Insights on Canadian Society
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Getting your foot in the door: A look at entry-level job vacancies in Canada
by Marie Drolet
This study uses the 2016 Job Vacancy and Wage Survey (JVWS) to examine job vacancies for entry-level positions (job vacancies that require no work experience) from the employer perspective. The JVWS provides answers to the following questions: How many entry-level job vacancies are available? What are their characteristics? Which occupations offer entry-level positions? Are some education groups more affected than others?
Early motherhood among off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit women
by Virginie Boulet and Nadine Badets
This study uses data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) to examine the prevalence of early motherhood (i.e., having become a mother before the age of 20) among First Nations women living off reserve, Métis women and Inuit women aged 20 to 44. Data from the 2011 General Social Survey (GSS) are used for non-Aboriginal women. The study also examines whether early motherhood is associated with different outcomes in terms of education and employment.
Linking labour demand and labour supply: Job vacancies and the unemployed
by Marie Drolet
This study provides additional insight into labour demand and supply based on the joint availability of job vacancy and unemployment data over the past two years (2015 and 2016). Specifically, it uses data from the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey (JVWS) and Labour Force Survey (LFS) to answer the following questions: To what extent are job vacancies and unemployment related? What can the unemployment-to-job-vacancy ratio tell us? To what extent do occupations differ in their relative degree of being slack (more workers than jobs) or tight (more jobs than workers)? How does the unemployment-to-job-vacancy ratio differ by education level?
Childhood physical abuse: Differences by birth cohort
by Darcy Hango
This study uses self-reported data from the 2014 General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization to examine trends in and characteristics of childhood physical abuse over time. Respondents are grouped into one of three birth cohorts: (1) 1940 to 1959; (2) 1960 to 1979; or (3) 1980 to 1999. For each cohort, this article also explores the relationship to the person responsible for the most serious incident of abuse during childhood as well as the probability that it was disclosed to someone. This article also examines the association between childhood physical abuse and various indicators of social integration and trust, health and victimization during young adulthood.
Low income among persons with a disability in Canada
by Katherine Wall
This study uses data from the 2014 Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA) in order to examine the relationship between low income and characteristics of people aged 25 to 64 with a disability, including disability type, severity class, age of onset of disability, family composition, and other risk factors associated with low income. It also examines the composition of the low‑income population in relation to disability, and provides information on the relationship between employment and low income for this population.
The impact of aging on labour market participation rates
by Andrew Fields, Sharanjit Uppal and Sébastien LaRochelle Côté
Since 2007—prior to the economic downturn of 2008/2009—the overall labour force participation of Canadians declined by about two percentage points. The first part of the study investigates the extent to which aging affected changes in labour market participation rates since 2007, based on data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). In the second part, the reasons behind the increase in the participation rates of Canadians aged 55 and over, which have been trending upwards since 1996, are explored.
Young men and women without a high school diploma
In this paper, multiple sources of data are used to study the profile and labour market outcomes of young men and women aged 25 to 34 without a high school diploma. The data sources include the Labour Force Survey (LFS), the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) and the Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD).
Labour market outcomes of graduates from universities in the Maritime provinces
by Diane Galarneau, Christine Hinchley and Aimé Ntwari
This study uses a new longitudinal dataset that combines information from the Postsecondary Information System (PSIS) with personal income tax data to examine the labour market outcomes of graduates from universities in the Maritime provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick). In this pilot study, the outcomes of six cohorts of young people who graduated from a university in the Maritime provinces between 2006 and 2011 are examined, including 37,425 undergraduate degree holders (those with a bachelor’s degree) and 6,740 graduate degree holders (those with a master’s degree or a doctorate).
Association between breastfeeding and select chronic conditions among off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit children in Canada
by Nadine Badets, Tamara Hudon and Michael Wendt
This paper examines associations between breastfeeding and select chronic conditions—asthma/chronic bronchitis and chronic ear infections—among off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit children in Canada aged 1 to 5 years. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children’s Survey, and each Aboriginal group was studied separately. Two aspects of breastfeeding are examined: feeding history (e.g. bottle-fed, breastfed, or both) and duration of breastfeeding.
Food insecurity among Inuit living in Inuit Nunangat
Using data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS), this study examines the prevalence of food insecurity among Inuit aged 25 and over living in Inuit Nunangat, and the factors associated with food insecurity among Inuit adults. Food insecurity can refer to situations when the amount of food purchased does not last and there is not enough money to buy more food, balanced meals are unaffordable, or household members cut the size of their meals or skip meals because there is not enough money for sufficient food. This study also discusses some of the health outcomes of Inuit adults who live in a food insecure household.
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