Annual demographic estimates, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations: Interactive dashboard


The data used to create this interactive web application is from the following data table:

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Additional information


The estimates contained in this dashboard are based on 2016 Census counts adjusted for census net undercoverage and incompletely enumerated Indian reserves, to which are added data from the population growth estimates for the period from May 10, 2016, to the date of the estimate.

Until the second quarter of 2016 inclusively, population growth is not equal to the sum of natural increase, net international migration, net interprovincial migration, and net intraprovincial migration because residual deviation (not shown) must also be considered in the calculation.

This dashboard is designed to visualize trends in population estimates at the census metropolitan area and census agglomeration levels. To view demographic trends at the provincial, territorial and Canada levels, the product Quarterly demographic estimates, provinces and territories: Interactive dashboard should be consulted.

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Census agglomeration (CA)
A census agglomeration (CA) is formed by one or more adjacent municipalities centred on a population centre (known as the core). A CA must have a core population of at least 10,000 based on data from the previous Census of Population Program. To be included in the CA, other adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuting flows derived from data on place of work from the previous Census Program.
If the population of the core of a CA falls below 10,000, the CA is retired from the next census. All areas inside the CA that are not population centres are rural areas.
When a CA has a core of at least 50,000, based on data from the previous Census of Population, it is subdivided into census tracts. Census tracts are maintained for the CA even if the population of the core subsequently falls below 50,000.
Census metropolitan areas (CMA)
A census metropolitan area (CMA) is formed by one or more adjacent municipalities centred on a population centre (known as the core). A CMA must have a total population of at least 100,000 of which 50,000 or more must live in the core. To be included in the CMA, other adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuting flows derived from census place of work data.
Once an area becomes a CMA, it is retained as a CMA even if its total population declines below 100,000 or the population of its core falls below 50,000. Small population centres with a population count of less than 10,000 are called fringe. All areas inside the CMA that are not population centres are rural areas.
All CMAs are subdivided into census tracts.
The CMA of Ottawa-Gatineau (Ontario-Quebec) crosses provincial boundaries. When the geographic level selected is all of Canada, the totals include the CMA on both sides of the provincial border. If a province has been selected, only the part of the CMA in the province chosen is included in the totals.
Natural increase
Natural increase is the variation in the population size over a given period as a result of the difference between the numbers of births and deaths.
Net international migration
Net international migration basically refers to the total number of moves between Canada and abroad that result in a change in the usual place of residence. It is calculated by adding immigrants, returning emigrants and net non-permanent residents, then subtracting emigrants and net temporary emigration.
Net interprovincial migration
Net interprovincial migration represents the difference between in-migrant and out-migrants for a given province or territory involving a change in the usual place of residence.
Estimated population and population according to the census are both defined as being the number of Canadians whose usual place of residence is within that area, regardless of where they happened to be on Census Day. Also included are any Canadians staying in a dwelling in that area on Census Day and having no usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada, as well as those considered non-permanent residents.
Net intraprovincial migration
Net intraprovincial migration represents the difference between in-migrants and out-migrants in a given region. A region can be defined as a census agglomeration or a census metropolitan area.
Population growth
Population growth is the variation of population size between two dates. It can also be obtained by summing the natural increase, net international migration and net interprovincial migration and if applicable, subtract residual deviation. It can be positive or negative.
Population growth rate
Population growth rate or population growth (%) is the ratio of population growth over the period to the average of the start-of-period and end-of-period populations. The rate is generally expressed as a percentage.
Proportion of the population by age group
Ratio of the sum of the ages of a group (0 to 14, 15 to 64, 65 and older) to the total population. This ratio is expressed as a percentage.
Residual deviation
Difference between demographic population growth calculated using intercensal estimates of population between two dates and that obtained by the sum of the components for the same period. This deviation results from the distribution of the error of closure between years within the quinquennial period. This distribution is calculated by taking into account the number of days within each month.

To learn more

The Annual Demographic Estimates: Subprovincial Areas (91-214-X) is now available to know more about the topic.

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