Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please "contact us" to request a format other than those available.
The following references were used as general sources to describe the cancers, their main symptoms and treatment courses:
Bast RC, Kufe DW, Donald W et al, (eds). Cancer Medicine. 5th Edition. B C Decker Inc; 2000.
De Vita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg, SA (eds) Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 4th Edition. Philadelphia (PA): J.B. Lippincott Company; 1993.
Unless otherwise specified, estimates of the number of new cancer cases and deaths were taken from:
The following references were used as sources for the health state descriptions:
[no author listed] Bladder cancer. Harv Mens Health Watch 2002;6(9):3-6.
Agrawal S, Benjamin IS. The patient with stomach cancer. Practitioner 2003; 247(1646):384-8, 390.
Ahles TA, Blanchard EB, Ruckdeschel JC. The multidimensional nature of cancer-related pain. Pain 1983; 17(3):277-288.
Ahles TA, Saykin AJ, Furstenberg CT, Cole B, Mott LA, Skalla K et al. Neuropsychologic impact of standard-dose systemic chemotherapy in long-term survivors of breast cancer and lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20(2):485-493.
Aisner J. Management of advanced disseminated breast cancer. In: Moussa A, Schimpff S, Robson M, editors. Comprehensive Textbook of Oncology, Volume One. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1991; p. 836-844.
Andersen BL. Sexual functioning morbidity among cancer survivors. Current status and future research directions. Cancer 1985; 55(8):1835-1842.
Anderson H, Palmer MK. Measuring quality of life: impact of chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. Experience from two recent large phase III trials. Br J Cancer 1998; 77 Suppl 2:9-14.:9-14.
Andrykowski MA, Curran SL, Lightner R. Off-treatment fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a controlled comparison. J Behav Med 1998; 21(1):1-18.
Badger TA, Braden CJ, Mishel MH. Depression burden, self-help interventions, and side effect experience in women receiving treatment for breast cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 2001; 28(3):567-574.
Baird AD, Woolfenden KA, Desmond AD, Fordham MV, Parsons KF. Outcome and survival with nonsurgical management of renal cell carcinoma. BJU Int 2003; 91(7):600-602.
Barton-Burke M, Wilkes GM, Ingwersen KC. Cancer Chemotherapy: A Nursing Process Approach, Third Edition. Sudbury (MA): Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2001.
Beach P, Siebeneck B, Buderer NF, Ferner T. Relationship between fatigue and nutritional status in patients receiving radiation therapy to treat lung cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 2001; 28(6):1027-1031.
Beckles MA, Spiro SG, Colice GL, Rudd RM. Initial evaluation of the patient with lung cancer: symptoms, signs, laboratory tests, and paraneoplastic syndromes. Chest 2003; 123(1 Suppl):97S-104S.
Berger AM, VonEssen S, Kuhn BR, Piper BF, Agrawal S, Lynch JC et al. Adherence, sleep, and fatigue outcomes after adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy: results of a feasibility intervention study. Oncol Nurs Forum 2003; 30(3):513-522.
Bergman B, Sullivan M, Sorenson S. Quality of life during chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer. I. An evaluation with generic health measures. Acta Oncol 1991; 30(8):947-957.
Bergman B, Sullivan M, Sorenson S. Quality of life during chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer. II. A longitudinal study of the EORTC Core Quality of Life Questionnaire and comparison with the Sickness Impact Profile. Acta Oncol 1992; 31(1):19-28.
Bergman B, Aaronson NK, Ahmedzai S, Kaasa S, Sullivan M. The EORTC QLQ-LC13: a modular supplement to the EORTC Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) for use in lung cancer clinical trials. EORTC Study Group on Quality of Life. Eur J Cancer 1994; 30A(5):635-642.
Berkery R, Baltzer Cleri L, Skarin AT. Oncology Pocket Guide to Chemotherapy, Third Edition. St. Louis (MO): Mosby-Year Book Inc.; 1997.
Billings JA. Outpatient Management of Advanced Cancer: Symptom Control, Support, and Hospice-in-the-Home. Philadelphia (PA): JB Lippincott Company; 1985.
Bisson JI, Chubb HL, Bennett S, Mason M, Jones D, Kynaston H. The prevalence and predictors of psychological distress in patients with early localized prostate cancer. BJU Int 2002; 90(1):56-61.
Black PK, Hyde C. Parents with colorectal cancer: ‘What do I tell the children?’. Br J Nurs 2002; 11(10):679-685.
Bliss JM, Robertson B, Selby PJ. The impact of nausea and vomiting upon quality of life measures. Br J Cancer Suppl 1992; 19:S14-22; discussion S23.:S14-S22.
Bosompra K, Ashikaga T, O’Brien PJ, Nelson L, Skelly J. Swelling, numbness, pain, and their relationship to arm function among breast cancer survivors: a disablement process model perspective. Breast J 2002; 8(6):338-348.
Bowles MJ, Benjamin IS. ABC of the upper gastrointestinal tract: Cancer of the stomach and pancreas. BMJ 2001; 323(7326):1413-1416.
Broeckel JA, Jacobsen PB, Horton J, Balducci L, Lyman GH. Characteristics and correlates of fatigue after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16(5):1689-1696.
Bruera E, Russell N, Sweeney C, Fisch M, Palmer JL. Place of death and its predictors for local patients registered at a comprehensive cancer center. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20(8):2127-2133.
Bukberg J, Penman D, Holland JC. Depression in hospitalized cancer patients. Psychosom Med 1984; 46(3):199-212.
Bunn PAJ. Lung Cancer: current understanding of the biology, diagnosis, staging, and treatment. Bristol-Myers Oncology Division; 1991.
Burke MA, Lowrance W, Perczek R. Emotional and cognitive burden of prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 2003; 30(2):295-304.
Butler L, Downe-Wamboldt B, Marsh S, Bell D, Jarvi K. Quality of life post radical prostatectomy: a male perspective. Urol Nurs 2001; 21(4):283-288.
Calvo E, Cortes J, Gonzalez-Cao M, Rodriguez J, Aramendia JM, Fernandez-Hidalgo O et al. Combined irinotecan, oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. a feasibility pilot study. Oncology 2002; 63(3):254-265.
Carlson K, Beck D. Urinary Bladder Cancer. Ostomy Quarterly 2002; 39(2):40-41.
Carlsson M, Hamrin E. Measurement of quality of life in women with breast cancer. Development of a Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ-32) and a comparison with the EORTC QLQ-C30. Qual Life Res 1996; 5(2):265-274.
Carmalt HL, Gillett DJ, Lin BP. Early gastric cancer. Aust N Z J Surg 1990; 60(11):865-869.
Carver CS, Pozo Kaderman C, Harris SD, Noriega V, Scheier MF, Robinson DS et al. Optimism versus pessimism predicts the quality of women’s adjustment to early stage breast cancer. Cancer 1994; 73:1213-1220.
Cella D, Lai JS, Chang CH, Peterman A, Slavin M. Fatigue in cancer patients compared with fatigue in the general United States population. Cancer 2002; 94(2):528-538.
Cerny T, Gillessen S. Advances in the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Ann Oncol 2002; 13 Suppl 4:211-6.:211-216.
Chie WC, Huang CS, Chen JH, Chang KJ. Measurement of the quality of life during different clinical phases of breast cancer. J Formos Med Assoc 1999; 98(4):254-260.
Chirikos TN, Russell-Jacobs A, Jacobsen PB. Functional impairment and the economic consequences of female breast cancer. Women Health 2002; 36(1):1-20.
Ciaramella A, Poli P. Assessment of depression among cancer patients: the role of pain, cancer type and treatment. Psychooncology 2001; 10(2):156-165.
Clark JA, Wray N, Brody B, Ashton C, Giesler B, Watkins H. Dimensions of quality of life expressed by men treated for metastatic prostate cancer. Soc Sci Med 1997; 45(8):1299-1309.
Cleeland CS. Cancer-related symptoms. Semin Radiat Oncol 2000; 10(3):175-190.
Coates A, Gebski V, Bishop JF, Jeal PN, Woods RL, Snyder R et al. Improving the quality of life during chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. A comparison of intermittent and continuous treatment strategies. N Engl J Med 1987; 317(24):1490-1495.
Cohen SJ, Pinover WH, Watson JC, Meropol NJ. Pancreatic cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol 2000; 1(5):375-386.
Cohen SR, Leis A. What determines the quality of life of terminally ill cancer patients from their own perspective? J Palliat Care 2002; 18(1):48-58.
Conner-Spady B, Cumming C, Nabholtz JM, Jacobs P, Stewart D. Responsiveness of the EuroQol in breast cancer patients undergoing high dose chemotherapy. Qual Life Res 2001; 10(6):479-486.
Coveney E, Weltz CR, Greengrass R, Iglehart JD, Leight GS, Steele SM et al. Use of paravertebral block anesthesia in the surgical management of breast cancer: experience in 156 cases. Ann Surg 1998; 227(4):496-501.
Coward DD. Self-transcendence and emotional well-being in women with advanced breast cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 1991; 18(5):857-863.
Crawford ED, Wood DP, Petrylak DP, Scott J, Coltman CA, Jr., Raghavan D. Southwest Oncology Group studies in bladder cancer. Cancer 2003; 97(8 Suppl):2099-2108.
Crookes PF. Gastric cancer. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2002; 45(3):892-903.
de Haes JC, Curran D, Aaronson NK, Fentiman IS. Quality of life in breast cancer patients aged over 70 years, participating in the EORTC 10850 randomised clinical trial. Eur J Cancer 2003; 39(7):945-951.
DeCosse JJ, Tsioulias GJ, Jacobson JS. Colorectal cancer: detection, treatment, and rehabilitation. CA Cancer J Clin 1994; 44(1):27-42.
DeCosse JJ, Cennerazzo WJ. Quality-of-life management of patients with colorectal cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 1997; 47(4):198-206.
Diaz DL, Oteiza MF, Ciga MA, Aizcorbe M, Cobo F, Trujillo R. Impact of surgical procedure for gastric cancer on quality of life. Br J Surg 2003; 90(1):91-94.
DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiological Approach, Fifth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division; 2002.
Dodd MJ, Miaskowski C, Paul SM. Symptom clusters and their effect on the functional status of patients with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 2001; 28(3):465-470.
Dooley WC. Ambulatory breast cancer surgery. Ann Surg Oncol 2000; 7(3):174-175.
Eton DT, Lepore SJ. Prostate cancer and health-related quality of life: a review of the literature. Psychooncology 2002; 11(4):307-326.
Fernandez C, Rosell R, Abad-Esteve A, Monras P, Moreno I, Serichol M et al. Quality of life during chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Acta Oncol 1989; 28(1):29-33.
Ferrell BR, Grant M, Funk B, Otis-Green S, Garcia N. Quality of life in breast cancer. Part II: Psychological and spiritual well-being. Cancer Nurs 1998; 21(1):1-9.
Fielding JW, Ellis DJ, Jones BG, Paterson J, Powell DJ, Waterhouse JA et al. Natural history of “early” gastric cancer: results of a 10-year regional survey. Br Med J 1980; 281(6246):965-967.
Fischer DS, Marsh JC, eds. Cancer Therapy. Boston (MA): GK Hall Medical Publishers; 1982.
Forsberg C, Bjorvell H, Cedermark B. Well-being and its relation to coping ability in patients with colo-rectal and gastric cancer before and after surgery. Scand J Caring Sci 1996; 10(1):35-44.
Freeman JR, Broshek DK. Assessing cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer: what are the tools? Clin Breast Cancer 2002; 3 Suppl 3:S91-9.:S91-S99.
Fujii Y, Tanaka H, Kawasaki T. Preoperative oral granisetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after breast surgery. Eur J Surg 2001; 167(3):184-187.
Fujisawa M, Isotani S, Gotoh A, Okada H, Arakawa S, Kamidono S. Health-related quality of life with orthotopic neobladder versus ileal conduit according to the SF-36 survey. Urology 2000; 55(6):862-865.
Ganz PA, Coscarelli A, Fred C, Kahn B, Polinsky ML, Petersen L. Breast cancer survivors: psychosocial concerns and quality of life. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1996; 38(2):183-199.
Ganz PA, Rowland JH, Desmond K, Meyerowitz BE, Wyatt GE. Life after breast cancer: understanding women’s health-related quality of life and sexual functioning. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16(2):501-514.
Ganz PA, Desmond KA, Belin TR, Meyerowitz BE, Rowland JH. Predictors of sexual health in women after a breast cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17(8):2371-2380.
Garnick MB. Prostate cancer: screening, diagnosis, and management. Ann Intern Med 1993; 118(10):804-818.
Genre D, Protiere C, Macquart-Moulin G, Gravis G, Camerlo J, Alzieu C et al. Quality of life of breast cancer patients receiving high-dose-intensity chemotherapy: impact of length of cycles. Support Care Cancer 2002; 10(3):222-230.
Giesler RB, Miles BJ, Cowen ME, Kattan MW. Assessing quality of life in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: development of a new instrument for use in multiple settings. Qual Life Res 2000; 9(6):645-665.
Glimelius B, Graf W, Hoffman K, Pahlman L, Sjoden PO, Wennberg A. General condition of asymptomatic patients with advanced colorectal cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy. A longitudinal study. Acta Oncol 1992; 31(6):645-651.
Graydon JE. Women with breast cancer: their quality of life following a course of radiation therapy. J Adv Nurs 1994; 19(4):617-622.
Greenwald HP, Bonica JJ, Bergner M. The prevalence of pain in four cancers. Cancer 1987; 60(10):2563-2569.
Greimel E, Thiel I, Peintinger F, Cegnar I, Pongratz E. Prospective assessment of quality of life of female cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol 2002; 85(1):140-147.
Guren MG, Dueland S, Skovlund E, Fossa SD, Poulsen JP, Tveit KM. Quality of life during radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Eur J Cancer 2003; 39(5):587-594.
Handy JR, Jr., Asaph JW, Skokan L, Reed CE, Koh S, Brooks G et al. What happens to patients undergoing lung cancer surgery? Outcomes and quality of life before and after surgery. Chest 2002; 122(1):21-30.
Hann DM, Jacobsen PB, Azzarello LM, Martin SC, Curran SL, Fields KK et al. Measurement of fatigue in cancer patients: development and validation of the Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Qual Life Res 1998; 7(4):301-310.
Hardt J, Filipas D, Hohenfellner R, Egle UT. Quality of life in patients with bladder carcinoma after cystectomy: first results of a prospective study. Qual Life Res 2000; 9(1):1-12.
Harnois C, Malenfant M, Dupont A, Labrie F. Ocular toxicity of Anandron in patients treated for prostatic cancer. Br J Ophthalmol 1986; 70(6):471-473.
Hart S, Skinner EC, Meyerowitz BE, Boyd S, Lieskovsky G, Skinner DG. Quality of life after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in patients with an ileal conduit, cutaneous or urethral kock pouch. J Urol 1999; 162(1):77-81.
Henningsohn L, Wijkstrom H, Steven K, Pedersen J, Ahlstrand C, Aus G et al. Relative importance of sources of symptom-induced distress in urinary bladder cancer survivors. Eur Urol 2003; 43(6):651-662.
Henningsohn L, Wijkstrom H, Pedersen J, Ahlstrand C, Aus G, Bergmark K et al. Time after surgery, symptoms and well-being in survivors of urinary bladder cancer. BJU Int 2003; 91(4):325-330.
Henry-Amar M. Hodgkin’s disease. Treatment sequelae and quality of life. Baillieres Clin Haematol 1996; 9(3):595-618.
Higano CS. Side effects of androgen deprivation therapy: monitoring and minimizing toxicity. Urology 2003; 61(2 Suppl 1):32-38.
Higginson IJ, Hearn J. A multicenter evaluation of cancer pain control by palliative care teams. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997; 14(1):29-35.
Hoffman PC, Mauer AM, Vokes EE. Lung cancer. Lancet 2000; 355(9202):479-485.
Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ, Kris MG, Potanovich LM. Quality of life assessment in individuals with lung cancer: testing the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS). Eur J Cancer 1993; 29A Suppl 1:S51-8.:S51-S58.
Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ, Kris MG, Eberly SW, Cox C. Normative data and trends in quality of life from the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS). Support Care Cancer 1999; 7(3):140-148.
Holzner B, Kemmler G, Sperner-Unterweger B, Kopp M, Dunser M, Margreiter R et al. Quality of life measurement in oncology—a matter of the assessment instrument? Eur J Cancer 2001; 37(18):2349-2356.
Holzner B, Kemmler G, Kopp M, Moschen R, Schweigkofler H, Dunser M et al. Quality of life in breast cancer patients—not enough attention for long-term survivors? Psychosomatics 2001; 42(2):117-123.
Hurny C, Bernhard J, Joss R, Schatzmann E, Cavalli F, Brunner K et al. “Fatigue and malaise” as a quality-of-life indicator in small-cell lung cancer patients. The Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK). Support Care Cancer 1993; 1(6):316-320.
Janni W, Rjosk D, Dimpfl TH, Haertl K, Strobl B, Hepp F et al. Quality of life influenced by primary surgical treatment for stage I-III breast cancer-long-term follow-up of a matched-pair analysis. Ann Surg Oncol 2001; 8(6):542-548.
Kaasa S, Mastekaasa A, Thorud E. Toxicity, physical function and everyday activity reported by patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer in a randomized trial (chemotherapy versus radiotherapy). Acta Oncol 1988; 27(4):343-349.
Kalser MH, Barkin J, MacIntyre JM. Pancreatic cancer. Assessment of prognosis by clinical presentation. Cancer 1985; 56(2):397-402.
Kemp C. Terminal Illness: A Guide to Nursing Care, Second Edition. Philadelphia
(PA): Lippincott, Williams, and Wilson; 1999.
Kirsh KL, Passik S, Holtsclaw E, Donaghy K, Theobald D. I get tired for no reason: a single item screening for cancer-related fatigue. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001; 22(5):931-937.
Kissane DW, Clarke DM, Ikin J, Bloch S, Smith GC, Vitetta L et al. Psychological morbidity and quality of life in Australian women with early-stage breast cancer: a cross-sectional survey. Med J Aust 1998; 169(4):192-196.
Knobf MT. Symptoms and rehabilitation needs of patients with early stage breast cancer during primary therapy. Cancer 1990; 66:1392-1401.
Koopman C, Nouriani B, Erickson V, Anupindi R, Butler LD, Bachmann MH et al. Sleep disturbances in women with metastatic breast cancer. Breast J 2002; 8(6):362-370.
Koukouras D, Spiliotis J, Scopa CD, Dragotis K, Kalfarentzos F, Tzoracoleftherakis E et al. Radical consequence in the sexuality of male patients operated for colorectal carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol 1991; 17(3):285-288.
Koyi H, Hillerdal G, Branden E. A prospective study of a total material of lung cancer from a county in Sweden 1997-1999: gender, symptoms, type, stage, and smoking habits. Lung Cancer 2002; 36(1):9-14.
Kuo TT, Ma FC. Symptom distresses and coping strategies in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Nurs 2002; 25(4):309-317.
Kyle SM, Isbister WH, Yeong ML. Presentation, duration of symptoms and staging of colorectal carcinoma. Aust N Z J Surg 1991; 61(2):137-140.
Langendijk JA, Aaronson NK, ten Velde GP, de Jong JM, Muller MJ, Wouters EF. Pretreatment quality of life of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer patients referred for primary radiotherapy. Acta Oncol 2000; 39(8):949-958.
Langendijk JA, Aaronson NK, de Jong JM, ten Velde GP, Muller MJ, Slotman BJ et al. Quality of life after curative radiotherapy in Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002; 53(4):847-853.
Lee F, Patel HR. Kidney cancer: current management guidelines. Hosp Med 2002; 63(4):214-217.
Lee PY, Fletcher WS, Sullivan ES, Vetto JT. Colorectal cancer in young patients: characteristics and outcome. Am Surg 1994; 60(8):607-612.
Leonard RCF, Rodger A, Dixon JM. Metastatic Breast Cancer. BMJ 1994; 309:1501-1504.
Lepor H, Nieder AM, Fraiman MC. Early removal of urinary catheter after radical retropubic prostatectomy is both feasible and desirable. Urology 2001; 58(3):425-429.
Lilleby W, Fossa SD, Waehre HR, Olsen DR. Long-term morbidity and quality of life in patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing definitive radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999; 43(4):735-743.
Litwin MS, Hays RD, Fink A, Ganz PA, Leake B, Brook RH. The UCLA Prostate Cancer Index: development, reliability, and validity of a health-related quality of life measure. Med Care 1998; 36(7):1002-1012.
Long DS. How breast cancer patients choose a treatment method. Radiol Technol 1993; 65:30-33.
Lubbe AS, Krischke NR, Dimeo F, Forkel S, Petermann F. Health-related quality of life and pulmonary function in lung cancer patients undergoing medical rehabilitation treatment. Wien Med Wochenschr 2001; 151(1-2):29-34.
Luoma ML, Hakamies-Blomqvist L, Sjostrom J, Mouridsen H, Pluzanska A, Malmstrom P et al. Physical performance, toxicity, and quality of life as assessed by the physician and the patient. Acta Oncol 2002; 41(1):44-49.
Lutz S, Norrell R, Bertucio C, Kachnic L, Johnson C, Arthur D et al. Symptom frequency and severity in patients with metastatic or locally recurrent lung cancer: a prospective study using the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale in a community hospital. J Palliat Med 2001; 4(2):157-165.
Lynch M, Abrahm J. Ensuring a good death. Cancer Pract 2002; 10 Suppl 1:S33-8.:S33-S38.
Maasilta PK, Rautonen JK, Mattson MT, Mattson KV. Quality of life assessment during chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cancer 1990; 26(6):706-708.
Magee CJ, Shekouh A, Ghaneh P, Neoptolemos JP. Update on pancreatic cancer. Hosp Med 2002; 63(4):200-206.
Manabe T, Miyashita T, Ohshio G, Nonaka A, Suzuki T, Endo K et al. Small carcinoma of the pancreas. Clinical and pathologic evaluation of 17 patients. Cancer 1988; 62(1):135-141.
Marineo G. Untreatable pain resulting from abdominal cancer: new hope from biophysics? JOP 2003; 4(1):1-10.
Mathews A, Ridgeway V, Warren R, Britton P. Predicting worry following a diagnosis of breast cancer. Psychooncology 2002; 11(5):415-418.
Matsuda T, Aptel I, Exbrayat C, Grosclaude P. Determinants of quality of life of bladder cancer survivors five years after treatment in France. Int J Urol 2003; 10(8):423-429.
Maughan TS, James RD, Kerr DJ, Ledermann JA, McArdle C, Seymour MT et al. Comparison of survival, palliation, and quality of life with three chemotherapy regimens in metastatic colorectal cancer: a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet 2002; 359(9317):1555-1563.
McConnell EA. Loosening the grip of intestinal obstructions. Nursing 1994; 24(3):34-41.
McElwain TJ. Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Br J Hosp Med 1984; 31(1):10-19.
McLachlan SA, Devins GM, Goodwin PJ. Validation of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) as a measure of psychosocial function in breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 1998; 34(4):510-517.
Mendoza TR, Wang XS, Cleeland CS, Morrissey M, Johnson BA, Wendt JK et al. The rapid assessment of fatigue severity in cancer patients: use of the Brief Fatigue Inventory. Cancer 1999; 85(5):1186-1196.
Meyerowitz BE, Desmond KA, Rowland JH, Wyatt GE, Ganz PA. Sexuality following breast cancer. J Sex Marital Ther 1999; 25(3):237-250.
Michael M, Moore MJ. Assessing the impact of chemotherapy on tumor-related symptoms in advanced colorectal cancer. Oncology (Huntingt) 1998; 12(8 Suppl 6):121-128.
Milowsky MI, Nanus DM. Advanced renal cell carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol 2001; 2(5):437-445.
Minardi AJ, Jr., Sittig KM, Zibari GB, McDonald JC. Colorectal cancer in the young patient. Am Surg 1998; 64(9):849-853.
Mock V, Atkinson A, Barsevick A, Cella D, Cimprich B, Cleeland C et al. NCCN Practice Guidelines for Cancer-Related Fatigue. Oncology (Huntingt) 2000; 14(11A):151-161.
Monga U, Kerrigan AJ, Thornby J, Monga TN. Prospective study of fatigue in localized prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol Investig 1999; 7(3):178-185.
Montazeri A, Milroy R, Hole D, McEwen J, Gillis CR. Quality of life in lung cancer patients: as an important prognostic factor. Lung Cancer 2001; 31(2-3):233-240.
Mosconi P, Apolone G, Barni S, Secondino S, Sbanotto A, Filiberti A. Quality of life in breast and colon cancer long-term survivors: an assessment with the EORTC QLQ-C30 and SF-36 questionnaires. Tumori 2002; 88(2):110-116.
Myrdal G, Valtysdottir S, Lambe M, Stahle E. Quality of life following lung cancer surgery. Thorax 2003; 58(3):194-197.
Mystakidou K, Parpa E, Tsilika E, Kalaidopoulou O, Vlahos L. The families evaluation on management, care and disclosure for terminal stage cancer patients. BMC Palliat Care 2002; 1(1):3.
Newport DJ, Nemeroff CB. Assessment and treatment of depression in the cancer patient. J Psychosom Res 1998; 45(3):215-237.
Nissen MJ, Swenson KK, Ritz LJ, Farrell JB, Sladek ML, Lally RM. Quality of life after breast carcinoma surgery: a comparison of three surgical procedures. Cancer 2001; 91(7):1238-1246.
O’Driscoll M, Corner J, Bailey C. The experience of breathlessness in lung cancer. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl ) 1999; 8(1):37-43.
Okuyama T, Akechi T, Kugaya A, Okamura H, Imoto S, Nakano T et al. Factors correlated with fatigue in disease-free breast cancer patients: application of the Cancer Fatigue Scale. Support Care Cancer 2000; 8(3):215-222.
Okuyama T, Tanaka K, Akechi T, Kugaya A, Okamura H, Nishiwaki Y et al. Fatigue in ambulatory patients with advanced lung cancer: prevalence, correlated factors, and screening. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001; 22(1):554-564.
Olson K, Tom B, Hewitt J, Whittingham J, Buchanan L, Ganton G. Evolving routines: preventing fatigue associated with lung and colorectal cancer. Qual Health Res 2002; 12(5):655-670.
Osoba D, Zee B, Pater J, Warr D, Kaizer L, Latreille J. Psychometric properties and responsiveness of the EORTC quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) in patients with breast, ovarian and lung cancer. Qual Life Res 1994; 3(5):353-364.
Osoba D, Tannock IF, Ernst DS, Neville AJ. Health-related quality of
life in men with metastatic prostate cancer treated with prednisone alone
or mitoxantrone and prednisone. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17(6):1654-1663.
Pandey M, Singh SP, Behere PB, Roy SK, Singh S, Shukla VK. Quality of life in patients with early and advanced carcinoma of the breast. Eur J Surg Oncol 2000; 26(1):20-24.
Pargeon KL, Hailey BJ. Barriers to effective cancer pain management: a review of the literature. J Pain Symptom Manage 1999; 18(5):358-368.
Parramore JB, Wei JP, Yeh KA. Colorectal cancer in patients under forty: presentation and outcome. Am Surg 1998; 64(6):563-567.
Pashos CL, Botteman MF, Laskin BL, Redaelli A. Bladder cancer: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Cancer Pract 2002; 10(6):311-322.
Pasini F, Pelosi G, Valduga F, Durante E, de Manzoni G, Zaninelli M et al. Late events and clinical prognostic factors in stage I non small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 2002; 37(2):171-177.
Passik SD, Dugan W, McDonald MV, Rosenfeld B, Theobald DE, Edgerton S. Oncologists’ recognition of depression in their patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16(4):1594-1600.
Penson DF. Quality of life following prostate cancer treatments. Curr Urol Rep 2000; 1(1):71-77.
Penson DF, Litwin MS. The physical burden of prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 2003; 30(2):305-313.
Persson L, Hallberg IR, Ohlsson O. Survivors of acute leukaemia and highly malignant lymphoma—retrospective views of daily life problems during treatment and when in remission. J Adv Nurs 1997; 25(1):68-78.
Pierce SM, Harris JR. Radiation therapy to the breast: practical aspects. J Am Med Wom Assoc 1992; 47:174-7, 187.
Plataniotis GA, Kouvaris JR, Dardoufas C, Kouloulias V, Theofanopoulou MA, Vlahos L. A short radiotherapy course for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): effective palliation and patients’ convenience. Lung Cancer 2002; 35(2):203-207.
Polinsky ML. Functional status of long-term breast cancer survivors: demonstrating chronicity. Health Soc Work 1994; 19(3):165-173.
Potosky AL, Legler J, Albertsen PC, Stanford JL, Gilliland FD, Hamilton AS et al. Health outcomes after prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer: results from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92(19):1582-1592.
Prucha EJ. Cancer Sourcebook. Detroit (MI): Omnigraphics Inc.; 2000.
Purushotham AD, McLatchie E, Young D, George WD, Stallard S, Doughty J et al. Randomized clinical trial of no wound drains and early discharge in the treatment of women with breast cancer. Br J Surg 2002; 89(3):286-292.
Quesnel C, Savard J, Simard S, Ivers H, Morin CM. Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia in women treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71(1):189-200.
Radice D, Redaelli A. Breast cancer management: quality-of-life and cost considerations. Pharmacoeconomics 2003; 21(6):383-396.
Richer MC, Ezer H. Living in it, living with it, and moving on: dimensions of meaning during chemotherapy. Oncol Nurs Forum 2002; 29(1):113-119.
Rietman JS, Dijkstra PU, Hoekstra HJ, Eisma WH, Szabo BG, Groothoff JW et al. Late morbidity after treatment of breast cancer in relation to daily activities and quality of life: a systematic review. Eur J Surg Oncol 2003; 29(3):229-238.
Rothchild E. Family dynamics in end-of-life treatment decisions. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1994; 16(4):251-258.
Sarna L, Brecht ML. Dimensions of symptom distress in women with advanced lung cancer: a factor analysis. Heart Lung 1997; 26(1):23-30.
Sarna L, Padilla G, Holmes C, Tashkin D, Brecht ML, Evangelista L. Quality of life of long-term survivors of non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20(13):2920-2929.
Schag CA, Ganz PA, Polinsky ML, Fred C, Hirji K, Petersen L. Characteristics of women at risk for psychosocial distress in the year after breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11(4):783-793.
Schagen SB, van Dam FS, Muller MJ, Boogerd W, Lindeboom J, Bruning PF. Cognitive deficits after postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma. Cancer 1999; 85(3):640-650.
Schmidt JD. The patient, disease status, and treatment options for prostate cancer: stages D1 and D2. Prostate 1983; 4(5):493-501.
Schow DA, Renfer LG, Rozanski TA, Thompson IM. Prevalence of hot flushes during and after neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for localized prostate cancer. South Med J 1998; 91(9):855-857.
Scieszka M, Zielinski M, Machalski M, Herman ZS. Quality of life in cancer patients treated by chemotherapy. Neoplasma 2000; 47(6):396-399.
Seidman AD. Monotherapy options in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Semin Oncol 2003; 30(2 Suppl 3):6-10.
Sestini AS, Pakenham KI. Cancer of the prostate: A biopsychosocial review. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology 2000; 18(1):17-38.
Shahrudin MD, Noori SM. Cancer of the colon and rectum in the first three decades of life. Hepatogastro-enterology 1997; 44(14):441-444.
Sousa-Escandon A, Vazquez S, Quintero-Aldana G, Picallo JA, Neira J, Garcia-Novio F et al. Neo-adjuvant treatment of infiltrating transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder with paclitaxel and cisplatin: a phase II trial. Int J Urol 2002; 9(3):162-166.
Spiegel D. Cancer and depression. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 1996;(30):109-116.
Sprangers MA, Taal BG, Aaronson NK, te Velde A. Quality of life in colorectal cancer. Stoma vs. nonstoma patients. Dis Colon Rectum 1995; 38(4):361-369.
Sridhar KS, Bounassi MJ, Raub W, Jr., Richman SP. Clinical features of adenosquamous lung carcinoma in 127 patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 142(1):19-23.
Stein W, Farina A, Gaffney K, Lundeen C, Wagner K, Wachtel T. Characteristics of colon cancer at time of presentation. Fam Pract Res J 1993; 13(4):355-363.
Stone P, Hardy J, Huddart R, A’Hern R, Richards M. Fatigue in patients with prostate cancer receiving hormone therapy. Eur J Cancer 2000; 36(9):1134-1141.
Stone P, Richards M, A’Hern R, Hardy J. Fatigue in patients with cancers of the breast or prostate undergoing radical radiotherapy. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001; 22(6):1007-1015.
Stubbs RS, Long MG. Symptom duration and pathologic staging of colorectal cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 1986; 12(2):127-130.
Sullivan BA, McKinnis R, Laufman LR. Quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving chemotherapy: a randomized, double-blind trial comparing 5-FU versus 5-FU with leucovorin. Pharmacotherapy 1995; 15(5):600-607.
Svedlund J, Sullivan M, Sjodin I, Liedman B, Lundell L. Quality of life
in gastric cancer prior to gastrectomy. Qual Life Res 1996; 5(2):255-264.
Tanaka K, Akechi T, Okuyama T, Nishiwaki Y, Uchitomi Y. Factors correlated with dyspnea in advanced lung cancer patients: organic causes and what else? J Pain Symptom Manage 2002; 23(6):490-500.
Tanaka K, Akechi T, Okuyama T, Nishiwaki Y, Uchitomi Y. Prevalence and screening of dyspnea interfering with daily life activities in ambulatory patients with advanced lung cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 2002; 23(6):484-489.
Theodossiou C, Schwarzenberger P. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2002; 45(3):820-829.
Thybusch-Bernhardt A, Schmidt C, Kuchler T, Schmid A, Henne-Bruns D, Kremer B. Quality of life following radical surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma. World J Surg 1999; 23(5):503-508.
Trachtenberg J. Innovative approaches to the hormonal treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Eur Urol 1997; 32 Suppl 3:78-80.
Trippoli S, Vaiani M, Lucioni C, Messori A. Quality of life and utility in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Quality-of-life Study Group of the Master 2 Project in Pharmacoeconomics. Pharmacoeconomics 2001; 19(8):855-863.
Vainio A, Auvinen A. Prevalence of symptoms among patients with advanced cancer: an international collaborative study. Symptom Prevalence Group. J Pain Symptom Manage 1996; 12(1):3-10.
Valente SM, Saunders JM, Cohen MZ. Evaluating depression among patients with cancer. Cancer Pract 1994; 2(1):65-71.
Vinokur AD, Threatt BA, Caplan RD, Zimmerman BL. Physical and psychosocial functioning and adjustment to breast cancer. Long-term follow-up of a screening population. Cancer 1989; 63(2):394-405.
Wai CY, Miller DS. Urinary bladder cancer. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2002; 45(3):844-854.
Waldman AR. Understanding non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Clin J Oncol Nurs 2003; 7(1):93-96.
Wang H, Huang E, Dale W, Campbell T, Ignacio L, Kopnick M et al. Self-assessed health-related quality of life in men who have completed radiotherapy for prostate cancer: instrument validation and its relation to patient-assessed bother of symptoms. Int J Cancer 2000; 90(3):163-172.
Wayne MS, Cath A, Pamies RJ. Colorectal cancer. A practical review for the primary care physician. Arch Fam Med 1995; 4(4):357-366.
Webster K, Cella D. Quality of life in patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Oncology (Huntingt) 1998; 12(5):697-714.
Weiss SC, Emanuel LL, Fairclough DL, Emanuel EJ. Understanding the experience of pain in terminally ill patients. Lancet 2001; 357(9265):1311-1315.
Whelan TJ, Levine M, Julian J, Kirkbride P, Skingley P. The effects of radiation therapy on quality of life of women with breast carcinoma: results of a randomized trial. Ontario Clinical Oncology Group. Cancer 2000; 88(10):2260-2266.
Winningham ML, Nail LM, Burke MB, Brophy L, Cimprich B, Jones LS et al. Fatigue and the cancer experience: the state of the knowledge. Oncol Nurs Forum 1994; 21(1):23-36.
Wolberg WH, Romsaas EP, Tanner MA, Malec JF. Psychosexual adaptation to breast cancer surgery. Cancer 1989; 63(8):1645-1655.
Wong K, Henderson IC. Management of metastatic breast cancer. World J Surg 1994; 18(1):98-111.
The following websites were also consulted:
American Cancer Society
BC Cancer Agency
Cancer Care Ontario
National Cancer Institute
National Library of Medicine