Table D.4.2
Total domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D) as percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), Canada and provinces, G-7, and leading OECD countries, 1995, 2000 and 2003 to 2007

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  1995 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
percent
Canada1 1.70 1.9 2.0r 2.08r 2.05r 1.97r 1.90
Newfoundland and Labrador 0.95 1.0 1.0 0.90 1.20 1.00 0.90
Prince Edward Island 0.60 1.1 1.1 1.00 1.60 1.60 1.29
Nova Scotia 1.37 1.5 1.4 1.50 1.50 1.50r 1.52
New Brunswick 0.85 0.8 1.0 1.00 1.00 1.10r 1.16
Quebec2 2.08 2.5 2.8 2.80r 2.70 2.70 2.63
Ontario2 1.87 2.4r 2.4r 2.50r 2.50r 2.40r 2.32
Manitoba 1.11 1.2 1.2 1.30 1.40 1.20 1.20
Saskatchewan 0.95 1.1 1.1 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.87
Alberta 1.06 0.9 1.1 1.20 1.10r 1.00 0.94
British Columbia 1.01 1.2 1.4 1.50 1.50 1.50r 1.53
G-7 countries
Canada1 1.70 1.9 2.0r 2.08r 2.05r 1.97r 1.90
France3 2.29 2.2 2.2 2.15r 2.10 2.10 2.04p
Germany4 2.19 2.5 2.5 2.49 2.49r 2.53r 2.53
Italy 0.97 1.1 1.1 1.10 1.09r 1.13r 1.18
Japan 2.92 3.0 3.2 3.17 3.32r 3.41r 3.44
United Kingdom 1.91r 1.9 1.8 1.69 1.73r 1.76 1.82
United States5 2.50r 2.7 2.7 2.54r 2.57r 2.61r 2.66
Leading OECD countries
Finland 2.26 3.3 3.4 3.45 3.49r 3.45r 3.48
Japan 2.92 3.0 3.2 3.17 3.32r 3.41r 3.44
Sweden46 3.26 .. 3.9 3.62r 3.60 3.74 3.61
Republic of Korea78 2.27r 2.4 2.6 2.68r 2.79r 3.01r 3.21
Total OECD9 2.05r 2.2 2.2 2.17r 2.21r 2.24r 2.28
.. not available for a specific reference period
p preliminary
r revised
1. Includes the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, 2000 through 2007.
2. As of 2007, Quebec and Ontario figures include federal government expenditures on research and development performed in the National Capital Region.
3. Data for 2000 and 2004 represent a break in the series with the previous year for which data are available.
4. National estimate or projection, Germany 1995 and 2007.
5. Data exclude most or all capital expenditures.
6. Data for 1995 and 2005 represent a break in the series with the previous year for which data are available. Data for 1995, 2003, and 2004 are underestimated or based on underestimated data.
7. For years 1995, 2004 to 2006, excludes R&D in the social sciences and humanities.
8. Data for 2007 represent a break in the series with the previous year for which data are available.
9.OECD Secretariat estimate or projection based on national sources. For 1995, there is a break in series with previous year for which data are available.
Sources: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2009. Main Science and Technology Indicators, Vol. 2009/2, Table 02 (for the G-7 and OECD countries, 1995, 2004 to 2007);
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), June 2006. Main Science and Technology Indicators, Vol. 2006/1, Table 02 (for the G-7 and OECD countries, 2000);
Statistics Canada, 2009. Gross Domestic Expenditures on Research and Development in Canada (GERD), and the Provinces: National Estimates 1998 to 2009 and Provincial Estimates 2003 to 2007, Catalogue no. 88-221-X, Vol. 2, no. 1, Table 3 (for Canada and the provinces).
Updated June 15, 2010.
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