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In 2010/2011, there were 44,934 full-time teaching staff at Canadian degree granting institutions. Of these, 14,946 (33.3%) were full professors, 15,473 (34.4%) were associate professors, 10,161 (22.6%) were assistant professors, and 4,354 (9.7%) were unranked. These proportions remained almost unchanged from the 2009/2010.
In the last 40 years, full-time teaching staff has increased by 82.7%. In comparison, during the same time period (1970/1971 to 2009/2010) the number of students enrolled in Canadian universities has increased 158.3%.
Compared to 2009/2010, the number of full-time university teaching staff in Canada increased by 1.2%. This increase is partly due to the inclusion of two universities who were new to the survey in 2010-2011. The following analysis excludes these institutions. 1
There were 116 Canadian degree granting institutions 2 reporting their full-time teaching staff in both 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Among these institutions the number of staff increased by 0.8%, with 48.3% of them reporting gains, 27.6% reporting declines and 24.1% reporting no change. Increases occurred in all but two provinces, with the largest in Prince Edward Island (8.3%), British Columbia (2.0%) and Manitoba (2.0%). Decreases were reported in Alberta (-1.7%) and Saskatchewan (-.30%).
Table 1 of this report presents information for institutions that have greater than 100 staff.The information includes the following for each institution: the number of full-time teaching staff, the number of staff excluded from salary calculations, average and median salary; and salaries at the 10th and 90th percentiles.Although data are collected for institutions that have less than 100 staff and are included in the analysis they are excluded from Table 1 for reasons of confidentiality.
The increase in full-time teaching staff was not distributed evenly across either rank or sex. Between 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, the number of full professors increased by 1.5%, associate professors increased by 3.3% and "rank below assistant" increased by 2.5%. However, the number of assistant professors decreased by 4.2% as well as the "other" category by 1.4%. The increase in full-time faculty was concentrated among women, with their numbers increasing by 1.9%, whereas the number of men remained almost unchanged.
Women account for over a third of full-time faculty. Their number has risen dramatically over the past 40 years. In 1970/1971 women comprised just over 10% of faculty; by 2010, their proportion had reached 36.6% (Chart 2). The share of women grew in all ranks. In 2010/2011, women accounted for 23.4% of full professors, 38.2% of associate professors and 46.4% of assistant professors. This is in contrast to 40 years earlier, when women comprised just 3.4% of full professors, 8.1% of associate professors and 13.8% of assistant professors.
Within the ranked categories, the overwhelming majority of full-time teaching staff held a PhD in 2010/2011: 88.9% of full professors, 85.8% of associate professors, and 76.2% of assistant professors. These proportions are unchanged from 2009/2010. In the unranked categories, only 34.2% of staff held at PhD., 46.5% held a Master's degree and 9.3% had a Bachelor's degree.
Over the last 40 years, full-time teaching staff at Canadian universities have been getting older. In 2010/2011 the median age was 50 years, compared to 37 in 1970/1971. This aging trend is seen across ranks as well (Chart 3).
The average salary of full-time teaching staff was $115,513 in 2010/2011, as compared to $112,419 in 2009/2010, an increase of 2.8%. In 2010/2011, a full professor earned an average of $143,366; associate professors earned $112,175; assistant professors earned $91,035; and the average salary of those in the category "rank below assistant" was $87,461.
From a provincial perspective, the average salary ranged from $101,580 in New Brunswick to $123,907 in Alberta in 2010-2011.
Average salaries differed by sex. In 2010/2011, males earned on average $120,378, while females earned on average $ 106,970, or 88.9% of the average male salary. The difference between men and women is largely influenced by the larger number of males at the higher academic ranks.
The male/female salary gap narrows when within-rank comparisons between males and females are made. Among full professors in 2010/2011, full-time males earned $145,045 on average, while females earned 95.0% of that ($137,846). The average salary of female associate professors was 97.0% that of males (at $110,106 and $113,448 respectively). The average salary of female assistant professors was 97.7% that of males (at $89,886 and $92,014 respectively). In the "rank below assistant" professors, the average female salary was 96.7% that of males (at $86,065 and $89,057, respectively).
However, the overall wage gap between men and women has narrowed over time as women have come to occupy higher ranks in higher proportions. Whereas women faculty earned 78.3% of what males earned in 1970/1971, that figure has increased to 88.9% in 2010/2011.
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