 31.5 32.6 33.4 32.4 33.2 28.5 32.9
5th order and over 33.3 35.5 34.4 32.6 34.9 34.7 32.9 33.3 34.5 34.7 32.9 34.7 31.6 34.3
2016
1st order 27.9 28.1 28.2 27.5 29.0 29.8 27.6 27.2 28.7 30.3 29.2 27.8 22.4 29.2
2nd order 30.5 30.8 30.6 29.6 31.1 32.0 29.9 29.4 31.0 32.3 31.9 29.4 24.9 31.4
3rd order 31.5 31.4 31.3 30.9 32.6 32.8 30.8 30.7 32.0 32.9 33.1 32.4 26.7 32.3
4th order 32.0 32.7 32.4 31.7 33.5 33.5 31.1 31.5 32.7 33.4 33.7 31.1 28.3 33.0
5th order and over 33.8 33.9 34.3 33.3 35.0 34.8 33.1 33.3 34.2 34.8 34.7 34.9 32.4 34.3

There was also variation in the average age of mothers at first birth across the provinces and territories. The highest average age of mothers at first birth was in British Columbia (29.6 years in 2012 and 30.3 in 2016), followed by Ontario (29.3 years in 2012 and 29.8 in 2016). The lowest average age of mothers at first birth was in Nunavut (22.6 years in 2012 and 22.4 in 2016).

Completed fertility rate of recent generations

While the total fertility rate is a common indicator for analyzing fertility trends because it is simple to calculate and it can summarize trends for a given calendar year, the completed fertility rate is a better indicator for understanding the changes in the fertility behaviours of different cohorts of women. The completed fertility rate is a longitudinal indicator that refers to the actual fertility experiences of cohorts of women once they have completed their reproductive life. The disadvantage of this indicator is that it is necessary to wait until the end of the reproductive life of the cohort of women to obtain all the data required for its calculation for a given cohort.

Figure 10 Total fertility rate, 1921 to 2016 and completed fertility, 1911 to 1962, Canada

Data table for Figure 10
Data table for Figure 10
Total fertility rate, 1921 to 2016 and completed fertility, 1911 to 1962, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Total fertility rate. The information is grouped by Cohort (appearing as row headers), Year, Total fertility rate and Completed fertility, calculated using number of children per woman units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Cohort Year Total fertility rate Completed fertility rate
number of children per woman
1893 1921 3.48 Note ...: not applicable
1894 1922 3.40 Note ...: not applicable
1895 1923 3.23 Note ...: not applicable
1896 1924 3.22 Note ...: not applicable
1897 1925 3.13 Note ...: not applicable
1898 1926 3.36 Note ...: not applicable
1899 1927 3.32 Note ...: not applicable
1900 1928 3.30 Note ...: not applicable
1901 1929 3.22 Note ...: not applicable
1902 1930 3.28 Note ...: not applicable
1903 1931 3.20 Note ...: not applicable
1904 1932 3.09 Note ...: not applicable
1905 1933 2.87 Note ...: not applicable
1906 1934 2.80 Note ...: not applicable
1907 1935 2.75 Note ...: not applicable
1908 1936 2.70 Note ...: not applicable
1909 1937 2.64 Note ...: not applicable
1910 1938 2.70 Note ...: not applicable
1911 1939 2.65 2.71
1912 1940 2.76 2.72
1913 1941 2.83 2.77
1914 1942 2.96 2.88
1915 1943 3.03 2.91
1916 1944 3.00 2.89
1917 1945 3.01 2.88
1918 1946 3.36 2.93
1919 1947 3.58 2.90
1920 1948 3.43 3.23
1921 1949 3.44 3.27
1922 1950 3.44 3.29
1923 1951 3.49 3.22
1924 1952 3.63 3.26
1925 1953 3.71 3.29
1926 1954 3.82 3.27
1927 1955 3.82 3.25
1928 1956 3.86 3.30
1929 1957 3.92 3.27
1930 1958 3.88 3.40
1931 1959 3.94 3.38
1932 1960 3.91 3.36
1933 1961 3.86 3.26
1934 1962 3.78 3.15
1935 1963 3.69 3.11
1936 1964 3.52 3.05
1937 1965 3.16 2.92
1938 1966 2.83 2.90
1939 1967 2.60 2.82
1940 1968 2.46 2.72
1941 1969 2.41 2.63
1942 1970 2.34 2.51
1943 1971 2.13 2.42
1944 1972 1.97 2.29
1945 1973 1.88 2.13
1946 1974 1.83 2.14
1947 1975 1.83 2.14
1948 1976 1.78 2.06
1949 1977 1.75 1.99
1950 1978 1.70 1.95
1951 1979 1.70 1.91
1952 1980 1.68 1.89
1953 1981 1.65 1.87
1954 1982 1.63 1.87
1955 1983 1.62 1.85
1956 1984 1.62 1.85
1957 1985 1.61 1.84
1958 1986 1.59 1.85
1959 1987 1.58 1.85
1960 1988 1.60 1.84
1961 1989 1.66 1.82
1962 1990 1.71 1.81
1963 1991 1.72 Note ...: not applicable
1964 1992 1.71 Note ...: not applicable
1965 1993 1.68 Note ...: not applicable
1966 1994 1.69 Note ...: not applicable
1967 1995 1.67 Note ...: not applicable
1968 1996 1.63 Note ...: not applicable
1969 1997 1.57 Note ...: not applicable
1970 1998 1.56 Note ...: not applicable
1971 1999 1.54 Note ...: not applicable
1972 2000 1.51 Note ...: not applicable
1973 2001 1.54 Note ...: not applicable
1974 2002 1.51 Note ...: not applicable
1975 2003 1.54 Note ...: not applicable
1976 2004 1.55 Note ...: not applicable
1977 2005 1.57 Note ...: not applicable
1978 2006 1.61 Note ...: not applicable
1979 2007 1.66 Note ...: not applicable
1980 2008 1.69 Note ...: not applicable
1981 2009 1.68 Note ...: not applicable
1982 2010 1.64 Note ...: not applicable
1983 2011 1.62 Note ...: not applicable
1984 2012 1.62 Note ...: not applicable
1985 2013 1.59 Note ...: not applicable
1986 2014 1.58 Note ...: not applicable
1987 2015 1.56 Note ...: not applicable
1988 2016 1.54 Note ...: not applicable

The completed fertility rate of women born up to 1967 can be calculated as they were aged 49 or older in 2016. It is also possible to estimate the completed fertility rate of the 1975 birth cohort, who were 41 years of age in 2016, since this generation is reaching the end of the reproductive ages and fertility rates after age 41 are quite low. Similarly, the fertility rates of the 1980 cohort, aged 36 in 2016, have also started to decline, since this generation has passed the age when fertility is at its peak. However, the estimated completed fertility rates for these two cohorts comprise a higher degree of uncertainty as a larger portion of their childbearing years is based on extrapolation of the recent trends based on fertility after age 30.

The age pattern of fertility among younger generations of women has changed compared with that of previous generations of women: the peak of the curve is lower than before, and appears later in reproductive life than in the past. This reflects both lower fertility as well as the older age at childbirth.

Figure 11 Fertility rate by age for selected cohorts, Canada

Data table for Figure 11
Data table for Figure 11
Fertility rate by age for selected cohorts, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Fertility rate by age for selected cohorts. The information is grouped by Age (appearing as row headers), 1946, 1955, 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995 and 2000, calculated using per 1,000 units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age 1946 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
per thousand
15 5.2 5.8 6.0 5.0 4.2 4.6 4.6 2.9 2.1 2.1 1.2
16 17.3 17.5 16.9 12.4 11.6 13.1 11.1 6.9 6.0 5.4 3.1
17 43.1 36.2 30.1 24.0 21.2 25.0 18.7 12.9 12.2 10.3 Note ...: not applicable
18 78.0 53.3 41.2 32.2 32.0 35.1 27.5 20.2 19.9 15.3 Note ...: not applicable
19 113.6 66.6 52.8 42.9 45.5 47.5 36.9 27.5 28.7 20.9 Note ...: not applicable
20 135.4 81.0 65.6 53.1 57.6 55.2 43.6 35.3 33.5 25.7 Note ...: not applicable
21 150.4 92.7 78.2 63.5 67.1 60.5 48.6 42.6 37.3 30.3 Note ...: not applicable
22 155.0 105.4 93.8 73.5 74.5 64.5 53.0 50.5 43.5 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
23 159.3 114.4 103.8 86.5 83.2 72.4 60.8 60.0 47.6 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
24 163.8 124.3 114.9 100.4 91.6 78.0 68.5 68.3 56.1 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
25 158.4 129.6 121.4 115.1 101.3 86.3 79.8 75.5 65.0 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
26 145.0 131.0 123.9 121.9 106.9 94.6 91.9 86.5 75.1 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
27 133.8 123.8 124.5 125.4 105.7 101.1 103.6 97.1 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
28 124.1 118.0 120.3 123.1 110.1 108.4 113.7 105.1 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
29 110.3 109.5 116.6 120.2 108.9 112.3 119.0 112.6 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
30 93.9 98.5 112.4 112.3 103.5 114.7 116.6 116.2 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
31 77.7 83.6 98.5 99.6 102.1 113.4 115.6 116.7 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
32 63.2 71.5 85.6 87.0 93.9 108.5 110.1 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
33 51.0 60.9 71.7 74.8 84.5 99.9 100.8 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
34 41.3 52.4 61.7 64.5 77.7 87.8 90.9 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
35 31.5 44.4 50.4 53.2 67.7 77.2 82.2 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
36 25.0 35.7 40.7 44.4 57.0 63.7 67.4 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
37 18.1 26.9 31.3 34.6 46.8 52.3 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
38 13.6 20.4 23.5 27.8 37.4 41.2 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
39 9.7 14.6 16.5 21.0 28.6 30.9 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
40 6.3 10.1 12.6 15.2 20.9 23.5 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
41 4.4 6.5 8.1 10.3 14.0 15.3 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
42 2.6 4.1 5.2 6.9 8.7 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
43 1.6 2.6 3.0 3.7 5.1 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
44 0.8 1.2 1.7 2.3 3.1 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
45 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.6 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
46 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.7 1.0 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
47 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
48 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable
49 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable

The first baby-boom cohort, that is, women born in 1946, is often used as a reference group, given that it was the last cohort to have reached cohort fertility above the replacement level. The 1946 cohort fertility rate peaked at age 24 with 163.8 births per 1,000 women. In contrast, the fertility for the cohort born in 1980 peaked at a higher age (29 years), with approximately 119.0 births per 1,000 women. Even though younger cohorts have higher fertility rates in their thirties, their general fertility remains below older cohorts because they cannot catch up for the lower fertility rates observed in their twenties.

The completed fertility rate of the cohort of women born in 1967 in Canada was 1.79 children per woman. This rate is similar to the cohorts born in the mid-1950s, but much lower than its peak of 3.40 children per woman in the 1930 birth cohort, who were the mothers of the baby boom generations.

Trends in childlessness

Based on data from the General Social Survey on Families, the biological childlessness has been steady between 1990 and 2011. The percentage of women aged 50 and older who have never given birth to a child was 14.1% in 1990, compared with 15.3% in 2011. Women who have not had a biological child might create families by other means, such as adoption, step-parenthood or surrogacy.

Figure 12 Proportion of women aged 50 and over who have never given birth to a child, Canada, 1990, 2001, 2006 and 2011

Data table for Figure 12
Data table for Figure 12
Proportion of women aged 50 and over who have never given birth to a child, Canada, 1990, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Proportion of women aged 50 and over who have never given birth to a child. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), Proportion, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year Proportion
percent
1990 14.1
2001 14.1
2006 14.4
2011 15.3

According to a special compilation of data from the 2011 General Social Survey on the Family,Note 20 adults aged 20 to 39 years may choose to not have children for many possible reasons. The intention to never have children was higher among single individuals compared with those who were married or in a common-law relationship. The proportion was also higher among men, among those with no religious affiliation, and among those born in Canada. Of the Canadians aged 20 to 39 years who reported that they did not plan to have children,Note 21 a majority mentioned that they made this decision by personal choice. Financial reasons, not having a spouse or partner, and reasons related to work or health are among other answers supporting their intention to not have children.

Figure 13 Proportion of persons aged 20 to 39 intending not to have children according to various characteristics among individuals, Canada, 2011

Data table for Figure 13
Data table for Figure 13
Proportion of persons aged 20 to 39 intending not to have children according to various characteristics among individuals, Canada, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Proportion of persons aged 20 to 39 intending not to have children according to various characteristics among individuals. The information is grouped by Characteristics (appearing as row headers), Proportion, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Characteristics Proportion
percent
Total 6.1
Sex
Males† 6.7
Females 5.5Note *
Marital status
Married/Common-law† 3.5
Single 9.7Note *
Birthplace
Born in Canada† 6.6
Born outside Canada 4.7Note E: Use with cautionNote *
Religion
No religious affiliation† 10.6
With religious affiliation 4.3Note *
Education
University/college diploma 5.9Note *
High school diploma 6.6
Without high school diploma† 6.1Note E: Use with caution

Multiple births

The vast majority of births in 2016 were single births (96.9%), but around 12,000 births consisted of twins (3.0% of all births) and triplets or more (0.1% of all births).Note 22 These proportions have been quite stable since 2006, but are higher than those observed in 1991. This increase is seen across all age groups of mothers. For example, among women aged 25 to 29 years, 2.7% of all births in 2016 were multiple births, up from 2.1% in 1991. The older the age group, the bigger the difference, meaning that multiple births increased more among older women. For example, 4.0% of women aged 35 to 39 who gave birth in 2016 had twins or more, compared with 2.4% in 1991. These proportions were 5.0% and 2.0%, respectively, among women aged 40 to 44 years, and 15.9% and 2.9% among women 45 years or older.

Table 5
Births distribution by type of birth and age group of the mother, Canada, 1991 and 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Births distribution by type of birth and age group of the mother. The information is grouped by Age group (appearing as row headers), Type of birth by age group, Age group by type of birth, Single, Twin, Triplet or more, Total and Number, calculated using percentage units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age group Type of birth by age group Age group by type of birth
Single Twin Triplet or more Total Single Twin Triplet or more Total Number
percent
1991
Less than 20 years 6.2 3.5 1.5 6.1 98.9 1.1 0.0 100.0 24,593
20 to 24 years 20.2 17.2 6.2 20.2 98.3 1.7 0.0 100.0 81,211
25 to 29 years 37.5 38.0 30.3 37.5 98.0 2.0 0.1 100.0 150,929
30 to 34 years 26.8 30.4 45.3 26.9 97.7 2.2 0.1 100.0 108,206
35 to 39 years 8.2 9.8 14.6 8.3 97.6 2.3 0.1 100.0 33,305
40 to 44 years 1.0 1.0 2.2 1.0 98.0 1.9 0.1 100.0 4,149
45 years and over 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 97.1 2.9 0.0 100.0 139
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.0 2.0 0.1 100.0 Note ...: not applicable
Number 394,395 7,864 274 402,533 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable 402,533
2016
Less than 20 years 2.3 1.1 0.0 2.2 98.6 1.4 0.0 100.0 8,521
20 to 24 years 11.9 7.7 6.4 11.8 98.0 2.0 0.0 100.0 45,143
25 to 29 years 28.7 24.4 21.5 28.6 97.3 2.6 0.1 100.0 109,544
30 to 34 years 35.6 36.9 38.8 35.7 96.8 3.2 0.1 100.0 136,593
35 to 39 years 17.8 23.1 23.4 18.0 96.0 3.9 0.1 100.0 68,906
40 to 44 years 3.5 5.6 9.9 3.5 95.0 4.8 0.2 100.0 13,506
45 years and over 0.2 1.2 0.0 0.2 84.1 15.9 0.0 100.0 889
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.9 3.0 0.1 100.0 Note ...: not applicable
Number 371,110 11,680 312 383,102 Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable Note ...: not applicable 383,102

Older motherhood is evident not only in the variations of the age distribution of mothers who had single births, but also for multiple births. The share of multiple births has fallen for women aged 29 years or less, but has risen among women 30 years and older. For example, in 2016, among women who gave birth to twins, the proportion of women aged 35 to 39 years was 23.1%, compared with 9.8% 25 years earlier. Among women who had twins, the proportion aged 40 to 44 years also rose from 1.0% to 5.6%. In contrast, among the women who had twins, the proportion of those in their late twenties fell from 38.0% in 1991 to 24.4% in 2016. The trends for triplets or more were similar. A number of factors could contribute to the increase in multiple births among women 30 years or older, including postponing motherhood to a later age and increased use of fertility treatments, which increase the overall likelihood of multiple births.

Appendix

Table A1
Total fertility rate by birth order, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Total fertility rate by birth order. The information is grouped by Year and birth order (appearing as row headers), N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T., Nvt. and Canada, calculated using number of children per woman units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year and birth order N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt. Canada
number of children per woman
2006
1st order 0.67 0.67 0.65 0.70 0.76 0.70 0.73 0.72 0.79 0.68 0.73 0.93 0.86 0.73
2nd order 0.52 0.64 0.49 0.53 0.59 0.56 0.59 0.61 0.61 0.53 0.61 0.58 0.69 0.57
3rd order 0.16 0.24 0.18 0.17 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.32 0.25 0.17 0.15 0.26 0.48 0.21
4th order 0.04 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.13 0.14 0.09 0.06 0.08 0.14 0.28 0.07
5th order and over 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.14 0.13 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.10 0.51 0.04
2007
1st order 0.70 0.64 0.67 0.72 0.77 0.71 0.75 0.75 0.83 0.70 0.66 0.95 1.00 0.74
2nd order 0.52 0.60 0.53 0.53 0.60 0.57 0.61 0.66 0.64 0.55 0.52 0.58 0.63 0.59
3rd order 0.16 0.29 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.31 0.34 0.26 0.19 0.25 0.32 0.45 0.22
4th order 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.15 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.10 0.14 0.33 0.07
5th order and over 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.15 0.14 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.12 0.53 0.04
2008
1st order 0.78 0.75 0.71 0.76 0.78 0.70 0.73 0.79 0.82 0.70 0.71 0.97 0.89 0.74
2nd order 0.54 0.62 0.54 0.57 0.62 0.57 0.62 0.64 0.65 0.54 0.52 0.57 0.68 0.59
3rd order 0.17 0.26 0.21 0.19 0.23 0.22 0.30 0.34 0.26 0.18 0.29 0.27 0.45 0.23
4th order 0.04 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.15 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.15 0.39 0.07
5th order and over 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.15 0.13 0.07 0.03 0.05 0.13 0.52 0.05
2009
1st order 0.76 0.73 0.70 0.77 0.79 0.69 0.75 0.81 0.80 0.70 0.72 0.92 0.91 0.74
2nd order 0.54 0.59 0.53 0.56 0.61 0.57 0.61 0.68 0.63 0.54 0.56 0.53 0.79 0.59
3rd order 0.17 0.27 0.20 0.19 0.23 0.22 0.31 0.33 0.26 0.19 0.22 0.33 0.54 0.23
4th order 0.05 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.15 0.14 0.10 0.05 0.08 0.13 0.38 0.08
5th order and over 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.17 0.11 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.14 0.53 0.05
2010
1st order 0.75 0.69 0.71 0.75 0.76 0.66 0.72 0.78 0.76 0.68 0.80 0.91 0.82 0.71
2nd order 0.54 0.58 0.51 0.56 0.61 0.57 0.61 0.65 0.61 0.51 0.45 0.55 0.71 0.58
3rd order 0.18 0.27 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.22 0.31 0.33 0.26 0.17 0.20 0.29 0.50 0.23
4th order 0.04 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.14 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.06 0.13 0.39 0.08
5th order and over 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.16 0.13 0.07 0.03 0.05 0.11 0.48 0.05
2011
1st order 0.67 0.70 0.70 0.74 0.74 0.67 0.71 0.76 0.74 0.67 0.80 0.92 0.87 0.70
2nd order 0.52 0.61 0.51 0.55 0.61 0.56 0.58 0.64 0.61 0.52 0.54 0.52 0.62 0.58
3rd order 0.15 0.27 0.20 0.18 0.23 0.22 0.30 0.33 0.25 0.18 0.24 0.27 0.52 0.22
4th order 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.13 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.12 0.33 0.07
5th order and over 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.15 0.12 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.13 0.50 0.05
2012
1st order 0.66 0.61 0.70 0.73 0.74 0.68 0.73 0.78 0.77 0.65 0.82 0.88 0.84 0.71
2nd order 0.51 0.54 0.52 0.55 0.60 0.56 0.60 0.63 0.60 0.53 0.55 0.52 0.67 0.57
3rd order 0.15 0.25 0.19 0.21 0.22 0.21 0.31 0.34 0.24 0.17 0.23 0.26 0.48 0.22
4th order 0.04 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.14 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.14 0.35 0.07
5th order and over 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.15 0.12 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.14 0.51 0.05
2013
1st order 0.70 0.68 0.67 0.74 0.74 0.65 0.73 0.74 0.76 0.64 0.77 0.97 0.99 0.69
2nd order 0.52 0.61 0.50 0.54 0.58 0.55 0.59 0.63 0.58 0.52 0.48 0.47 0.64 0.56
3rd order 0.16 0.24 0.18 0.19 0.23 0.20 0.29 0.32 0.24 0.17 0.20 0.22 0.54 0.22
4th order 0.04 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.15 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.12 0.37 0.07
5th order and over 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.16 0.11 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.09 0.49 0.05
2014
1st order 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.72 0.72 0.64 0.73 0.77 0.76 0.64 0.74 0.96 0.87 0.69
2nd order 0.52 0.58 0.53 0.59 0.58 0.55 0.59 0.64 0.58 0.52 0.54 0.49 0.66 0.56
3rd order 0.16 0.26 0.19 0.20 0.23 0.20 0.28 0.32 0.24 0.17 0.15 0.25 0.49 0.22
4th order 0.04 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.13 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.43 0.07
5th order and over 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.15 0.12 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.09 0.52 0.05
2015
1st order 0.67 0.62 0.64 0.67 0.72 0.64 0.70 0.75 0.75 0.64 0.80 0.97 0.89 0.68
2nd order 0.52 0.58 0.50 0.57 0.58 0.53 0.60 0.63 0.59 0.50 0.56 0.44 0.64 0.55
3rd order 0.17 0.23 0.19 0.19 0.22 0.20 0.28 0.31 0.25 0.17 0.22 0.23 0.45 0.21
4th order 0.05 0.09 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.14 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.06 0.14 0.30 0.07
5th order and over 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.16 0.11 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.13 0.53 0.05
2016
1st order 0.67 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.70 0.62 0.69 0.75 0.71 0.64 0.73 0.82 0.86 0.66
2nd order 0.53 0.59 0.49 0.56 0.57 0.54 0.58 0.61 0.58 0.52 0.60 0.51 0.67 0.55
3rd order 0.17 0.24 0.20 0.22 0.22 0.20 0.28 0.32 0.25 0.17 0.20 0.24 0.47 0.21
4th order 0.04 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.13 0.13 0.09 0.05 0.06 0.13 0.40 0.07
5th order and over 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.16 0.12 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.10 0.59 0.05

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