Health Reports

A Canadian peer-reviewed journal of population health and health services research

December 2019

Life expectancy of First Nations, Métis and Inuit household populations in Canada

by Michael Tjepkema, Tracey Bushnik and Evelyne Bougie

Significant health gaps exist between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in Canada and other countries such as the United States, Australia and New Zealand. To identify and close these gaps, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada recommendation # 19 has called upon the federal government to publish data and assess long-term trends for a number of health indicators, including life expectancy among First Nations people, Métis and Inuit.

Abstract Full article PDF version The Daily release

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Life expectancy of First Nations, Métis and Inuit household populations in Canada

Trends in mortality inequalities among the adult household population

by Emma Marshall-Catlin, Tracey Bushnik and Michael Tjepkema

Health inequalities can be defined as avoidable differences in health status between population groups. These differences have been attributed to personal, social, economic and environmental factors. For example, income has been tied to health outcomes in that people with low income may have less access to health services and higher-quality material resources (such as shelter and food), and the knowledge and skills obtained through formal education can influence the understanding of health messaging and the ability to effectively access health services. The routine measurement of population health status indicators like mortality is important to assess progress in the reduction of inequalities and is a priority in Canada. Though mortality rates overall have been decreasing over time, inequalities remain. In the past, people in higher socioeconomic groups have experienced lower mortality rates than those with less income or lower educational attainment. Despite increasing attention and actions taken, regional studies suggest that mortality inequalities across socioeconomic groups may be increasing in Canada, especially for women.

Abstract Full article PDF version The Daily release

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Trends in mortality inequalities among the adult household population

Cohort profile: The Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohorts (CanCHECs)

by Michael Tjepkema, Tanya Christidis, Tracey Bushnik and Lauren Pinault

The reduction and elimination of health inequalities is an ongoing goal of health policy in Canada. To support and inform progress toward this goal, a sample of 1991 Census respondents and 10 years of mortality data were linked in 2008. This dataset was then used to determine the distribution of mortality outcomes across groups defined by income, education, occupation, marital status, language, ethnicity, immigration status, Indigenous identity and disability status. In 2009, approval was granted to add more years of mortality follow-up, and to include cancer incidence data and annual place of residence data. The primary purpose of this expanded dataset was to assess the impact of long-term exposure to air pollution on human health, with the objective to inform the development of Canada-wide standards for key criteria pollutants. In subsequent years, a 2001 Census linked dataset and a 1996 Census linked dataset were created and branded as the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohorts (CanCHECs).

Abstract Full article PDF version The Daily release

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Cohort profile: The Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohorts (CanCHECs)

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