View the most recent version.
Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please "contact us" to request a format other than those available.
1. Lavanchy D. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment and current and emerging prevention and control measures. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2004; 11: 97-107.
2. Chen SL, Morgan TR.The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. International Journal of Medicine and Science 2006; 3: 47-52.
3. World Health Organization. Hepatitis B: Fact Sheet. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2012.
Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs204/en/
4. Tran TT. Managmenent of hepatitis B in pregnancy: Weighing the options. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 2009; 76(3): 525-9.
5. Davis LG, Weber DJ, Lemon SM. Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus. Lancet 1989; 1(8643): 889-993.
6. Seeff LB. The history of the “natural history” of hepatitis C (1968-2009). Liver International 2009; 29(s1): 89-99.
7. Wiese M, Grungreiff K, Guthoff W, et al. Outcome in a hepatitis C (genotype 1b) single-source outbreak in Germany: A 25-year multicenter study. Journal of Hepatology 2005; 43(4): 590-8.
8. Sterling RK, Stravitz RT, Luketic VA, et al. A comparison of the spectrum of chronic hepatitis C between Caucausians and African Americans. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2004; 2: 469-73.
9. Graham CS, Baden LR, Yu E, et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency infection on the course of hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. Clinicially Infectious Disease 2001; 33: 562-9.
10. Ortiz V, Berenguer M, Rayon JM, et al. Contribution of obesity to hepatitis C-related fibrosis progression. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2002; 97: 2408-14.
11. Ratziu V, Munteanu M, Charlotte F, et al. Fibrogenic impact of high serum glucose in chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Hepatology 2003; 39: 1049-55.
12. Newell ML, Pembrey L. Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. Drugs of Today 2002; 38: 321-7.
13. Memon MI, Memon MA. Hepatitis C: An epidemiological review. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2002; 9(2): 84-100.
14. Brettler DB, Mannucci PM, Gringeri A, et al. The low risk of hepatitis C virus transmission among sexual partners of hepatitis C-infected males : an international, multicentre study. Blood 1992; 80: 540-3.
15. Wandeler G, Gisponer T, Bregenser A, et al. Hepatitis C virus infections in the Swiss HIV cohort study: A rapidly evolving epidemic. Journal of Clinically Infectious Diseases 2012; 55(11): 1408-16.
16. Miller CL, Wood E, Spittal PM, et al. The face of co-infection, prevalence and incidence of HIV and hepatitis C virus co-infection among injecting drug users. AIDS 2004; 36(2): 743-9.
17. Public Health Agency of Canada. Epi-Update: Hepatitis B Infection in Canada. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011.
Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/id-mi/pdf/hepB-eng.pdf
18. Lai CL, Ratziu V, Yuen MF, Poynard T. Viral hepatitis B. Lancet 2003; 362: 2089-94.
19. Alter HJ, Liang TJ. Hepatitis C: the end of the beginning and possibly the beginning of the end. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012; 156(4): 317-8.
20. Chevaliez S, Rodriguez C, Pawlotsky J-M. New virologic tools for the management of chronic hepatitis B and C. Gastroenterology 2012; 142: 1303-13.
21. Canadian Liver Foundation. Ontarians Deserve Better Access to Treatment for Hepatitis B and C. December, 2010.
Available at: http://www.liver.ca/print/Liver_News/livernews12151001.aspx
22. Scaglione SJ, Lok ASF. Effectiveness of hepatitis B treatment in clinical practice. Gastroenterology 2012; 142: 1360-8.
23. Public Health Agency of Canada. Reported Cases and Rates of Hepatitis C, by Province/Territory and Sex, 2005 to 2009. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2010.
24. Public Health Agency of Canada. Hepatitis C in Canada: 2005-2010 Surveillance Report. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011.
25. Glasgow KW, Schabas R, Yuen MF, et al. A population-based hepatitis B seroprevalence and risk-factor study in a northern Ontario town. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1997; 88(2): 87-90.
26. Stratton E, Sweet L, Latorraca-Walsh A, et al. Hepatitis C in Prince Edward Island: A descriptive review of reported cases, 1990-1995. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1997; 88(2): 91-4.
27. Uhanova J, Tate RB, Tataryn DJ, et al. A population-based study of the epidemiology of hepatitis C in a North American population. Journal of Hepatology 2012; 57: 736-42.
28. Zou S, Zhang J, Tepper M, et al. Enhanced surveillance of acute hepatitis B and C in four health regions in Canada, 1998 to 1999. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001; 12(6): 357-63.
29. O’Brien SF, Xi G, Fan W. et al. Epidemiology of hepatitis B in Canadian blood donors. Transfusion 2008; 48: 2323-30.
30. Moloughney B, Kyle V, Poliquin L, et al. A health care needs assessment of federal inmates in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2004; 95(Supp1.): S9-63.
31. Public Health Agency of Canada. Sexually Transmitted Infections in Canadian Street Youth—Findings from Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth, 1999-2003. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2006.
Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/reports_06/pdf/sti-street_youth_e.pdf
32. Poulin C, Gyorkos T, Joseph L, et al. An epidemic of hepatitis B among injection drug users in a rural area. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1992; 83: 102-5.
33. Remis RS. Modeling the Incidence and Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infection and Its Sequelae in Canada, 2007. Final Report.
Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/sti-its-surv-epi/model/index-eng.php
34. Public Health Agency of Canada. Case definitions for communicable diseases under national surveillance. Canadian Communicable Disease Report 2009; 35(S2).
Available at: http://www.hac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/09vol35/35s2/index-eng.php
35. Giroux S, Labrecque F, Quigley A. Sampling Documentation for Cycle 2 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Methodology Branch Working Paper 002. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2013.
36. Day B, Langlois R, Tremblay M, Knoppers BM. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Ethical, legal and social issues. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.): 37-51.
37. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data User Guide: Cycle 1 2010. Available at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/5071_D2_T1_V1-eng.pdf
38. Statistics Canada. CHMS Cycle 2 documents. List of Available Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Documents. Ottawa: Statistics Canada,2013.
Available on request at: http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/5071_D4_T9_V1-eng.htm
39. Bryan S, St. Denis M, Wojtas D. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Clinic operations and logistics. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.): 53-71.
40. Statistics Canada. Census Webpage. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2013.
Available at: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm?HPA
41. Lavanchy D. The global burden of hepatitis C. Liver International 2009; Suppl. 1: 74-91.
42. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Travelers’ Health—Yellow Book, 2008. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
43. Health Canada. Case definitions for communicable diseases under national surveillance. Canadian Communicable Disease Report 2000; 26(S3).
Available at: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/H12-21-3-26-3E.pdf
44. Marks G, Crepaz N, Janssen RS. Estimating sexual transmission of HIV from persons aware and unaware that they are infected with the virus in the USA. AIDS 2006; 20: 1447-50.
45. Rao JNK, Wu GFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18: 209-17.
46. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5: 281-310.
47. Wasley A, Kruszon-Moran D, Kuhmert W, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States in the era of vaccination. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010; 202: 192-201.
48. Rossi C, Shrier I, Marshal L, et al. Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and prior immunity in immigrants and refugees: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS One 2012; 7(9): c44611.
49. MacDonald NE. Moving towards a universal hepatitis B vaccine program for Canadian children. Canadian Journal of Infectious Disease 1995; 6(3): 129-30.
50. Health Canada. Report of the Hepatitis B Working Group. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1994; 151: 1294-7.
51. Public Health Agency of Canada. Publicly Funded Immunization Programs in Canada—Routine Schedule for Infants and Children Including Special Programs and Catch-up Programs (as of December 2012).Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2012.
Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/im/ptimprog-progimpt/table-1-eng.php
52. Armstrong GL, Wasley A, Simard EP, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Annals of Internal Medicine 2006; 144: 705-14.
53. Balogun MA, Ramsay ME, Hesketh LM, et al. The prevalence of Hepatitis C in England and Wales. Journal of Infection 2002; 45: 219-36.
54. Boulos D, Goedhuis NJ, Wu J, et al. Enhanced surveillance for acute and likely acute hepatitis B in Canada: 1999 to 2002. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology 2005; 16(5): 275-81.
55. Public Health Agency of Canada. Epidemiology of acute hepatitis C infection in Canada. Results from the Enhanced Hepatitis Strain Surveillance System (EHSSS). Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2006.
56. Amin J, Gidding H, Gilbert G, et al. Hepatitis C prevalence—a nationwide serosurvey. Communicable Disease Intelligence 2004; 28(4): 517-21.
57. Goldman M, Long A. Hepatitis C lookback in Canada. Vox Sanguinis 2000; 78(Suppl. 2): 249-52.
58. Public Health Agency of Canada. Custom tabulation from M-Track: Enhanced surveillance of risk behaviours among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in Canada, Phase 1 (2005-2007). Unpublished. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2012.
59. Correctional Service Canada. Infectious Disease Surveillance in Federal Penitentiaries 2005-2006. Fall 2008.
Available at: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/infdscfp-2005-06/p12-eng.shtml
60. Public Health Agency of Canada. Custom tabulation from I-Track: Enhanced surveillance of risk behaviours among people who inject drugs. Phase 2 (2005-2008). Unpublished. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2010.
61. Public Health Agency of Canada. Custom tabulation from E-SYS: HBV+ status awareness levels among Canadian street youth surveyed between 1999 and 2012 (cycles 2-6). Unpublished. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2013.
62. Spittal PM, Pearce ME, Chavoshi N, et al. The Cedar project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities. BMC Public Health 2012; 12: 632-42.
63. Edlin BR. Perspective: Test and treat this silent killer. Nature 2011; 474: S18-9.
64. Werb D, Wood E, Kerr T, et al. Treatment costs of hepatitis C infection among injection drug users in Canada, 2006-2026. International Journal of Drug Policy 2011; 22: 70-6.
65. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Standard Operating Procedures for Laboratory Infection Markers: Cycle 2. Unpublished. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2012.
66. Lee D-S, Lesniewski RR, Sung Y-C, et al. Significance of Anti-E2 in the diagnosis of HCV infection in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: Anti-E2 is frequently detected among anti-HCV antibody-negative patients. Journal of the American Society for Nephrology 1996; 7(11): 2409-13.
67. Kondili LA, Chionne P, Costantino A, et al. Infection rate and spontaneous seroconversion of anti-hepatitis C virus during the natural course of hepatitis C virus in the general population. Gut 2002; 50: 693-6.
68. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Testing for HCV infection: An update of guidance for clinicians and laboratorians. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review 2013; 62(18): 362-5.