Table D.4.1
Total domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D) as percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), OECD countries, 20071

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OECD countries Domestic R&D expenditures/GDP
Sweden 3.61
Finland 3.48
Japan 3.44
Republic of Korea2 3.21
Switzerland (2004) 2.90
Iceland 2.70
United States3 2.66
Germany4 2.53
Denmark24 2.55
Austria4 2.54
Total OECD5 2.29p
France 2.04p
Australia (2006) 2.06
Canada 1.90
Belgium 1.90
United Kingdom 1.82
European Union (27)5 1.77
Netherlands 1.71p
Czech Republic 1.54
Norway 1.64
Ireland 1.28p
Spain 1.27
New Zealand 1.21
Italy 1.18
Hungary 0.97
Portugal 1.21
Turkey 0.72
Greece4 0.58
Poland 0.57
Slovak Republic 0.46
Mexico 0.38
p preliminary
1. 2007 or latest available year.
2. Break in series with previous year for which data are available. In Korea only, prior to 2007, social sciences and humanities are excluded from the R&D data.
3. Excludes most or all capital expenditures.
4. National estimate or projection.
5.OECD Secretariat estimate or projection based on national sources.
Sources: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2009. Main Science and Technology Indicators, Vol. 2009/2, Table 02;
Statistics Canada, 2009. Gross Domestic Expenditures on Research and Development in Canada (GERD), and the Provinces: National Estimates 1998 to 2009 and Provincial Estimates 2003 to 2007, Catalogue no. 88-221-X, Vol. 2, no. 1, Table 3 (for Canada).
Updated June 15, 2010.
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