Education Indicators in Canada: An International Perspective, 2018
Chapter A
The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning

A1 Educational attainment of the adult population

Context

This indicator provides a profile of the educational attainment of the adult population aged 25 to 64; that is, the percentage of that population that has successfully completed a certain level of education. For this international indicator, educational attainment reflects the highest level of education completed, based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) categories.Note 1 As all subsequent indicators are examined by educational attainment within this international structure, this opening indicator, A1, sets the stage with an overview of the situation in Canada, including a breakdown of attainment by sex to reveal any gender differences. Information on generational differences reflects the shifts in educational attainment over time. Overall trends are also presented. This portrait of educational attainment places Canada and its provinces and territories in an international context.

Education helps give individuals the tools they need to participate in social and economic life and is key to the social and economic well-being of a country. As a large number of people in the 25-to-64 age range will have completed their formal education, this indicator provides some information on the skills and knowledge of this segment of the population, the core segment active in the labour market. Overall, the educational attainment of all individuals in the working-age population influences the competitiveness of economies and the prosperity of societies. Variations in attainment over time reflect differences in access to education, and indicate the evolution of knowledge available in the working-age population.

The distribution of educational attainment across Canada should not be considered an exact reflection of any educational system's output because many other factors come into play; for example, differences in labour market and economic situations, in the relative magnitude of international and inter-jurisdictional migrations, and the overall mobility of students and workers.

Observations

Chart A.1.1 Distribution of the 25- to 64-year-old population, by highest level of education attained, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017

Data table for Chart A.1.1 
Data table for chart A.1.1
Distribution of the 25- to 64-year-old population, by highest level of education attained, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of the 25- to 64-year-old population Below upper secondary, Upper secondary education, Post-secondary non-tertiary, Short cycle tertiary, Bachelor's or equivalent and Master's, doctoral or equivalent, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Below upper secondary Upper secondary education Post-secondary non-tertiary Short cycle tertiary Bachelor's or equivalent Master's, doctoral or equivalent
percent
DEU 14 46 12 1 15 13
FRA 22 43 0 14 10 11
GBR 19 19 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10 23 13
ITA 39 41 1 0 4 14
JPN Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 49 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 21 30 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
USA 9 44 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 11 23 13
OECD 21 39 6 7 17 14
CAN 9 24 11 26 21 10
N.L. 13 23 19 27 11 6
P.E.I. 11 23 8 30 18 8
N.S. 9 23 13 26 18 11
N.B. 11 28 8 30 16 7
Que. 12 18 18 24 20 9
Ont. 8 25 5 28 23 12
Man. 10 29 9 24 20 7
Sask. 10 29 16 20 19 6
Alta. 9 26 14 22 22 8
B.C. 6 27 11 24 22 10
Y.T. Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act 22 16 24 20 10
N.W.T. 20 21 11 21 16 11
Nvt. 39 15 11 21 8 6

Gender differences, G7 countries and OECD

Chart A.1.2 Distribution of the 25- to 64-year-old population, by highest level of education attained and sex, Canada and OECD, 2017

Data table for Chart A.1.2 
Data table for chart A.1.2
Distribution of the 25- to 64-year-old population, by highest level of education attained and sex, OECD and Canada, 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of the 25- to 64-year-old population. The information is grouped by Highest level of education attained (appearing as row headers), Men (Canada), Women (Canada), Men (OECD) and Women (OECD), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Highest level of education attained Men (Canada) Women (Canada) Men (OECD) Women (OECD)
percent
Below upper secondary 11 7 22 21
Upper secondary 25 23 41 36
Postsecondary non-tertiary 14 7 6 6
Short cycle tertiary
22 29 7 8
Bachelor's or equivalent 19 24 16 18
Master's, doctoral or equivalent 10 10 13 15

Tertiary attainment

Chart A.1.3 Distribution of the 25- to 64-year-old population with short cycle tertiary and bachelor's, master's or doctoral or equivalent degree, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017

Data table for Chart A.1.3 
Data table for chart A.1.3
Proportion of the 25- to 64-year-old population with short cycle tertiary and bachelor's, master's or doctoral or equivalent degree, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Proportion of the 25- to 64-year-old population with short cycle tertiary and bachelor's. The information is grouped by Canada, provinces, territories and OECD (appearing as row headers), Bachelor's, master's or doctoral or equivalent, Short cycle tertiary and Total tertiary, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Canada, provinces, territories and OECD Bachelor's, master's or doctoral or equivalent Short cycle tertiary Total tertiary
percent
DEU 28 1 29
FRA 21 14 35
GBR 36 10 46
ITA 19 0 19
JPN 30 21 51
USA 36 11 46
OECD 31 7 37
CAN 31 26 57
N.L. 17 27 45
P.E.I. 26 30 57
N.S. 29 26 54
N.B. 23 30 53
Que. 29 24 53
Ont. 35 28 63
Man. 27 24 51
Sask. 25 20 45
Alta. 30 22 52
B.C. 32 24 56
Y.T. 30 24 54
N.W.T. 27 21 47
Nvt. 14 21 35

Generational differences in tertiary attainment

Chart A.1.4.1 Distribution of 25-to 34-year olds that have attained tertiary education, by sex, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017

Data table for Chart A.1.4.1 
Data table for chart A.1.4.1
Distribution of 25-to 34-year olds that have attained tertiary education, by sex, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of 25-to 34-year olds that have attained tertiary education Total population, Men and Women, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Total population Men Women
percent
DEU 31 30 33
FRA 44 39 49
GBR 52 50 54
ITA 27 20 33
JPN 60 59 62
USA 48 43 52
OECD 44 38 50
CAN 61 52 70
N.L. 51 43 60
P.E.I. 64 55 72
N.S. 61 52 70
N.B. 60 54 67
Que. 60 50 69
Ont. 68 60 75
Man. 52 46 59
Sask. 48 37 59
Alta. 52 42 63
B.C. 58 48 68
Y.T. 51 42 62
N.W.T. 43 34 52
Nvt. 30 21 39

Chart A.1.4.2 Distribution of 55-to 64-year olds that have attained tertiary education, by sex, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017

Data table for Chart A.1.4.2 
Data table for chart A.1.4.2
Distribution of 55-to 64-year olds that have attained tertiary education, by sex, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of 55-to 64-year olds that have attained tertiary education Total population, Men and Women, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Total population Men Women
percent
DEU 26 32 21
FRA 23 22 23
GBR 37 37 37
ITA 13 13 13
JPN 41 44 39
USA 42 41 43
OECD 27 27 27
CAN 46 43 50
N.L. 32 29 35
P.E.I. 47 39 54
N.S. 45 37 53
N.B. 41 37 46
Que. 41 39 42
Ont. 52 50 55
Man. 44 38 50
Sask. 36 27 45
Alta. 44 39 51
B.C. 47 43 51
Y.T. 51 36 64
N.W.T. 41 31 52
Nvt. 41 41 41

Chart A.1.5 Distribution of 25-to 64-year olds that have attained post-secondary non-tertiary as their highest level of education, by sex, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017

Data table for Chart A.1.5 
Data table for chart A.1.5
Distribution of 25-to 64-year olds that have attained post-secondary non-tertiary as their highest level of education, by sex, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of 25-to 64-year olds that have attained post-secondary non-tertiary as their highest level of education Total population, Men and Women, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Total population Men Women
percent
DEU 12 9 15
FRA 0 0 0
ITA 1 1 1
OECD 6 6 6
CAN 11 14 7
N.L. 19 25 13
P.E.I. 8 12 5
N.S. 13 18 9
N.B. 8 10 6
Que. 18 20 15
Ont. 5 7 3
Man. 9 12 6
Sask. 16 21 11
Alta. 14 20 7
B.C. 11 17 5
Y.T. 16 24 8
N.W.T. 11 18 5
Nvt. 11 18 3

Trends in attainment levels

Chart A.1.6.2 Trends in educational attainment of the 25- to 34-year-olds: compound annual growth rate of the highest level of education attained between 2005 and 2017, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories

Data table for Chart A.1.6.2 
Data table for chart A.1.6.2
Trends in educational attainment of 25- to 34-year-olds: compound annual growth rate of the highest level of education attained between 2005 and 2017, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories
Table summary
This table displays the results of Trends in educational attainment of 25- to 34-year-olds: compound annual growth rate of the highest level of education attained between 2005 and 2017 Below upper secondary, Upper secondary and post-secondary non tertiary and Tertiary, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Below upper secondary Upper secondary and post-secondary non tertiary Tertiary
percent
DEU -1.6 -0.9 2.8
FRA -2.4 0.0 0.9
GBR -6.2 -0.4 3.2
ITA -2.5 -0.3 4.3
JPN Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 1.1
USA -4.3 -0.5 1.6
OECD -2.5 -1.3 2.7
CAN -2.8 -1.1 1.1
N.L. -3.8 -0.8 1.4
P.E.I. -5.8 -0.5 1.0
N.S. -5.1 -1.0 1.3
N.B. -2.5 -1.7 1.5
Que. -3.4 -0.2 0.7
Ont. -1.7 -2.0 1.1
Man. -3.3 -0.6 1.2
Sask. -3.3 -0.8 1.5
Alta. -1.7 -0.7 0.9
B.C. -5.5 -1.3 1.7
Y.T. -3.0 -1.5 2.2
N.W.T. 1.0 0.4 -0.8
Nvt. -0.3 -0.6 1.1

Definitions, sources and methodology

This indicator examines educational attainment among Canada's adult population aged 25 to 64, by age group and sex. It presents a portrait of the situation in 2017, but also shows the evolution since 2005.

The percentage of the population represented by a given age group that has attained a particular education level is obtained by taking the number of persons in this age group who have received a diploma attesting to that level, dividing it by the total number of persons in this same age group, and then multiplying by 100.

Growth calculations in this indicator make use of the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) formula. The CAGR formula calculates growth between two (often extended) points in time, assuming that growth is compounded annually.

The education level corresponds to the highest level of education an individual has attained. The designation of the different levels of schooling is based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED-2011) (see the "ISCED classifications and descriptions" and the "Mapping to ISCED" section for the Labour Force Survey [LFS] in Notes to readers). An individual must have successfully completed a programme at a given ISCED level to be considered as having attained that level of education. An individual who has not successfully completed a programme is assigned the preceding education level. For example, a secondary school graduate, as well as an individual who has undertaken some postsecondary education but who has not obtained a credential at that level, is considered to have attained ISCED level 3 (upper secondary education); a student who has not successfully completed secondary school is considered to have obtained ISCED level 2 (lower secondary education).

The information presented for Canada on population and educational attainment is based on data from the LFS, which surveys approximately 56,000 households every month.Note 3 The LFS seeks to obtain a detailed and timely picture of the population aged 15 or older throughout the country. It allows proxy reporting, meaning that information on the entire household can be collected from a single member of the household. In all, this type of reporting accounts for approximately 65% of all information collected. Figures from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are those reported by the OECD, and are drawn from OECD and Eurostat databases, as compiled from national labour force surveys or population registers.

Some limitations are encountered when using LFS data to examine and categorize educational attainment using ISCED as it is not possible to make a precise delineation between "postsecondary non-tertiary education" and "short-cycle tertiary education". LFS data reported for the Canadian population that has attained ISCED level 5 (short-cycle tertiary education) will be somewhat overestimated because this category includes, for example, some CEGEP or college university transfer program graduates who, under the international classification standards, would have been placed in ISCED level 4 (Post-secondary non-tertiary education).

In Statistics Canada's LFS the master's or equivalent and doctors or equivalent levels cannot be cannot be identified separately; therefore, educational attainment in the ISCED 7 and 8 (Master's or equivalent and doctoral or equivalent) categories are combined.

Note: The corresponding OECD indicator is A1, To what level have adults studied?

A2 On-time and extended graduation rate

Context

High school graduation is the foundation for further education. It has become an essential milestone for students and provides economic and social benefits for society. Graduation from high school is now widely considered the minimum requirement for successful entry into the labour market.

Beginning this year, a true-cohort methodology will be used, and this rate will be referred to as the high school graduation rate. This methodology for calculating high school graduation rates has been developed in order to provide a pan-Canadian methodology that will serve the needs of provinces and territories while also improving Canada's reporting to OECD.

In this report, on-time high school graduation rates are calculated by tracking students who started Grade 10 ("Secondary 3" in Quebec) in 2013/2014 and graduated Grade 12 ("Secondary 5" in Quebec) by the end of the 2015/2016 school year.

On-time high school graduation rates are also provided for 2013/2014 by tracking the group of students who started Grade 10 (Secondary 3) in 2011/2012. This 2011/2012 Grade 10 group is also tracked to determine the extended-time high school graduation rates for 2015/2016; that is, the percentage of the group that graduated high school within five years of starting Grade 10.

While the on-time and extended graduation rates (A2) follows a group of Grade 10 students for either three or five years (true-cohort methodology) in public and private schools, upper secondary graduation rates calculate the proportion of the population that graduates high school over their lifetime (A3).

Observations

Chart A.2.1 On-time high-school graduation rate, by sex, Canada, provinces and territories, 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.2.1 
Data table for chart A.2.1
On-time high-school graduation rate, by sex, Canada, provinces and territories,Data table Note 1 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of On-time high-school graduation rate Graduation year 2015/2016, Both sexes, Males and Females, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Graduation year 2015/2016
Both sexes Males Females
percent
CAN 79 75 83
N.L. 80 78 83
P.E.I. 78 74 82
N.B. 86 82 85
Que. 74 68 80
Ont. 81 77 85
Man. 82 79 85
Sask. 78 76 81
Alta. 77 75 79
B.C. 79 77 81
N.W.T.Data table Note 2 55 50 60

Chart A.2.2 On-time and extended-time high-school graduation rate, Canada, provinces and territories, 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.2.2 
Data table for chart A.2.2
On-timeData table Note 1 and extended-timeData table Note 2 high-school graduation rate, Canada, provinces and territories,Data table Note 3 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of On-time and extended-time high-school graduation rate On-time graduation rate (2015/2016) and Extended-time graduation rate (2015/2016), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
On-time graduation rate (2015/2016) Extended-time graduation rate (2015/2016)
percent
CAN. 79 88
N.L. 80 94
P.E.I. 78 90
N.B. 86 93
Que. 74 83
Ont. 81 92
Man. 82 89
Sask. 78 87
Alta. 77 83
B.C. 79 89
N.W.T.Data table Note 4 55 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period

Chart A.2.3 On-time and extended-time graduation rates, Canada, provinces and territories, 2013/2014 and 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.2.3 
Data table for chart A.2.3
On-timeData table Note 1 and extended-timeData table Note 2 graduation rates, Canada and provincesData table Note 3, 2013/2014 and 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of On-time and extended-time graduation rates On-time graduates and Additional graduates, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
On-time graduates Additional graduates
percent
B.C. 79 10
Alta. 74 9
Sask. 78 9
Man. 81 8
Ont. 79 13
Que. 71 12
N.B. 85 8
P.E.I. 82 8
N.L. 90 4
Can. 77 11

Definitions, sources and methodology

This indicator presents the high school graduation rate, using a true-cohort methodology for students in public and private schools.

The true-cohort methodology follows a cohort of students from Grade 10, or Secondary 3 in Quebec, to the end of their third year of high school, and then over a period of an additional two years. Many students will graduate from Grade 12 ("Secondary 5" in Quebec) after three years, but some students take longer to complete their high school studies. Grade 10 ("Secondary 3") is used as the starting point because this is the grade students begin accumulating credits toward Grade 12 graduation in most jurisdictions across the country. An adjustment is made to the graduation rate (using an attrition methodology) to account for students who can no longer be tracked toward graduation for such reasons as: moving out of the province or territory, moving to a band-operated school or an excluded private school, or becoming home-schooled. These students have not dropped out of school, but can no longer be followed through to graduation.

Credentials for inclusion in the Pan-Canadian comparisons
Table summary
This table displays the results of Credentials for inclusion in the Pan-Canadian comparisons. The information is grouped by Jurisdiction (appearing as row headers), Name of High School credential (appearing as column headers).
Jurisdiction Name of High School credential
Newfoundland and Labrador High School Graduation Certificate
Prince Edward Island Note ...: not applicable
Nova Scotia Note ...: not applicable
New Brunswick New Brunswick High School Diploma
Quebec DES - Diplôme d'études secondaires, secteur des jeunes
DES - Diplôme d'études secondaires, secteur des adultes
DEP - Diplôme d'études professionnelles, secteur de la formation professionnelle
ASP - Attestation de spécialisation professionnelle
AEP - Attestation d'études professionnelles
CFMS - Certificat de formation à un métier semi-spécialisé, secteurs jeunes ou adultes
CFPT - Certificat de formation préparatoire au travail
Ontario Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD)
Ontario Secondary School Diploma 2 (OSSD2)
Secondary School Graduation Diploma (SSGD)
Ontario Secondary School Diploma(OSSD)/Specialist High Skills Major (SHSM)
Total Graduates
Manitoba ("Regular") High School Diploma
Mature Student Diploma
Saskatchewan "Regular" 24-credit policy
"Adult 12" policy
Alberta Alberta High School Diploma
Certificate of High School Achievement
Certificate of School Completion
High School Equivalency Diploma
British Columbia British Columbia Certificate of Graduation ("Dogwood")
British Columbia Adult Graduation Diploma ("Adult Dogwood")
Yukon Note ...: not applicable
Northwest Territories N.W.T. High School Diploma
Nunavut Diploma

A3 Upper secondary graduation

Context

This indicator presents upper secondary school graduation rates. Graduation rates are often seen as a measure of student achievement. A comparison of overall rates gives some information about the extent to which school systems are succeeding in providing students with what is universally recognized as an important educational milestone. Presenting rates by sex reveals whether any gender differences exist; this in turn can signal whether those systems are meeting the needs of both male and female students. The share of graduates under 25 years of age among all graduates is also presented.

Upper secondary graduation is the foundation for further education. It has become an essential milestone for most students and provides economic and social benefits for society. Historically, males had been much more likely to graduate from secondary school; however, that pattern has been reversed for many years in Canada and almost all other OECD member countries. Whether male or female, the value of graduating from high school also extends beyond the academic qualification by giving individuals what is now widely considered the minimum requirement for entry into the labour market.

While upper secondary graduation rates calculate the proportion of the population that graduates high school over their lifetime, the on-time and extended graduation rates (A2) follows a group of Grade 10 students for either three or five years (true-cohort methodology) in public and private schools.

Observations

Chart A.3.1 Upper secondary graduation rates, by sex, OECD and selected countries, provinces and territories, 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.3.1 
Data table for chart A.3.1
Upper secondary graduation ratesData table Note 1, by sex, OECD and selected countries, provinces and territories, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Upper secondary graduation rates Both sexes, Females and Males, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Both sexes Females Males
percent
FIN 101 106 96
JPN 95 97 94
KOR 94 94 94
ITA 94 96 93
GBR 90 91 88
DEU 84 85 83
USA 84 87 81
OECD 87 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
CAN 88 91 85
N.L. 84 86 82
P.E.I. 80 86 75
N.S. 95 97 93
N.B. 87 91 84
Que. 100 104 95
Ont. 89 92 87
Man. 76 80 73
Sask. 80 85 75
Alta. 79 82 76
B.C. 79 82 75
Y.T. 64 75 53
N.W.T. 56 61 52
Nvt. 40 47 33

Upper secondary graduation rates

Graduation rates higher for females

Definitions, sources and methodology

This indicator presents net upper secondary graduation rates without duplication (i.e., first-time graduates) by sex. It also presents successful completion of upper secondary programmes of a proxy cohort in public schools.

Upper secondary graduation rates

These rates are an estimation of the probability that an individual will graduate from high school during his or her lifetime, assuming that current conditions related to graduation all remain the same.Note 5

Upper secondary graduation rates are the sum of graduation rates by age, and the latter are obtained by dividing graduates of a specific age by the population of the corresponding specific age. Rates without duplication only count individuals who had obtained, during a given year, a diploma at this level for the first time.Note 6 In general, a graduate of upper secondary education is considered to have successfully completed the last year of education at this level, regardless of his or her age. Therefore, the upper secondary graduation rate could be affected by an unexpected number of people within a population who go back to school, this rate can be very high – even above 100%.

All data for Canada reflect the 2015/2016 school year; the OECD averages also reflect 2015/2016. Information for Canada was drawn from the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES), an administrative survey that collects data for public and private educational institutions from the provincial and territorial ministries/departments of education.Note 7 To ensure comparability with other OECD countries, Statistics Canada added, for all provinces and territories (except Nova Scotia, for which data were estimated), the number of 2015/2016 graduates from private schools provided by provinces and territories at ESES collection. The number of graduates from First Nations band-operated schools (these data were obtained from Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada), were also added to the number of public and private school graduates and included in the calculation of the upper secondary graduation rates presented. Please note that Manitoba graduates from Adult Learning Centres in the province are not included in the graduation rate calculation.

For Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), prior to 2015/2016, funding recipient reports included automatically pre-filled graduation data for potential high school graduates, which led to inaccurate reporting results. As a result, this pre-filled data was removed from reports as of 2015/2016, contributing to a decrease in the reported graduation rate since then.

Population estimates used in the denominator of the graduation rate calculation cover the entire population, including Aboriginal people, as of January 1, 2016.

International data collection

The international figures used by the OECD are obtained from the UOE collection of statistical data on education, carried out jointly by three international organizations (UNESCO, the OECD, and Eurostat), and conducted in 2017 by the OECD.

Note: The corresponding OECD indicator is B3, Who is expected to graduate from upper secondary education?.

A4 International students

Context

This indicator presents international students as a proportion of enrolment in tertiary education in accordance with the three International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) categories,Note 8 which represent enrolments in colleges and universities.Note 9 Changes in the number of international students over time are also presented, as well as their distribution by province of study and by region of origin.

Students choose to pursue their education abroad for many reasons. Some may do so because they wish to explore different cultures, societies and languages while improving their employment prospects. Growing recognition of the importance of tertiary education as a determinant of higher earnings and employability has led to a growing demand, one that educational institutions in some countries may find difficult to meet. At the same time, the globalization of markets has increased demand for workers with broader knowledge and competencies, with work increasingly performed by teams that span regions and countries.

Several factors may contribute to the choice of country for study. The language spoken and used in instruction, the quality of education offered, the tuition fees and cost of living, and the immigration policy of the destination country are all important factors. Other factors include recognition of foreign degrees, future job opportunities, and any geographical, trade and cultural links between countries.

International students are well received because they represent an additional source of revenue for the institutions they attend. They may also contribute to the viability of programs when the domestic student base is somewhat limited. In Canada, as in other countries that belong to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), many institutions and governments are now actively marketing their educational programs to attract such students. In addition to the economic benefits they may provide, international and foreign students also add to the social and cultural dimensions of the communities in which they study. They may become future citizens, or they may become unofficial ambassadors when they return home.

Observations

International students in tertiary education

Chart A.4.1 Number of international students in tertiary education, by province, 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.4.1 
Data table for chart A.4.1
Number of international students in tertiary education, by province,Data table Note 1 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Number of international students in tertiary education Number (appearing as column headers).
Number
N.L. 2421
P.E.I. 741
N.S. 7218
N.B. 2913
Que. 37914
Ont. 81171
Man. 6249
Sask. 4227
Alta. 14358
B.C. 37635

Chart A.4.2 Distribution of international students in tertiary education, by level of education, Canada and provinces, 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.4.2 
Data table for chart A.4.2
Distribution of international students in tertiary education, by level of education, Canada and provinces, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of international students in tertiary education Short-cycle tertiary, Bachelor's or equivalent level, Master's or equivalent level and Doctoral or equivalent level, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Short-cycle tertiary Bachelor's or equivalent level Master's or equivalent level Doctoral or equivalent level
percent
CAN 19.3 56.1 16.0 8.6
N.L. 4.6 49.1 30.9 15.4
P.E.I. 9.2 78.7 9.4 2.7
N.SData table Note 1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 81.8 14.6 3.6
N.B. 9.5 69.8 15.4 5.4
Que. 8.7 50.3 26.1 14.9
Ont. 29.7 51.5 13.0 5.8
Man. 13.9 67.2 11.8 7.1
Sask. 4.9 59.4 22.7 13.0
Alta. 23.0 46.0 16.3 14.7
B.C. 14.4 67.7 11.4 6.5

Chart A.4.3a Proportion of international students among all tertiary enrolments, by level of education, OECD, Canada, and provinces, 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.4.3a 
Data table for chart A.4.3a
Proportion of international students among all tertiary enrolments, by level of education, OECD, Canada and provinces, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Proportion of international students among all tertiary enrolments Short-cycle tertiary, Bachelor's or equivalent level, Master's or equivalent level and Doctoral or equivalent level, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Short-cycle tertiary Bachelor's or equivalent level Master's or equivalent level Doctoral or equivalent level
percent
OECD 2.7 4.3 11.9 25.7
CAN 11.1 10.5 19.4 32.0
N.L. 3.9 8.4 24.4 48.1
P.E.I. 5.7 16.4 18.6 29.0
N.S.Data table Note 1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 17.0 18.5 32.5
N.B. 7.5 12.5 26.0 29.9
Que. 3.5 8.5 17.0 35.0
Ont. 15.1 9.3 19.7 22.5
Man. 13.9 11.2 18.1 41.2
Sask. 6.8 8.8 24.2 44.3
Alta. 10.0 7.1 18.1 43.4
B.C. 16.9 17.7 26.2 41.6

Chart A.4.3b Proportion of international students among all tertiary enrolments, by level of education, OECD, G7 countries and Australia, 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.4.3b 
Data table for chart A.4.3b
Proportion of international students among all tertiary enrolments, by level of education, OECD, G7Data table Note 1 countries and Australia,Data table Note 2 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Proportion of international students among all tertiary enrolments Short-cycle tertiary, Bachelor's or equivalent level, Master's or equivalent level and Doctoral or equivalent level, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Short-cycle tertiary Bachelor's or equivalent level Master's or equivalent level Doctoral or equivalent level
percent
OECD 3.0 4.0 12.0 26.0
CAN 11.1 10.5 19.4 32.0
DEU 0.0 5.0 13.0 9.0
FRA 5.0 7.0 13.0 40.0
GBR 4.0 14.0 36.0 43.0
JPN 5.0 2.0 7.0 18.0
USA 2.0 4.0 10.0 40.0
AUS 9.0 14.0 46.0 34.0

Chart A.4.4 Distribution of international students in tertiary education, by region of origin, Canada and provinces, 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.4.4 
Data table for chart A.4.4
Distribution of international students in tertiary education, by region of origin, Canada and provinces, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of international students in tertiary education Asia, Europe, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America and Oceania, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Asia Europe Africa Latin America and the Caribbean North America Oceania
percent
CAN 64.8 13.3 11.3 5.7 4.4 0.4
N.L. 58.2 7.3 21.5 8.2 4.6 0.2
P.E.I. 54.3 2.4 18.6 8.9 15.8 0.0
N.S. 72.3 3.5 10.0 10.4 3.8 0.1
N.B. 34.7 5.5 38.0 18.5 3.2 0.1
Que. 24.3 44.5 18.2 5.1 7.2 0.7
Ont. 77.9 5.2 8.8 5.3 2.5 0.4
Man. 62.5 3.2 25.5 5.5 3.1 0.1
Sask. 70.7 3.1 19.0 4.7 2.2 0.2
Alta. 75.0 5.8 9.3 6.3 3.1 0.5
B.C. 75.7 7.6 4.7 4.9 6.5 0.5

Chart A.4.5 Top 10 destination countries for Canadians studying abroad, 2015/2016

Data table for Chart A.4.5 
Data table for chart A.4.5
Top 10 destination countries for Canadians studying abroad, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Top 10 destination countries for Canadians studying abroad. The information is grouped by Country (appearing as row headers), percent (appearing as column headers).
Country Percent
United States 59.8
United Kingdom 12.5
Australia 8.0
France 3.1
Ireland 2.7
Germany 1.8
Saudi Arabia 1.6
Korea 1.3
India 1.1
Switzerland 1.0

Definitions, sources and methodology

This indicator examines the proportion of international students in the different categories of tertiary education.

International students are those who are pursuing education in a country other than their country of residence or the country in which they were previously educated. In Canada, the concept of "international students" includes non-permanent residents,Note 10 such as those with a study permit. It also includes those enrolled in a Canadian program from a Canadian institution that is not located in Canada (also known as "offshore students") as well as non-Canadian students studying via the Internet.

Foreign students correspond to a broader concept that includes students who are educated in a country for which they do not hold citizenship. In Canada, the concept of "foreign students" includes all "international students", plus all students who are landed immigrant/permanent residents.Note 11

The proportion of enrolment at a given education level by international students is obtained by dividing the number of students who are neither Canadian citizens nor permanent residents of Canada by the total number of students at that level, and multiplying this ratio by 100. The total number of students includes all individuals educated in Canada, whether they are Canadian citizens, permanent residents or foreign nationals as well as "off-shore students", but it excludes all Canadian citizens and permanent residents who are educated abroad.

The Canadian data were drawn from Statistics Canada's Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS), which covers only public postsecondary institutions. Results for some jurisdictions rely in part on estimates made for non-responding institutions. Due to certain methodological adjustments that have been made to the PSIS collection tool to improve reporting and mapping to ISCED, comparisons of results with those from previous years should not be made.

The OECD data on foreign students and international students reflect the same academic year as for Canada, and are drawn from the UOE collection of statistical data on education, which was carried out by the OECD. In Canada and other OECD countries, domestic and international students are usually counted on a specific day or period of the year (e.g., the PSIS enrolment data reflect the number of students who were enrolled in courses between September 30 and December 1). This procedure may not capture the total number of international students as some students may study abroad for less than a full academic year (e.g., those that enter in the winter or spring terms).

Note: The corresponding OECD indicator is B6, What is the profile of internationally mobile students?.

A5 Transitions to the labour market

Context

This indicator focuses on transitions from education to the working world. The percentages of individuals between 15 and 29 years of age who are considered to be "in education" or "not in education" are presented, along with their respective employment situations. Such information can be helpful in understanding how young adults may combine school and work, or how they may transition from one to the other. The "not in education" portion of this population is further examined with a focus on those individuals who are neither employed nor in education (or training), a group sometimes referred to as the "NEET" population.

In Canada and most other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, education policy-makers strive to encourage young people to complete at least their secondary education. As successfully reaching this milestone has become the norm for students in the majority of OECD countries, those who fail to do so will likely have much more difficulty when they enter the labour market, where lacking a high school education is usually an impediment to finding a job.

Recognition of the importance of postsecondary education for economic and social success—both for individuals and society—is widespread. However, the decisions that young people make regarding their education are often influenced by economic conditions. They may, for example, be inclined to leave school and enter the work force when the labour market is strong, or they may decide to continue with or return to their education when the labour market is weak and it is more difficult to find a job.

The transition from school to work is not always an easy process, and complexity may be added by a combination of factors including personal circumstances, the type and length of schooling received, and the labour market and overall economic conditions that younger people may face. It is also important to find ways to understand how this complexity may affect the NEET group, particularly the youngest members, as teens aged 15 to 19 will have both lower educational attainment and less work experience than young adults in their twenties.

Observations

Young adults in education, not in education

Chart A.5.1 Portrait of the 15- to 29-year-old Canadian population by age group and education and employment status, 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.1 
Data table for chart A.5.1
Portrait of the 15- to 29-year-old Canadian population by age group and education and employment status, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Portrait of the 15- to 29-year-old Canadian population by age group and education and employment status In education, Not in education, employed and Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
In education Not in education, employed Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET)
percent
15 to 19 years old 83.4 10.6 6.1
18 to 24 years old 49.2 38.2 12.5
20 to 24 years old 42.7 43.8 13.4
25 to 29 years old 12.1 72.6 15.3

Chart A.5.2.1 Distribution of the 15- to 19-year-old population by education and employment status, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.2.1 
Data table for chart A.5.2.1
Distribution of the 15- to 19-year-old population by education and employment status, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of the 15- to 19-year-old population by education and employment status In education, Not in education, employed and Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
In education Not in education, employed Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET)
percent
OECD 87.3 6.9 6.0
CAN 83.4 10.6 6.1
N.L. 86.1 8.7 5.2
P.E.I. 89.1 7.7 Note F: too unreliable to be published
N.S 85.2 7.4 7.4
N.B. 81.1 12.9 6.0
Que. 83.3 11.6 5.1
Ont. 86.3 8.0 5.8
Man. 79.7 12.9 7.4
Sask. 80.9 11.0 8.0
Alta. 79.0 14.2 6.8
B.C. 79.8 13.7 6.5
Y.T. 74.8 18.7 Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
N.W.T. 79.1 10.2 10.6
Nvt. 65.6 9.4 24.9

Chart A.5.2.2 Distribution of the 18- to 24-year-old population by education and employment status, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.2.2 
Data table for chart A.5.2.2
Distribution of the 18- to 24-year-old population by education and employment status, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of the 18- to 24-year-old population by education and employment status In education, Not in education, employed and Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
In education Not in education, employed Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET)
percent
OECD 52.9 32.7 14.4
CAN 49.2 38.2 12.5
N.L. 51.2 33.1 15.7
P.E.I. 49.0 37.7 13.4
N.S 48.1 36.7 15.2
N.B. 36.6 43.1 20.3
Que. 52.9 36.7 10.4
Ont. 52.6 35.0 12.3
Man. 44.3 40.6 15.2
Sask. 41.6 43.6 14.8
Alta. 40.0 45.6 14.4
B.C. 45.8 42.5 11.7
Y.T. 31.0 52.9 16.1
N.W.T. 29.7 42.5 27.8
Nvt. 18.0 33.5 48.5

Chart A.5.2.3 Distribution of the 20- to 24-year-old population by education and employment status, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.2.3 
Data table for chart A.5.2.3
Distribution of the 20- to 24-year-old population by education and employment status, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of the 20- to 24-year-old population by education and employment status In education, Not in education, employed and Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
In education Not in education, employed Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET)
percent
OECD 45.3 39.1 15.6
CAN 42.7 43.8 13.4
N.L. 44.3 37.7 17.9
P.E.I. 38.6 45.3 16.1
N.S 40.6 43.2 16.2
N.B. 27.6 49.0 23.5
Que. 46.9 41.4 11.7
Ont. 45.1 41.8 13.1
Man. 39.3 44.5 16.3
Sask. 34.3 50.8 15.0
Alta. 34.0 50.3 15.7
B.C. 41.4 46.6 11.9
Y.T. 21.9 60.3 17.8
N.W.T. 19.8 48.9 31.3
Nvt. 8.0 39.5 52.5

Chart A.5.2.4 Distribution of the 25- to 29-year-old population by education and employment status, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.2.4 
Data table for chart A.5.2.4
Distribution of the 25- to 29-year-old population by education and employment status, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of the 25- to 29-year-old population by education and employment status In education, Not in education, employed and Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
In education Not in education, employed Neither employed nor in education or training (NEET)
percent
OECD 16.1 66.2 17.7
CAN 12.1 72.6 15.3
N.L. 12.1 62.1 25.8
P.E.I. 10.8 67.4 21.8
N.S 10.9 74.1 15.0
N.B. 8.2 73.5 18.3
Que. 14.9 73.9 11.2
Ont. 11.9 71.6 16.5
Man. 10.6 72.3 17.0
Sask. 10.7 72.6 16.8
Alta. 9.3 73.9 16.8
B.C. 12.4 73.0 14.6
Y.T. Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act 75.2 17.2
N.W.T. Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act 71.0 24.3
Nvt. Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act 50.8 43.2

Not employed, not in education (NEET)

Chart A.5.3 Distribution of the 15- to 29-year-old population not in education, unemployed or not in the labour force (NEET), OECD and G7 Countries, 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.3 
Data table for chart A.5.3
Distribution of the 15- to 29-year-old population not in education, unemployed or not in the labour force (NEET), OECD and G7 countries, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of the 15- to 29-year-old population not in education Not in education, unemployed or not in the labour force (NEET), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Not in education, unemployed or not in the labour force (NEET)
percent
CAN 12.0
OECD 13.4
DEU 9.3
FRA 16.5
GBR 12.2
ITA 25.1
USA 13.3

Not employed, not in education (NEET) by sex

Chart A.5.5.1 Distribution of the 15- to 29-year-old NEET population (not in education, unemployed or not in the labour force (inactive), by sex, OECD, Canada provinces and territories, 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.5.1 
Data table for chart A.5.5.1
Distribution of the 15- to 29-year-old NEET population (not in education, unemployed or not in the labour force (inactive)), by sex, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of the 15- to 29-year-old NEET population (not in education Not in the labour force (inactive) males, Not in the labour force (inactive) females, Unemployed males and Unemployed females, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Not in the labour force (inactive) males Not in the labour force (inactive) females Unemployed males Unemployed females
percent
OECD 5.2 11.1 5.8 4.7
CAN 6.5 8.7 5.7 3.1
N.L. 8.3 8.6 11.7 4.8
P.E.I. 6.0 6.2 10.0 5.5
N.S 5.5 8.8 8.6 3.3
N.B. 7.7 9.5 10.0 5.0
Que. 5.7 6.5 4.5 2.7
Ont. 7.1 8.8 5.3 3.2
Man. 6.6 11.2 6.6 3.2
Sask. 6.3 10.4 7.1 3.4
Alta. 5.0 11.7 7.3 3.3
B.C. 7.3 8.0 4.8 2.5
Y.T. 7.9 16.2 Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
N.W.T 16.3 15.8 8.1 Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Nvt. 29.5 30.1 12.5 5.9

Combining work and school

Chart A.5.6 Proportion of 15- to 29-year-olds males and females in education who are employed, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.6 
Data table for chart A.5.6
Proportion of 15- to 29-year-old males and females in education who are employed, OECD, Canada, provinces and territories, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Proportion of 15- to 29-year-old males and females in education who are employed Males and Females, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Males Females
percent
OECD 12.4 13.7
CAN 15.2 20.7
N.L. 13.2 18.1
P.E.I. 10.3 23.5
N.S 13.9 19.1
N.B. 12.5 15.5
Que. 19.0 25.3
Ont. 15.2 19.1
Man. 14.6 21.6
Sask. 12.1 17.4
Alta. 10.9 17.5
B.C. 14.8 22.4
Y.T. 12.3 8.2
N.W.T. 9.2 9.2
Nvt. 4.5 7.8

Chart A.5.7 Trends in the proportion of 15 to 29-year olds in education and not in education, Canada, 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.7 
Data table for chart A.5.7
Trends in the proportion of 15- to 29-year olds in education and not in education, OECD and Canada, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Trends in the proportion of 15- to 29-year olds in education and not in education 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2018, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2000 2005 2010 2015 2018
percent
Canada
Total in education 42.5 44.1 44.1 44.0 43.2
Not in education, employed 43.9 43.5 42.2 42.8 44.8
Not in education, not employed 13.7 12.4 13.7 13.2 12.0
OECD
Total in education 40.9 45.2 47.0 47.6 47.5
Not in education, employed 43.3 40.0 37.0 37.6 39.1
Not in education, not employed 15.8 14.8 16.0 14.8 13.4

Chart A.5.8 Distribution of the 18- to 24-year-old population in education, Canada, provinces and territories, 2000, 2010 and 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.8 
Data table for chart A.5.8
Trends in the proportion of 18- to 24-year olds in education and not in education, Canada, 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Trends in the proportion of 18- to 24-year olds in education and not in education 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2018, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2000 2005 2010 2015 2018
percent
Total in education 43.7 45.4 46.2 48.8 49.2
Not in education, employed 41.3 40.9 38.7 37.9 38.2
Not in education, not employed 15.0 13.6 15.1 13.3 12.5

Chart A.5.9 Distribution of the 20-to 24-year-old population in education, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2000, 2010 and 2018

Data table for Chart A.5.9 
Data table for chart A.5.9
Distribution of the 20- to 24-year-old population in education, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2000, 2010 and 2018
Table summary
This table displays the results of Distribution of the 20- to 24-year-old population in education 2000, 2010 and 2018, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2000 2010 2018
percent
DEU 34.1 47.5 54.6
FRA 39.4 40.4 42.8
GBR 32.4 33.7 41.7
ITA 36.0 40.8 43.9
JPN Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 34.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
USA 32.5 38.6 38.8
OECD 34.0 43.7 45.3
Can. 35.8 39.4 42.7
N.L. 34.5 37.8 44.3
P.E.I. 27.0 37.3 38.6
N.S. 39.4 35.5 40.6
N.B. 28.9 31.9 27.6
Que. 36.3 43.1 46.9
Ont. 39.9 43.2 45.1
Man. 27.5 31.6 39.3
Sask. 28.4 28.3 34.3
Alta. 27.5 29.7 34.0
B.C. 35.0 37.6 41.4
Y.T. 33.2 16.2 21.9
N.W.T. Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.5 19.8
Nvt. Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 18.3 8.0

Definitions, sources and methodology

The indicator is calculated using cross-tabulations for the following variables: school attendance, labour force status, sex, age (15 to 29 overall; 15 to 19; 18 to 24; 20 to 24; and 25 to 29) and educational attainment (highest level of education attained). Individuals are categorized by their education status (in education or not in education) and their labour force status (employed, unemployed, or not in the labour force). Some historical data are also presented.

The "in education" group captures both full- and part-time students, while "not in education" portrays those who are no longer pursuing a formal education. As per the OECD definition, the educational institutions considered for this indicator are primary and secondary educational institutions, colleges and universities. Employment status is based on International Labour Organization (ILO) guidelines. The employed are defined as those who during the survey reference week: (i) work for pay (employees) or profit (self-employed and unpaid family workers) for at least one hour; or (ii) have a job but are temporarily not at work (through injury, illness, holiday, strike or lock-out, educational or training leave, maternity or parental leave, etc.). The unemployed are defined as individuals who are, during the survey reference week, without work, actively seeking employment and currently available to start work. And not in the labour force captures individuals who are not working and who are not unemployed; i.e., individuals who are not looking for a job.

In addition to those who are employed, the total "not in education" portion of the 15- to 29-year-old population also includes those who are neither employed nor in education (or training). Such individuals are sometimes referred to as the "NEET" population. This captures a somewhat diverse group of young people in a number of possible situations. Some may be part of this group by choice, perhaps taking time off work and/or school to travel or to start families and care for their young children. Some might prefer to be working, but have abandoned the job search temporarily. These people would be seen as "not in the labour force"Note 13 as opposed to those who are seeking work but are unemployed. The group of people who are not in education and are either "unemployed" or "not in the labour force" is a population that could potentially be at risk for economic and social difficulties.

The data were obtained from Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey (LFS), and they cover the first quarter or the average of the first three months of the calendar year, which excludes summer employment. The LFS does not collect data on official work-study programmes in which students might participate; in Canada, these would be considered education in the form of a co-op or student intern programme.

Note: The corresponding OECD indicator is A2, Transition from school to work: Where are today's youth?.

A6 Labour market outcomes

Context

This indicator examines the connection between educational attainment and the labour market by looking at employment rates among the adult population aged 25 to 64. This relationship is explored by sex and by age group (25 to 34 and 55 to 64). Trends in employment rates by educational attainment are also presented. Educational attainment reflects the highest level of education successfully completed, based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) categories.Note 14

One of the main objectives of education systems is to prepare individuals so they can participate in a knowledge-oriented economy and society. Job prospects and employment rates are generally better for those individuals with higher education.

Observations

Employment rates by attainment

Chart A.6.1 Employment rates of 25- to 64-year-olds, by highest level of education attained and sex, OECD and Canada, 2017

Data table for Chart A.6.1 
Data table for chart A.6.1
Employment rates of 25- to 64-year-olds, by highest level of education attained and sex, OECD and Canada, 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Employment rates of 25- to 64-year-olds Below Upper secondary, Lower
secondary, Upper secondary, Short cycle tertiary, Bachelor's or equivalent
and Master's and doctoral levels or equivalent, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Below Upper secondary Lower
secondary
Upper secondary Short cycle tertiary Bachelor's or equivalent
Master's and doctoral levels or equivalent
percent
Men (OECD) 67 71 82 87 88 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Women (OECD) 47 50 68 77 80 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Men (Canada) 64 67 78 84 87 88
Women (Canada) 45 49 65 78 80 83

Chart A.6.2 Employment rates of the 25- to 64-year-old population, by highest level of education attained, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017

Data table for Chart A.6.2 
Data table for chart A.6.2
Employment rates of the 25- to 64-year-old population, by highest level of education attained, OECD, G7 countries, provinces and territories, 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Employment rates of the 25- to 64-year-old population Below upper secondary, Upper secondary education , Postsecondary non-tertiary and Tertiary, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Below upper secondary Upper secondary education Postsecondary non-tertiary Tertiary
percent
DEU 60 80 86 87
FRA 53 73 66 85
GBR 63 83 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 86
ITA 52 71 75 81
USA 56 70 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 82
OECD 58 75 80 85
CAN 56 74 79 82
N.L. 36 61 64 78
P.E.I. 52 72 76 81
N.S. 49 70 72 80
N.B. 49 70 73 81
Que. 58 76 79 83
Ont. 52 72 77 82
Man. 60 75 80 84
Sask. 64 59 82 84
Alta. 60 61 83 83
B.C. 59 60 82 81
Y.T. 66 69 88 87
N.W.T. 49 77 86 89
Nvt. 42 72 69 89

Employment rates by attainment, 2006 and 2017

Chart A.6.3 Employment rates of 25- to 34-year and 55 to 64-year-old population, by highest level of education attained, Canada, 2006 and 2017

Data table for Chart A.6.3 
Data table for chart A.6.3
Employment rates of the 25- to 34-year-old and 55- to 64-year-old population, by highest level of education attained, Canada, 2006 and 2017
Table summary
This table displays the results of Employment rates of the 25- to 34-year-old and 55- to 64-year-old population 25-34 (2006), 25-34 (2017), 55-64 (2006) and 55-64 (2017), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
25-34 (2006) 25-34 (2017) 55-64 (2006) 55-64 (2017)
percent
Below upper secondary 61 57 43 48
Upper secondary 77 74 55 61
Postsecondary non-tertiary 85 86 59 63
Tertiary 85 86 63 67

Definitions, sources and methodology

This indicator, labour market outcomes, examines the relationship between educational attainment and the employment rates of 25-to 64-year-olds, overall, by sex, and by age group. It also provides insight into how this relationship has evolved over time.

The employment rate represents the percentage of employed people in this population. To calculate the employment rate for a group with a particular level of educational attainment, the number of employed persons with the particular level of educational attainment is divided by the total number of persons in the population aged 25 to 64 who have attained that education level and then multiplying this quotient by 100.

The concepts and definitions of "employment" and "unemployment" adopted by the Labour Force Survey (LFS) are based on those endorsed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Employed persons are those who, during the reference week: (1) did any work at all at a job or business, that is, paid work in the context of an employer-employee relationship, or self-employment. It also includes unpaid family work, which is defined as unpaid work contributing directly to the operation of a farm, business or professional practice owned and operated by a related member of the same household; or (2) had a job but were not at work due to factors such as own illness or disability, personal or family responsibilities, vacation, labour dispute or other reasons (excluding persons on layoff, between casual jobs, and those with a job to start at a future date). The education level is measured according to the highest level of schooling completed.

The data for Canada and its provinces and territories were drawn from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), which surveys approximately 56,000 households every month.Note 16 The LFS excludes the following from the scope of the survey: individuals who live on reserves or in other Aboriginal settlements in the provinces, full-time members of the Canadian Forces and institutional residents. The LFS employment rate is based on a monthly average from January to December. Figures from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are those reported by the OECD, and they are extracted from the OECD and Eurostat databases compiled from national labour force surveys for the OECD member countries.

Note: The corresponding OECD indicator is A3, How does educational attainment affect participation in the labour market?.


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