Economic and Social Reports
Most prevalent jobs of young bachelor’s degree graduates by detailed field of study

Release date: December 21, 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25318/36280001202301200002-eng

Skip to text

Text begins

Abstract

Investing in a postsecondary education is one of the most important decisions made by people over their lifetime. Understanding the potential outcomes associated with specific postsecondary academic programs may help inform young people, but most of the available information focuses on earnings. While important, earnings say little about what postsecondary graduates are likely to do in their career, which may factor heavily in their decision-making process. This article presents the most prevalent jobs held by graduates of Canadian bachelor’s degree programs aged 25 to 34 using the 2021 Census of Population. Importantly, the results are presented in the most disaggregated manner possible in terms of the fields of study and the occupations held by graduates. The findings suggest that only a very small number of academic programs were associated with a specific job, with nursing and pharmacy programs displaying the strongest associations, followed by teacher training programs. Most academic programs were instead linked to various jobs. In many cases, these jobs were at least somewhat related to the program. These findings point to the importance for most graduates of developing a wide range of skills that could potentially be used throughout their careers.

Authors

Marc Frenette and Tomasz Handler are with the Social Analysis and Modelling Division, Analytical Studies and Modelling Branch, at Statistics Canada.

Introduction

The decision to invest in a postsecondary education, and in particular in a certain field of study, can have implications for the rest of one’s life. While several recent articles have highlighted the average earnings associated with very detailed fields of study (e.g., Frenette and Frank 2016; Frenette and Handler 2020a; Frenette and Handler 2020b; Frenette and Handler 2020c), little is known about the type of jobs held by graduates from specific academic programs. Frequently, studies have focused on the degree of match between the job and the academic program (e.g., Statistics Canada 2017). While important, the degree of job match says little about what graduates are actually doing at work. Knowing the specific jobs held is insightful, because previous research has found that the occupations that high school students aspire to achieve at age 30 do not correspond well with the actual distribution of occupations held by 30-year-olds (Frenette 2009). More specifically, the study showed that while many high school students aspire to careers in sciences, engineering, technology, health, social sciences, government, education and arts, the reality is that they are considerably more likely to land jobs in administration, sales, services, trades, primary industries and manufacturing.

The purpose of this article is to inform students, parents, guidance counsellors and policy analysts about the most prevalent jobs held by young bachelor’s degree graduates.Note The article shows the percentage of 25- to 34‑year‑old bachelor’s degree graduates—in detailed disciplines—employed in specific jobs using the 2021 Census of Population. The field of study is based on the four-digit 2021 Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP), while the job is based on the five-digit 2021 National Occupational Classification (NOC). In some instances, occupations had to be aggregated at higher levels (i.e., fewer-digit NOC codes) or they could not be reported at all because of low sample sizes. The five most prevalent jobs are shown for each field of study by gender, although at times, the results for the 10 most prevalent jobs are discussed (but not shown in the tables).   

This article presents disaggregated data at the most detailed level possible, which can yield a great multitude of important findings depending on the perspective of different readers. The remainder of this article summarizes some of the broader results of general interest and shares illustrative examples.

Nursing and pharmacy programs were the most strongly linked to a specific job, followed by teacher training programs

Only a handful of bachelor’s degree programs were strongly associated with a specific job. For male and female 25- to 34-year-old graduates, the program most highly associated with a specific job was registered nursing, nursing administration, nursing research and clinical nursing, where 90.1% of women and 85.1% of men were employed as registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (Appendix Table A.1 for men and Appendix Table A.2 for women). Pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences and administration graduates were a close second, with 85.8% of women and 81.1% of men landing jobs as pharmacists. Other programs classified under health and related fields were also strongly associated with a specific job, in particular among female graduates. This included, among others, female graduates of dental support services and allied professions (78.6% worked as dental hygienists and dental therapists); dietetics and clinical nutrition services (70.6% worked as dietitians and nutritionists); and clinical/medical laboratory science/research and allied professions (65.4% worked as medical laboratory technologists).

Numerous teacher training programs were strongly associated with becoming a teacher. For example, 81.2% of female education, general graduates worked either as elementary school and kindergarten teachers or as secondary school teachers.Note Similarly, 74.5% of their male counterparts landed the same types of jobs. In most instances, around 7 or 8 teacher training graduates out of 10 were employed as teachers.  

A few other programs were also strongly associated with a specific job, but to a lesser degree. These included, among others, second language learning, which is a humanities field (69.2% of female graduates worked as elementary school and kindergarten teachers); air transportation (63.7% of male graduates worked as air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors); human services, general (63.2% of female graduates worked as social workers); law (LLB, BCL) (60.1% of female graduates and 55.7% of male graduates worked as lawyers and Quebec notaries); civil engineering (58.9% of female graduates and 58.0% of male graduates became civil engineers); social work (58.8% of female graduates worked as social workers); and management sciences and quantitative methods (55.3% became mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries).

Most programs were linked to a large variety of jobs

Unlike the selected programs listed above, most bachelor’s degree fields of study were associated with a large variety of jobs. Despite this trend, the jobs that graduates from certain programs landed were often closely related to their education based on occupational titles. 

For example, despite the fact that female design and applied arts graduates were not highly concentrated in their most prevalent job (28.6% worked as graphic designers and illustrators), many landed jobs that are related to the arts—16.0% were interior designers and interior decorators; 4.3% were industrial designers; and 3.9% were theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers. Male and female graduates from many visual and performing arts, and communications technologies programs also landed various jobs that were arguably related to their program.

Another example is finance and financial management services. Although the most prevalent job for male graduates (financial and investment analysts) accounted for only 13.2% of men from this field, the 10 most prevalent jobs (only the five most prevalent are shown in the tables) were all arguably highly related to finance (e.g., financial advisors, at 12.2%; banking, credit and other investment managers, at 5.6%; and financial sales representatives, at 5.0%). More broadly, many programs in business, management and public administration programs were also associated with several jobs, most of which were arguably related to the program.

Male and female graduates in many other broad academic areas also landed a variety of jobs that were at least somewhat related to their discipline. They included graduates in many programs in education; mathematics, computer and information sciences; architecture, engineering, and related trades; agriculture, natural resources and conservation; health and related fields; and personal, protective and transportation services.

However, this association was less evident in many disciplines classified under humanities. For example, while 6.8% of male history graduates and 11.0% of female history graduates worked as teachers (either as elementary school and kindergarten teachers or as secondary school teachers),Note the remaining jobs on the lists have no obvious link to history. For women, these jobs included administrative assistants (4.3%); professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (4.2%); and administrative officers (4.0%). For men, these jobs included retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.0%); professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (2.5%); and other customer and information services representatives (2.1%).

The same is true to varying degrees for programs in the social and behavioural sciences and law fields (with LLB and BCL standing out as clear exceptions, as noted earlier). For example, the most prevalent job held by male economics graduates was financial advisor (5.5%). Most of the other jobs on the list were related to finance or banking. Only 2.1% worked as economists and economic policy researchers and analysts (the ninth most common job, not shown in the table). For their female counterparts, the most prevalent job was administrative officers (3.8%), which was also followed by many jobs related to finance or banking (economists and economic policy researchers and analysts were not one of the 10 most prevalent jobs for women). Economics students may learn some aspects of banking and finance incidentally through their coursework (to become social scientists, not practitioners), like how the monetary system works or businesses operate in the economy. 

By contrast, sociology graduates tended to work in a wider variety of jobs, often with only a loose connection to sociology. For example, the five most prevalent jobs for female graduates were social and community service workers (7.1%); human resources professionals (4.7%); elementary school and kindergarten teachers (3.6%); professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.5%); and administrative assistants (3.5%). The five most prevalent jobs for male graduates were police officers (except commissioned) (5.0%), social and community service workers (4.1%), retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.3%), retail and wholesale trade managers (2.7%), and other customer and information services representatives (2.7%). It is worth noting that a significant portion (20.2%) of female graduates of sociology and anthropology programs worked in professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services, which may include, for example, government sociologists.

Conclusion

This article presented and discussed disaggregated data on specific jobs held by 25- to 34-year-old male and female bachelor’s degree graduates from detailed fields of study. Providing this information to students, parents, guidance counsellors and policy analysts is important, because it informs them on the type of work that graduates are likely to be doing in their career, given their field of study choice. The success of postsecondary graduates cannot only be measured by their earnings, which is often the sole focus of research studies. Some students may find satisfying and meaningful work in occupations that are not always associated with high pay.

The findings suggest that only a very small number of academic programs were associated with a specific job, with nursing and pharmacy programs displaying the strongest associations, followed by teacher training programs. Most academic programs were instead linked to several jobs. In many cases, these jobs were at least somewhat related to the program. These results point to the importance for most graduates of developing various skills that could potentially be used throughout their careers. Some of these skills may be acquired in formal education before entering the workforce, while others may be learned on the job or through broader lifelong learning initiatives.

Future work in this area could focus on the relationship between fields of study and occupations for other levels of education, such as postsecondary certificates and diplomas, graduate degrees (master’s degrees and doctorates), and professional health degrees (e.g., medicine and dentistry).

Appendix


Appendix Table A.1
Most prevalent occupations held among bachelor's degree graduates by detailed field of study, 2021, 25- to 34-year-old men
Table summary
This table displays the results of Most prevalent occupations held among bachelor's degree graduates by detailed field of study. The information is grouped by Field of study (2021 Classification of Instructional Programs, primary grouping and subgrouping code and name) (appearing as row headers), Most prevalent occupations (2021 National Occupational Classification code, name and percentage) (appearing as column headers).
Field of study (2021 Classification of Instructional Programs, primary grouping and subgrouping code and name) Most prevalent occupations (2021 National Occupational Classification code, name and percentage)
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Education (primary grouping)
13.01 Education, general 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (39.4%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (35.1%) 41210 College and other vocational instructors (1.4%) 42202 Early childhood educators and assistants (0.9%) 43109 Other instructors (0.9%)
13.10 Special education and teaching 41220 Secondary school teachers (42.5%) 412 Professional occupations in education services (40.7%)
Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
13.11 Student counselling and personnel services 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (55.0%)
Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
13.12 Teacher education and professional development, specific levels and methods 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (38.1%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (36.1%) 4220 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services (4.3%)
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (5.2%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (4.4%)
13.13 Teacher education and professional development, specific subject areas 41220 Secondary school teachers (38.3%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (33.6%) 41210 College and other vocational instructors (1.8%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (1.1%)
4310 Assisting occupations in education (1.3%)
13.14 Teaching English or French as a second or foreign language 41220 Secondary school teachers (44.0%) 6 Sales and service occupations (25.8%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (23.7%)
Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies (primary grouping)
10.03 Graphic communications 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (37.6%) 52111 Graphic arts technicians (12.4%) 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (6.2%) 531 Occupations in art and culture (4.0%) 65 Sales and service support occupations (4.4%)
50.01 Visual, digital and performing arts, general 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (10.6%) 531 Occupations in art and culture (10.6%) 65 Sales and service support occupations (10.5%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (9.2%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (7.2%)
50.04 Design and applied arts 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (28.1%) 22211 Industrial designers (9.6%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.9%) 52121 Interior designers and interior decorators (3.6%) 21233 Web designers (3.2%)
50.05 Drama/theatre arts and stagecraft 53121 Actors, comedians and circus performers (11.7%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (5.6%) 51120 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (4.4%) 65201 Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations (3.8%) 52119 Other technical and coordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts (2.8%)
50.06 Film/video and photographic arts 51120 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (15.7%) 52113 Audio and video recording technicians (9.0%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (6.0%) 53111 Motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and performing arts assistants and operators (5.3%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (4.4%)
50.07 Fine arts and art studies 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (10.0%) 53122 Painters, sculptors and other visual artists (4.0%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.9%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (3.1%) 51120 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (2.7%)
50.09 Music 51122 Musicians and singers (23.5%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (6.6%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (3.7%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (3.3%) 51121 Conductors, composers and arrangers (3.2%)
Humanities (primary grouping)
16.01 Linguistic, comparative and related language studies and services 51114 Translators, terminologists and interpreters (19.1%) 5111 Writing, translating and related communications professionals (6.7%) 6410 Retail salespersons and non-technical wholesale trade sales and account representatives (4.6%) 412 Professional occupations in education services (9.3%) 141 Office, court, and data support occupations (4.7%)
23.01 English language and literature, general 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.4%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (4.2%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.8%) 51111 Authors and writers (except technical) (3.6%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (3.1%)
23.13 English rhetoric and composition/writing studies 5111 Writing, translating and related communications professionals (13.6%) 11 Professional occupations in finance and business (10.7%) 6 Sales and service occupations (27.0%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (12.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (11.6%)
23.14 English literature 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (6.5%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4.5%) 51111 Authors and writers (except technical) (4.3%) 5111 Writing, translating and related communications professionals (6.0%) 521 Technical occupations in art and culture (5.3%)
24.01 Liberal arts and sciences, general studies and humanities 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.3%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (2.8%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (2.7%) 42201 Social and community service workers (2.0%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (1.6%)
30.22 Classical and ancient studies 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (29.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (22.0%) 5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (14.7%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (12.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.45 History and language/literature 4122 Secondary, elementary and kindergarten school teachers (17.5%) 6 Sales and service occupations (34.1%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (17.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
38.01 Philosophy, logic and ethics 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (6.2%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (4.9%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (3.2%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.1%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (2.6%)
38.02 Religion/religious studies 41302 Religious leaders (12.0%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (9.0%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (11.7%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (16.3%) 6 Sales and service occupations (14.9%)
39.02 Bible/Biblical studies 41302 Religious leaders (31.0%) 7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (23.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
39.06 Theological and ministerial studies 41302 Religious leaders (37.9%) 7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (14.5%) 6 Sales and service occupations (12.8%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (8.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
39.07 Pastoral counselling and specialized ministries 41302 Religious leaders (36.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
54.01 History 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4.0%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.0%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (2.8%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (2.5%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (2.1%)
55.01 French language and literature, general 4122 Secondary, elementary and kindergarten school teachers (18.1%) 6 Sales and service occupations (28.0%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (17.6%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (14.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
55.14 French literature 412 Professional occupations in education services (16.3%) 6 Sales and service occupations (24.6%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (19.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Social and behavioural sciences and law (primary grouping)
05.01 Area studies 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (15.6%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (10.7%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (25.1%) 6 Sales and service occupations (17.3%) 7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (14.5%)
05.02 Ethnic, cultural minority, gender, and group studies 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (40.6%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (18.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
09.01 Communication and media studies 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (15.6%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (6.7%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.1%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (3.5%) 51120 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (3.3%)
09.04 Journalism 51113 Journalists (20.5%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (7.6%) 51111 Authors and writers (except technical) (7.4%) 51110 Editors (4.8%) 521 Technical occupations in art and culture (6.0%)
09.07 Radio, television and digital communication 51120 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (14.8%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (8.5%) 52113 Audio and video recording technicians (7.4%) 5211 Technical occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts (15.3%) 5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (15.5%)
09.09 Public relations, advertising and applied communication 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (26.7%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (7.2%) 511 Professional occupations in art and culture (7.7%) 521 Technical occupations in art and culture (7.5%) 600 Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services (6.1%)
09.99 Communication, journalism and related programs, other 5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (35.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
19.02 Family and consumer sciences/human sciences business services 11 Professional occupations in finance and business (28.4%) 6 Sales and service occupations (34.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
19.05 Foods, nutrition and related services 6 Sales and service occupations (22.2%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (19.3%) 3 Health occupations (19.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
19.07 Human development, family studies and related services 42201 Social and community service workers (14.6%) 413 Professional occupations in social and community services (12.5%) 42 Front-line public protection services and paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community, education services (12.9%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (11.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (15.0%)
19.99 Family and consumer sciences/human sciences, other 6 Sales and service occupations (46.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
22.00 Non-professional legal studies 11 Professional occupations in finance and business (10.1%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (10.1%) 42 Front-line public protection services and paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community, education services (9.5%) 6 Sales and service occupations (25.8%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (18.1%)
22.01 Law (LLB, BCL) 41101 Lawyers and Quebec notaries (55.7%) 42200 Paralegals and related occupations (1.9%) 11200 Human resources professionals (1.5%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (1.3%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (1.3%)
30.20 International/globalization studies 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (28.9%) 6 Sales and service occupations (23.4%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (19.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.25 Cognitive science 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (20.8%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (20.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (20.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.44 Geography and environmental studies 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (17.5%) 7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (21.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (17.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.46 History and political science 600 Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services (10.1%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (10.7%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (8.1%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (20.7%) 7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (12.8%)
42.01 Psychology, general 42201 Social and community service workers (6.8%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.7%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (2.5%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (2.5%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (2.3%)
42.27 Research and experimental psychology 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (15.2%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (25.7%) 6 Sales and service occupations (16.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
42.28 Clinical, counselling and applied psychology 42100 Police officers (except commissioned) (8.1%) 42203 Instructors of persons with disabilities (7.1%) 4130 Social and community service professionals (6.9%) 4220 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services (5.5%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (12.6%)
45.01 General social sciences 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.8%) 64410 Security guards and related security service occupations (3.4%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.5%) 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (4.5%) 4122 Secondary, elementary and kindergarten school teachers (3.7%)
45.02 Anthropology 41409 Other professional occupations in social science (4.4%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (3.9%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.8%) 6520 Food support occupations (4.8%) 644 Occupations in customer, information and protective services (4.4%)
45.03 Archaeology 41409 Other professional occupations in social science (23.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (22.7%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (18.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
45.04 Criminology 42100 Police officers (except commissioned) (14.1%) 64410 Security guards and related security service occupations (6.6%) 42201 Social and community service workers (4.5%) 43201 Correctional service officers (4.3%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.6%)
45.06 Economics 11102 Financial advisors (5.5%) 11101 Financial and investment analysts (4.5%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.7%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (3.4%) 63102 Financial sales representatives (2.9%)
45.07 Geography and cartography 22214 Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology (8.8%) 21203 Land surveyors (5.9%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.2%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (2.3%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (1.9%)
45.09 International relations and national security studies 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (18.1%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (27.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (24.2%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (10.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
45.10 Political science and government 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (4.4%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.8%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (3.4%) 11102 Financial advisors (2.8%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (2.7%)
45.11 Sociology 42100 Police officers (except commissioned) (5.0%) 42201 Social and community service workers (4.1%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.3%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (2.7%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (2.7%)
45.12 Urban studies/affairs 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (20.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (24.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Business, management and public administration (primary grouping)
44.00 Human services, general 41300 Social workers (24.5%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (32.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
44.04 Public administration 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (16.3%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (32.4%) 6 Sales and service occupations (15.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
44.05 Public policy analysis 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (26.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (25.4%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (24.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
44.07 Social work 41300 Social workers (47.5%) 42201 Social and community service workers (11.5%) 41301 Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies (3.5%) 4220 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services (3.1%) 413 Professional occupations in social and community services (3.1%)
52.01 Business/commerce, general 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (8.1%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (4.6%) 11101 Financial and investment analysts (3.6%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.5%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.5%)
52.02 Business administration, management and operations 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (4.1%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (3.7%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.5%) 11201 Professional occupations in business management consulting (3.5%) 11102 Financial advisors (3.4%)
52.03 Accounting and related services 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (42.0%) 10010 Financial managers (7.2%) 11101 Financial and investment analysts (5.3%) 14200 Accounting and related clerks (4.7%) 12200 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers (2.7%)
52.04 Business operations support and assistant services 2122 Computer and information systems professionals (17.8%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (15.1%) 6 Sales and service occupations (22.0%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (20.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.05 Business/corporate communications 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (27.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (36.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.06 Business/managerial economics 11101 Financial and investment analysts (9.7%) 11102 Financial advisors (9.2%) 10021 Banking, credit and other investment managers (6.4%) 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (3.8%) 11201 Professional occupations in business management consulting (3.4%)
52.07 Entrepreneurial and small business operations 11 Professional occupations in finance and business (17.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (34.6%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (20.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.08 Finance and financial management services 11101 Financial and investment analysts (13.4%) 11102 Financial advisors (12.1%) 10021 Banking, credit and other investment managers (5.6%) 63102 Financial sales representatives (5.0%) 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (4.3%)
52.09 Hospitality administration/management 60030 Restaurant and food service managers (5.0%) 64314 Hotel front desk clerks (5.0%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.7%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (4.6%) 60031 Accommodation service managers (4.6%)
52.10 Human resources management and services 11200 Human resources professionals (21.3%) 12101 Human resources and recruitment officers (10.5%) 10011 Human resources managers (9.1%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.2%) 14102 Personnel clerks (2.2%)
52.11 International business/trade/commerce 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (4.9%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (4.2%) 1110 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals (6.7%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (5.3%) 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (5.0%)
52.12 Management information systems and services 21222 Information systems specialists (19.2%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (22.6%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (20.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (17.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.13 Management sciences and quantitative methods 21210 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries (55.3%) 11101 Financial and investment analysts (4.6%) 11201 Professional occupations in business management consulting (2.4%) 11200 Human resources professionals (2.1%) 12202 Insurance underwriters (2.1%)
52.14 Marketing 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (17.8%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (9.9%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (5.1%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.5%) 60010 Corporate sales managers (3.7%)
52.15 Real estate 12203 Assessors, business valuators and appraisers (22.3%) 63101 Real estate agents and salespersons (18.2%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (27.9%) 6 Sales and service occupations (13.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.18 General sales, merchandising and related marketing operations 6 Sales and service occupations (85.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.19 Specialized sales, merchandising and marketing operations 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (25.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.20 Construction management 70010 Construction managers (52.7%) 22303 Construction estimators (8.0%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (7.4%) 72 Technical trades and transportation officers and controllers (6.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Physical and life sciences and technologies (primary grouping)
26.01 Biology, general 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (7.0%) 21110 Biologists and related scientists (5.9%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.8%) 22110 Biological technologists and technicians (2.2%) 32102 Paramedical occupations (1.9%)
26.02 Biochemistry/biophysics and molecular biology 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (10.7%) 21101 Chemists (6.9%) 21110 Biologists and related scientists (4.0%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (3.1%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (1.9%)
26.04 Cell/cellular biology and anatomical sciences 412 Professional occupations in education services (21.0%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (22.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
26.05 Microbiological sciences and immunology 21110 Biologists and related scientists (11.5%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (8.2%) 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (6.0%) 3310 Assisting occupations in support of health services (4.8%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (6.2%)
26.07 Zoology/animal biology 3 Health occupations (21.0%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (19.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
26.08 Genetics 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (32.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
26.09 Physiology, pathology and related sciences 412 Professional occupations in education services (16.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (16.5%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (15.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
26.10 Pharmacology and toxicology 211 Professional occupations in natural sciences (18.8%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (19.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (18.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
26.12 Biotechnology 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (24.7%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (15.4%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (15.2%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (14.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
26.13 Ecology, evolution, systematics and population biology 21110 Biologists and related scientists (8.0%) 412 Professional occupations in education services (10.2%) 221 Technical occupations related to natural sciences (8.6%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (11.4%) 6 Sales and service occupations (17.5%)
26.15 Neurobiology and neurosciences 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (17.2%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (9.2%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (8.5%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (18.7%) 6 Sales and service occupations (13.9%)
30.01 Biological and physical sciences 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (4.0%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.4%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (1.9%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (1.9%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (1.8%)
30.10 Biopsychology 6 Sales and service occupations (27.0%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (21.8%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (18.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.27 Human biology 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (29.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
40.01 Physical sciences, general 21300 Civil engineers (10.5%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (9.4%) 21301 Mechanical engineers (8.2%) 21310 Electrical and electronics engineers (8.2%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (6.6%)
40.02 Astronomy and astrophysics 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (39.3%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (31.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
40.05 Chemistry 21101 Chemists (22.4%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (12.1%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (2.1%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (1.9%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (1.9%)
40.06 Geological and Earth sciences/geosciences 21102 Geoscientists and oceanographers (36.4%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (3.8%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.1%) 41400 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers (2.9%) 21110 Biologists and related scientists (1.9%)
40.08 Physics 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (14.2%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (8.8%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (3.3%) 21230 Computer systems developers and programmers (3.2%) 43109 Other instructors (2.9%)
Mathematics, computer and information sciences (primary grouping)
11.01 Computer and information sciences and support services, general 21222 Information systems specialists (16.8%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (9.2%) 21234 Web developers and programmers (6.8%) 22220 Computer network and web technicians (6.6%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (5.3%)
11.02 Computer programming 21232 Software developers and programmers (36.8%) 21230 Computer systems developers and programmers (15.5%) 21234 Web developers and programmers (9.1%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (8.3%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (9.5%)
11.07 Computer science 21232 Software developers and programmers (28.2%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (17.8%) 21234 Web developers and programmers (11.0%) 21230 Computer systems developers and programmers (7.8%) 21222 Information systems specialists (5.7%)
11.08 Computer software and media applications 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (25.1%) 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (26.0%) 5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (13.3%) 6 Sales and service occupations (12.5%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (10.1%)
11.10 Computer/information technology administration and management 21220 Cybersecurity specialists (19.5%) 21222 Information systems specialists (12.1%) 22220 Computer network and web technicians (7.4%) 20012 Computer and information systems managers (7.2%) 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (11.4%)
11.99 Computer and information sciences and support services, other 21232 Software developers and programmers (31.3%) 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (24.6%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (18.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
27.01 Mathematics 21210 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries (8.2%) 11101 Financial and investment analysts (4.3%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (4.2%) 21211 Data scientists (4.2%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (4.1%)
27.03 Applied mathematics 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (20.6%) 11 Professional occupations in finance and business (15.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (18.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
27.05 Statistics 21210 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries (9.0%) 21211 Data scientists (4.7%) 1110 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals (11.6%) 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (7.2%) 2122 Computer and information systems professionals (6.0%)
30.08 Mathematics and computer science 21232 Software developers and programmers (20.6%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (16.1%) 21234 Web developers and programmers (10.7%) 21230 Computer systems developers and programmers (8.8%) 2122 Computer and information systems professionals (8.5%)
30.39 Economics and computer science 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (43.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.49 Mathematical economics 6 Sales and service occupations (32.4%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (24.7%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (19.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Architecture, engineering, and related trades (primary grouping)
04.02 Architecture 22210 Architectural technologists and technicians (20.3%) 21200 Architects (17.8%) 70010 Construction managers (9.7%) 22212 Drafting technologists and technicians (4.7%) 5212 Graphic and interior designers (6.0%)
04.03 City/urban, community and regional planning 21202 Urban and land use planners (29.7%) 43202 By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers (3.6%) 63101 Real estate agents and salespersons (3.5%) 6410 Retail salespersons and non-technical wholesale trade sales and account representatives (3.5%) 1002 Managers in financial and business services (3.2%)
04.04 Environmental design/architecture 2221 Technical occupations in architecture, drafting, surveying, geomatics and meteorology (23.4%) 7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (19.4%) 6 Sales and service occupations (16.4%) 5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (14.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
04.06 Landscape architecture 21201 Landscape architects (41.3%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (22.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.01 General engineering 21301 Mechanical engineers (15.2%) 21300 Civil engineers (13.4%) 21310 Electrical and electronics engineers (7.3%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (4.5%) 20010 Engineering managers (3.5%)
14.02 Aerospace, aeronautical and astronautical/space engineering 21390 Aerospace engineers (22.8%) 40042 Commissioned officers of the Canadian Armed Forces (7.5%) 72600 Air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors (7.0%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (5.2%) 21301 Mechanical engineers (5.0%)
14.03 Agricultural engineering 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (57.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.05 Biomedical/medical engineering 21231 Software engineers and designers (11.7%) 213 Professional occupations in engineering (30.2%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (13.2%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (12.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.07 Chemical engineering 21320 Chemical engineers (28.7%) 20010 Engineering managers (5.4%) 21321 Industrial and manufacturing engineers (2.9%) 21300 Civil engineers (2.4%) 90010 Manufacturing managers (2.3%)
14.08 Civil engineering 21300 Civil engineers (58.0%) 70010 Construction managers (10.5%) 00015 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities (2.2%) 72021 Contractors and supervisors, heavy equipment operator crews (2.0%) 22300 Civil engineering technologists and technicians (1.8%)
14.09 Computer engineering 21232 Software developers and programmers (30.4%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (27.8%) 21234 Web developers and programmers (6.9%) 21230 Computer systems developers and programmers (6.6%) 21311 Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (4.7%)
14.10 Electrical, electronics and communications engineering 21310 Electrical and electronics engineers (41.9%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (6.8%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (5.7%) 21311 Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2.9%) 21222 Information systems specialists (2.4%)
14.12 Engineering physics/applied physics 21310 Electrical and electronics engineers (12.1%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (10.6%) 21301 Mechanical engineers (8.2%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (8.1%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (7.5%)
14.13 Engineering science 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (25.9%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (30.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.14 Environmental/environmental health engineering 21300 Civil engineers (47.7%) 41400 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers (7.8%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (13.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.18 Materials engineering 21322 Metallurgical and materials engineers (22.3%) 213 Professional occupations in engineering (16.2%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (10.9%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (12.5%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (10.3%)
14.19 Mechanical engineering 21301 Mechanical engineers (46.4%) 21321 Industrial and manufacturing engineers (4.1%) 20010 Engineering managers (2.6%) 90010 Manufacturing managers (2.0%) 22301 Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians (1.9%)
14.21 Mining and mineral engineering 21330 Mining engineers (37.2%) 2130 Civil and mechanical engineers (6.5%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (10.3%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (12.9%) 8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations (8.4%)
14.23 Nuclear engineering 21301 Mechanical engineers (36.2%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (19.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.25 Petroleum engineering 21332 Petroleum engineers (20.6%) 213 Professional occupations in engineering (15.0%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (15.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.27 Systems engineering 21231 Software engineers and designers (26.2%) 213 Professional occupations in engineering (21.2%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (14.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.33 Construction engineering 21300 Civil engineers (29.8%) 00015 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities (15.0%) 70010 Construction managers (13.6%) 21301 Mechanical engineers (6.3%) 22303 Construction estimators (5.3%)
14.34 Forest engineering 21111 Forestry professionals (49.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.35 Industrial engineering 21321 Industrial and manufacturing engineers (20.1%) 21222 Information systems specialists (6.8%) 11201 Professional occupations in business management consulting (6.8%) 21221 Business systems specialists (4.4%) 2001 Managers in engineering, architecture, science and information systems (5.3%)
14.36 Manufacturing engineering 21321 Industrial and manufacturing engineers (19.8%) 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (17.6%) 213 Professional occupations in engineering (17.9%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (20.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.38 Surveying engineering 21203 Land surveyors (26.9%) 2130 Civil and mechanical engineers (21.0%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (28.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.39 Geological/geophysical engineering 21331 Geological engineers (35.4%) 213 Professional occupations in engineering (20.5%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (15.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.41 Electromechanical engineering 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (76.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.42 Mechatronics, robotics, and automation engineering 21301 Mechanical engineers (25.6%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (17.0%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (7.8%) 21310 Electrical and electronics engineers (7.3%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (7.8%)
14.47 Electrical and computer engineering 21231 Software engineers and designers (33.7%) 21310 Electrical and electronics engineers (14.6%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (13.0%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (15.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.48 Energy systems engineering 9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities (25.4%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (23.6%) 7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (22.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.99 Engineering, other 21301 Mechanical engineers (18.1%) 213 Professional occupations in engineering (11.9%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (8.6%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (11.5%) 6 Sales and service occupations (12.7%)
15.00 General engineering technologies/technicians 213 Professional occupations in engineering (26.3%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (30.4%) 7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (23.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
15.03 Electrical/electronic engineering technologies/technicians 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (20.3%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (26.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
15.06 Industrial production technologies/technicians 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (43.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
15.07 Quality control and safety technologies/technicians 22232 Occupational health and safety specialists (28.2%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (32.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
15.12 Computer engineering technologies/technicians 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (41.0%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (34.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
15.15 Engineering-related fields 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (44.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
15.16 Nanotechnology 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (25.8%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (30.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation (primary grouping)
01.00 Agriculture, general 80020 Managers in agriculture (30.4%) 21112 Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists (20.3%) 6 Sales and service occupations (17.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (9.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
01.01 Agricultural business and management 80020 Managers in agriculture (26.5%) 21112 Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists (7.5%) 600 Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services (8.8%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (20.1%) 6 Sales and service occupations (12.8%)
01.10 Food science and technology 211 Professional occupations in natural sciences (18.6%) 9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities (31.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
01.11 Plant sciences 21112 Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists (39.5%) 80020 Managers in agriculture (23.2%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (10.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
03.01 Natural resources conservation and research 41400 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers (9.5%) 21110 Biologists and related scientists (6.2%) 21120 Public and environmental health and safety professionals (2.9%) 22300 Civil engineering technologists and technicians (2.6%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (2.3%)
03.02 Environmental/natural resources management and policy 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (11.9%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (15.4%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (8.5%) 6 Sales and service occupations (15.5%) 7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (14.2%)
03.05 Forestry 21111 Forestry professionals (29.6%) 22112 Forestry technologists and technicians (10.2%) 8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations (12.9%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (10.1%) 6 Sales and service occupations (8.5%)
Health and related fields (primary grouping)
31.01 Parks, recreation, and leisure studies 41406 Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers (13.9%) 54100 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness (11.2%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (7.4%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (17.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (17.4%)
31.05 Sports, kinesiology, and physical education/physical fitness 31204 Kinesiologists and other professional occupations in therapy and assessment (8.2%) 54100 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness (7.2%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4.5%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.9%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (3.6%)
51.00 General health services/allied health/health sciences 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (3.4%) 32102 Paramedical occupations (3.1%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.0%) 42201 Social and community service workers (2.5%) 33102 Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates (2.3%)
51.07 Health and medical administrative services 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (25.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (32.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.09 Allied health diagnostic, intervention and treatment professions 32121 Medical radiation technologists (40.4%) 32102 Paramedical occupations (13.7%) 32103 Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists (9.5%) 31204 Kinesiologists and other professional occupations in therapy and assessment (7.6%) 321 Technical occupations in health (except practitioners of natural healing) (6.8%)
51.10 Clinical/medical laboratory science/research and allied professions 32120 Medical laboratory technologists (50.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.11 Health/medical preparatory programs 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (11.3%) 31 Professional occupations in health (15.8%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (14.2%) 6 Sales and service occupations (22.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.15 Mental and social health services and allied professions 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (46.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.20 Pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences and administration 31120 Pharmacists (81.1%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (4.7%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (3.5%) 3 Health occupations (2.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (2.6%)
51.22 Public health 21120 Public and environmental health and safety professionals (21.3%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (10.4%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (9.5%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (11.1%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (10.8%)
51.23 Rehabilitation and therapeutic professions 31202 Physiotherapists (19.3%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (16.0%) 3 Health occupations (13.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.38 Registered nursing, nursing administration, nursing research and clinical nursing 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (85.1%) 31300 Nursing coordinators and supervisors (2.3%) 33102 Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates (1.4%) 30010 Managers in health care (1.2%) 32101 Licensed practical nurses (1.0%)
Personal, protective and transportation services (primary grouping)
28.08 Military science, leadership and operational art 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (100.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
43.01 Criminal justice and corrections 42100 Police officers (except commissioned) (20.1%) 64410 Security guards and related security service occupations (8.1%) 43201 Correctional service officers (5.4%) 42201 Social and community service workers (4.9%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (2.8%)
43.03 Security and protective services, specialized programs 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (41.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
43.04 Security science and technology 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (29.3%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (19.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
49.01 Air transportation 72600 Air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors (63.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Other (primary grouping)
30.99 Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other 6 Sales and service occupations (41.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

Appendix Table A.2
Most prevalent occupations held among bachelor's degree graduates by detailed field of study, 2021, 25- to 34-year-old women
Table summary
This table displays the results of Most prevalent occupations held among bachelor's degree graduates by detailed field of study. The information is grouped by Field of study (2021 Classification of Instructional Programs, primary grouping and subgrouping code and name) (appearing as row headers), Most prevalent occupations (2021 National Occupational Classification code, name and percentage) (appearing as column headers).
Field of study (2021 Classification of Instructional Programs, primary grouping and subgrouping code and name) Most prevalent occupations (2021 National Occupational Classification code, name and percentage)
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Education (primary grouping)
13.01 Education, general 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (65.1%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (16.1%) 42202 Early childhood educators and assistants (3.0%) 41210 College and other vocational instructors (0.7%) 42201 Social and community service workers (0.6%)
13.02 Bilingual, multilingual and multicultural education 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (48.6%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (38.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
13.10 Special education and teaching 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (56.2%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (24.5%) 42203 Instructors of persons with disabilities (4.9%) 42202 Early childhood educators and assistants (2.1%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (3.3%)
13.11 Student counselling and personnel services 12101 Human resources and recruitment officers (14.4%) 11200 Human resources professionals (10.0%) 42201 Social and community service workers (8.9%) 4132 Educational and employment counsellors (10.4%) 131 Administrative occupations (7.3%)
13.12 Teacher education and professional development, specific levels and methods 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (60.5%) 42202 Early childhood educators and assistants (16.2%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (7.3%) 13110 Administrative assistants (0.8%) 42201 Social and community service workers (0.8%)
13.13 Teacher education and professional development, specific subject areas 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (49.7%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (27.1%) 42202 Early childhood educators and assistants (1.4%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (1.0%) 41210 College and other vocational instructors (1.0%)
13.14 Teaching English or French as a second or foreign language 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (40.5%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (28.6%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (10.3%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (9.0%) 6 Sales and service occupations (7.7%)
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies (primary grouping)
10.03 Graphic communications 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (37.0%) 52111 Graphic arts technicians (4.9%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (3.5%) 131 Administrative occupations (4.7%) 531 Occupations in art and culture (3.8%)
50.01 Visual, digital and performing arts, general 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (7.8%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (5.1%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.7%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (3.7%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (3.0%)
50.03 Dance 53120 Dancers (31.4%) 5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (18.7%) 6 Sales and service occupations (17.4%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (11.7%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (11.3%)
50.04 Design and applied arts 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (28.6%) 52121 Interior designers and interior decorators (16.0%) 22211 Industrial designers (4.3%) 53123 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers (3.9%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.8%)
50.05 Drama/theatre arts and stagecraft 53121 Actors, comedians and circus performers (6.5%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.8%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (4.0%) 65200 Food and beverage servers (3.6%) 51120 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (3.5%)
50.06 Film/video and photographic arts 51120 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (8.1%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (7.0%) 53110 Photographers (6.8%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (5.9%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (3.9%)
50.07 Fine arts and art studies 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (8.4%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.8%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (4.0%) 13100 Administrative officers (2.7%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (2.7%)
50.09 Music 51122 Musicians and singers (27.1%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (9.5%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.0%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.4%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (2.4%)
Humanities (primary grouping)
16.01 Linguistic, comparative and related language studies and services 51114 Translators, terminologists and interpreters (16.1%) 13110 Administrative assistants (5.5%) 51110 Editors (3.2%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.1%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (2.9%)
16.09 Romance languages, literatures and linguistics 412 Professional occupations in education services (16.0%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (33.4%) 6 Sales and service occupations (21.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
16.17 Second language learning 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (69.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
23.01 English language and literature, general 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (8.1%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (6.4%) 13100 Administrative officers (3.8%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (3.8%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.8%)
23.13 English rhetoric and composition/writing studies 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (15.5%) 51111 Authors and writers (except technical) (6.8%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (6.7%) 51110 Editors (5.8%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (8.1%)
23.14 English literature 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (8.3%) 51111 Authors and writers (except technical) (4.5%) 13110 Administrative assistants (4.1%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (4.0%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (3.9%)
24.01 Liberal arts and sciences, general studies and humanities 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (5.4%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (4.1%) 13100 Administrative officers (4.1%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (4.0%) 42201 Social and community service workers (2.9%)
30.22 Classical and ancient studies 13100 Administrative officers (7.5%) 1311 Office administrative assistants - general, legal and medical (8.9%) 412 Professional occupations in education services (8.6%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (9.7%) 14 Administrative and financial support and supply chain logistics occupations (7.1%)
30.45 History and language/literature 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (9.8%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (8.5%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (7.3%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (6.9%) 1410 Office support and court services occupations (4.7%)
38.01 Philosophy, logic and ethics 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (5.8%) 42200 Paralegals and related occupations (4.6%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (3.7%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.1%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (2.8%)
38.02 Religion/religious studies 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (8.3%) 4220 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services (9.8%) 131 Administrative occupations (7.0%) 652 Support occupations in food, accommodation and tourism (5.5%) 11 Professional occupations in finance and business (9.6%)
39.04 Religious education 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (56.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
39.06 Theological and ministerial studies 41302 Religious leaders (24.1%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (26.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (24.7%) 6 Sales and service occupations (15.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
54.01 History 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (7.8%) 13110 Administrative assistants (4.3%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (4.2%) 13100 Administrative officers (4.0%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (3.2%)
55.01 French language and literature, general 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (25.9%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (6.3%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (4.3%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.4%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.3%)
55.13 French rhetoric and composition/writing studies 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (48.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
55.14 French literature 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (8.6%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (6.7%) 13110 Administrative assistants (6.2%) 4122 Secondary, elementary and kindergarten school teachers (6.0%) 5111 Writing, translating and related communications professionals (5.7%)
Social and behavioural sciences and law (primary grouping)
05.01 Area studies 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (12.0%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (4.8%) 13110 Administrative assistants (4.5%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (3.5%) 14100 General office support workers (3.3%)
05.02 Ethnic, cultural minority, gender, and group studies 42201 Social and community service workers (7.9%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4.7%) 13110 Administrative assistants (3.8%) 13100 Administrative officers (3.6%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.4%)
09.01 Communication and media studies 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (26.4%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (9.3%) 13100 Administrative officers (2.6%) 13110 Administrative assistants (2.4%) 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (2.1%)
09.04 Journalism 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (21.2%) 51113 Journalists (14.9%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (8.3%) 51120 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (5.3%) 51111 Authors and writers (except technical) (5.1%)
09.07 Radio, television and digital communication 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (14.4%) 51120 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (11.4%) 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (7.9%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (7.8%) 5211 Technical occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts (6.1%)
09.09 Public relations, advertising and applied communication 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (35.3%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (9.7%) 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (5.1%) 51111 Authors and writers (except technical) (2.2%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.1%)
09.99 Communication, journalism and related programs, other 5111 Writing, translating and related communications professionals (32.2%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (22.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
19.01 Family and consumer sciences/human sciences, general 42201 Social and community service workers (14.4%) 41300 Social workers (7.3%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (7.8%) 131 Administrative occupations (7.9%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (11.4%)
19.02 Family and consumer sciences/human sciences business services 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (13.7%) 1110 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals (10.9%) 6 Sales and service occupations (31.3%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (30.6%) X
19.05 Foods, nutrition and related services 31121 Dietitians and nutritionists (40.8%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.9%) 62020 Food service supervisors (2.9%) 32129 Other medical technologists and technicians (2.5%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (1.9%)
19.07 Human development, family studies and related services 42202 Early childhood educators and assistants (21.5%) 42201 Social and community service workers (13.2%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (10.9%) 43100 Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants (6.8%) 41301 Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies (3.6%)
19.09 Apparel and textiles 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (19.2%) 6 Sales and service occupations (27.4%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (22.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
19.10 Work and family studies 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (59.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
19.99 Family and consumer sciences/human sciences, other 12101 Human resources and recruitment officers (7.2%) 42201 Social and community service workers (6.7%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (10.4%) 413 Professional occupations in social and community services (5.9%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (7.3%)
22.00 Non-professional legal studies 42200 Paralegals and related occupations (12.5%) 13111 Legal administrative assistants (7.8%) 13110 Administrative assistants (6.5%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (6.0%) 100 Specialized middle management occupations in administrative services, financial and business services and communication (except broadcasting) (4.4%)
22.01 Law (LLB, BCL) 41101 Lawyers and Quebec notaries (60.1%) 42200 Paralegals and related occupations (4.5%) 13111 Legal administrative assistants (3.3%) 11200 Human resources professionals (1.6%) 13100 Administrative officers (1.5%)
22.03 Legal support services 42200 Paralegals and related occupations (24.7%) 13111 Legal administrative assistants (18.1%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (24.0%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (14.9%) 6 Sales and service occupations (12.9%)
30.05 Peace studies and conflict resolution 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (15.5%) 11 Professional occupations in finance and business (14.7%) 6 Sales and service occupations (23.0%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (21.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.11 Gerontology 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (32.1%) 3 Health occupations (31.6%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (20.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.17 Behavioural sciences 42201 Social and community service workers (20.2%) 4130 Social and community service professionals (12.2%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (29.5%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (13.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.20 International/globalization studies 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (6.3%) 13100 Administrative officers (5.0%) 42201 Social and community service workers (4.9%) 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (6.6%) 1210 Administrative and regulatory occupations (6.6%)
30.25 Cognitive science 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (16.1%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (28.2%) 6 Sales and service occupations (22.4%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (15.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.26 Cultural studies/critical theory and analysis 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (36.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (29.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.33 Sustainability studies 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (37.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.44 Geography and environmental studies 41400 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers (9.9%) 131 Administrative occupations (8.6%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (11.9%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (11.7%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (9.7%)
30.46 History and political science 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (12.8%) 12 Administrative and financial supervisors and specialized administrative occupations (11.4%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (27.2%) 6 Sales and service occupations (15.6%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (14.9%)
42.01 Psychology, general 42201 Social and community service workers (8.3%) 41301 Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies (4.0%) 11200 Human resources professionals (3.5%) 13100 Administrative officers (3.3%) 13110 Administrative assistants (2.9%)
42.27 Research and experimental psychology 42201 Social and community service workers (9.2%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (3.9%) 41301 Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies (3.6%) 13100 Administrative officers (3.6%) 41300 Social workers (3.2%)
42.28 Clinical, counselling and applied psychology 42203 Instructors of persons with disabilities (15.6%) 42201 Social and community service workers (12.5%) 41301 Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies (7.7%) 42202 Early childhood educators and assistants (3.8%) 13110 Administrative assistants (3.0%)
45.01 General social sciences 41300 Social workers (6.0%) 13100 Administrative officers (4.4%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (3.9%) 64409 Other customer and information services representatives (3.5%) 42201 Social and community service workers (3.4%)
45.02 Anthropology 13110 Administrative assistants (4.6%) 42201 Social and community service workers (4.2%) 13100 Administrative officers (4.0%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.8%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.7%)
45.03 Archaeology 41409 Other professional occupations in social science (8.7%) 12 Administrative and financial supervisors and specialized administrative occupations (10.7%) 14 Administrative and financial support and supply chain logistics occupations (10.3%) 5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (18.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (16.2%)
45.04 Criminology 42201 Social and community service workers (7.8%) 41311 Probation and parole officers (4.3%) 42200 Paralegals and related occupations (3.8%) 42100 Police officers (except commissioned) (3.7%) 13100 Administrative officers (3.5%)
45.06 Economics 13100 Administrative officers (3.8%) 11102 Financial advisors (3.7%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.7%) 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (3.6%) 63102 Financial sales representatives (3.6%)
45.07 Geography and cartography 22214 Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology (6.9%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (5.6%) 13100 Administrative officers (3.7%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.4%) 13110 Administrative assistants (3.3%)
45.09 International relations and national security studies 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (10.4%) 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (9.0%) 1210 Administrative and regulatory occupations (5.1%) 1310 Administrative, property and payroll officers (5.0%) 1311 Office administrative assistants - general, legal and medical (4.8%)
45.10 Political science and government 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (6.6%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (3.6%) 13100 Administrative officers (3.5%) 13110 Administrative assistants (3.5%) 41403 Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers (3.0%)
45.11 Sociology 42201 Social and community service workers (7.1%) 11200 Human resources professionals (4.7%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (3.6%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.5%) 13110 Administrative assistants (3.5%)
45.12 Urban studies/affairs 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (34.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
45.13 Sociology and anthropology 131 Administrative occupations (17.6%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (20.2%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (35.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
45.99 Social sciences, other 42201 Social and community service workers (9.9%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (5.1%) 1311 Office administrative assistants - general, legal and medical (6.7%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (6.6%) 413 Professional occupations in social and community services (6.0%)
Business, management and public administration (primary grouping)
44.00 Human services, general 41300 Social workers (63.2%) 42201 Social and community service workers (7.3%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (6.0%) 42 Front-line public protection services and paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community, education services (4.2%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (6.7%)
44.04 Public administration 41403 Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers (14.0%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (9.3%) 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (8.8%) 1210 Administrative and regulatory occupations (7.9%) 131 Administrative occupations (9.8%)
44.05 Public policy analysis 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (19.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (40.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
44.07 Social work 41300 Social workers (58.8%) 42201 Social and community service workers (9.4%) 41301 Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies (3.1%) 43100 Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants (1.6%) 42202 Early childhood educators and assistants (1.5%)
52.01 Business/commerce, general 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (8.4%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (7.6%) 11200 Human resources professionals (5.1%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (4.5%) 11201 Professional occupations in business management consulting (2.6%)
52.02 Business administration, management and operations 11200 Human resources professionals (6.5%) 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (4.9%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (4.7%) 13100 Administrative officers (4.6%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (3.1%)
52.03 Accounting and related services 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (49.5%) 10010 Financial managers (6.2%) 12200 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers (5.5%) 14200 Accounting and related clerks (5.2%) 11101 Financial and investment analysts (4.8%)
52.04 Business operations support and assistant services 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (51.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.05 Business/corporate communications 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (21.7%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (47.7%) 6 Sales and service occupations (18.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.06 Business/managerial economics 11101 Financial and investment analysts (6.6%) 11102 Financial advisors (6.5%) 63102 Financial sales representatives (5.8%) 1110 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals (7.8%) 1002 Managers in financial and business services (7.7%)
52.07 Entrepreneurial and small business operations 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (47.2%) 6 Sales and service occupations (32.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.08 Finance and financial management services 11101 Financial and investment analysts (12.0%) 11102 Financial advisors (9.4%) 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (6.8%) 63102 Financial sales representatives (5.4%) 10021 Banking, credit and other investment managers (4.6%)
52.09 Hospitality administration/management 12103 Conference and event planners (6.0%) 13100 Administrative officers (5.4%) 13110 Administrative assistants (4.5%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (4.5%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (3.7%)
52.10 Human resources management and services 11200 Human resources professionals (34.3%) 12101 Human resources and recruitment officers (12.7%) 10011 Human resources managers (8.2%) 13100 Administrative officers (2.7%) 13110 Administrative assistants (2.5%)
52.11 International business/trade/commerce 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (5.8%) 13100 Administrative officers (5.4%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (4.0%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (3.6%) 6410 Retail salespersons and non-technical wholesale trade sales and account representatives (5.9%)
52.12 Management information systems and services 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (41.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.13 Management sciences and quantitative methods 21210 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries (52.9%) 11200 Human resources professionals (3.6%) 11101 Financial and investment analysts (3.2%) 1110 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals (4.7%) 1220 Accounting, insurance and related business administrative occupations (4.0%)
52.14 Marketing 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (26.7%) 10022 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (14.0%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (3.2%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (3.1%) 41402 Business development officers and market researchers and analysts (2.9%)
52.15 Real estate 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (47.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
52.19 Specialized sales, merchandising and marketing operations 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (10.5%) 1002 Managers in financial and business services (7.9%) 600 Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services (11.1%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (15.6%) 63 Occupations in sales and services (8.0%)
Physical and life sciences and technologies (primary grouping)
26.01 Biology, general 21110 Biologists and related scientists (6.8%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (5.3%) 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (4.4%) 32120 Medical laboratory technologists (3.0%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.6%)
26.02 Biochemistry/biophysics and molecular biology 21101 Chemists (10.5%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (8.4%) 21110 Biologists and related scientists (4.4%) 32120 Medical laboratory technologists (4.0%) 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (3.3%)
26.03 Botany/plant biology 4220 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services (17.0%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (42.1%) 6 Sales and service occupations (16.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
26.04 Cell/cellular biology and anatomical sciences 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (14.3%) 3212 Medical technologists and technicians (13.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (21.8%) 3 Health occupations (14.6%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (12.1%)
26.05 Microbiological sciences and immunology 21110 Biologists and related scientists (11.0%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (10.7%) 32120 Medical laboratory technologists (6.6%) 22110 Biological technologists and technicians (3.5%) 3310 Assisting occupations in support of health services (3.7%)
26.07 Zoology/animal biology 32104 Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians (24.4%) 65220 Pet groomers and animal care workers (6.5%) 21110 Biologists and related scientists (5.8%) 131 Administrative occupations (6.5%) 412 Professional occupations in education services (4.8%)
26.09 Physiology, pathology and related sciences 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (32.3%) 3 Health occupations (21.4%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (18.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (14.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
26.10 Pharmacology and toxicology 211 Professional occupations in natural sciences (19.4%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (18.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (19.7%) 3 Health occupations (16.5%) 6 Sales and service occupations (12.7%)
26.12 Biotechnology 211 Professional occupations in natural sciences (12.5%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (25.2%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (21.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
26.13 Ecology, evolution, systematics and population biology 21110 Biologists and related scientists (14.1%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (8.1%) 22110 Biological technologists and technicians (6.1%) 41400 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4.9%) 65 Sales and service support occupations (6.5%)
26.15 Neurobiology and neurosciences 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (9.0%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (8.8%) 4220 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services (4.7%) 3210 Technical occupations in therapy and assessment (4.4%) 131 Administrative occupations (5.0%)
30.01 Biological and physical sciences 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (6.3%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (3.1%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.6%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (2.5%) 21110 Biologists and related scientists (2.4%)
30.10 Biopsychology 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (5.0%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (4.2%) 1410 Office support and court services occupations (5.9%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (5.9%) 4220 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services (5.3%)
30.19 Nutrition sciences 31121 Dietitians and nutritionists (25.9%) 6 Sales and service occupations (19.6%) 3 Health occupations (13.5%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (12.8%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (10.7%)
30.27 Human biology 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (29.0%) 6 Sales and service occupations (22.3%) 3 Health occupations (16.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
40.01 Physical sciences, general 4220 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services (10.8%) 2130 Civil and mechanical engineers (7.2%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (15.4%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (9.6%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (22.2%)
40.05 Chemistry 21101 Chemists (20.4%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (9.9%) 41220 Secondary school teachers (3.1%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.5%) 13100 Administrative officers (2.0%)
40.06 Geological and Earth sciences/geosciences 21102 Geoscientists and oceanographers (34.4%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (4.1%) 41400 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers (3.6%) 1310 Administrative, property and payroll officers (3.1%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (3.5%)
40.08 Physics 4120 University professors and post-secondary assistants (12.2%) 4122 Secondary, elementary and kindergarten school teachers (11.4%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (14.3%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (18.1%) 6 Sales and service occupations (14.7%)
Mathematics, computer and information sciences (primary grouping)
11.01 Computer and information sciences and support services, general 21222 Information systems specialists (14.8%) 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (17.0%) 2222 Technical occupations in computer and information systems (9.0%) 2122 Computer and information systems professionals (7.7%) 6 Sales and service occupations (16.0%)
11.07 Computer science 21232 Software developers and programmers (26.0%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (13.4%) 21234 Web developers and programmers (12.6%) 21230 Computer systems developers and programmers (6.1%) 21222 Information systems specialists (4.9%)
11.08 Computer software and media applications 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (30.5%) 21233 Web designers (10.6%) 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (13.3%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (13.4%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (12.9%)
11.10 Computer/information technology administration and management 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (26.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
27.01 Mathematics 41220 Secondary school teachers (9.0%) 21210 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries (8.7%) 11101 Financial and investment analysts (5.1%) 11100 Financial auditors and accountants (3.3%) 11201 Professional occupations in business management consulting (2.8%)
27.03 Applied mathematics 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (38.4%) 6 Sales and service occupations (20.9%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (19.0%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (15.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
27.05 Statistics 21210 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries (6.2%) 1110 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals (11.1%) 2122 Computer and information systems professionals (8.6%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (7.4%) 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (6.7%)
30.08 Mathematics and computer science 2123 Computer, software and Web designers and developers (52.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
30.49 Mathematical economics 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (47.4%) 6 Sales and service occupations (25.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Architecture, engineering, and related trades (primary grouping)
04.02 Architecture 22210 Architectural technologists and technicians (18.3%) 21200 Architects (17.2%) 70010 Construction managers (6.4%) 5212 Graphic and interior designers (8.7%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (5.3%)
04.03 City/urban, community and regional planning 21202 Urban and land use planners (28.6%) 1002 Managers in financial and business services (6.1%) 1310 Administrative, property and payroll officers (4.5%) 1430 Library, correspondence and other clerks (4.0%) 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (3.7%)
04.04 Environmental design/architecture 52121 Interior designers and interior decorators (17.3%) 52120 Graphic designers and illustrators (9.0%) 2221 Technical occupations in architecture, drafting, surveying, geomatics and meteorology (15.8%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (7.3%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (7.1%)
04.06 Landscape architecture 21201 Landscape architects (39.6%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (17.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.01 General engineering 21300 Civil engineers (16.1%) 21301 Mechanical engineers (8.0%) 20010 Engineering managers (5.7%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (4.2%) 21310 Electrical and electronics engineers (4.0%)
14.02 Aerospace, aeronautical and astronautical/space engineering 213 Professional occupations in engineering (36.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.05 Biomedical/medical engineering 21399 Other professional engineers (14.5%) 213 Professional occupations in engineering (17.9%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (15.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.07 Chemical engineering 21320 Chemical engineers (29.6%) 21300 Civil engineers (5.0%) 20010 Engineering managers (3.6%) 21222 Information systems specialists (2.9%) 70010 Construction managers (2.8%)
14.08 Civil engineering 21300 Civil engineers (58.9%) 70010 Construction managers (7.9%) 22300 Civil engineering technologists and technicians (2.2%) 22303 Construction estimators (2.0%) 213 Professional occupations in engineering (3.2%)
14.09 Computer engineering 21232 Software developers and programmers (27.2%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (20.2%) 21234 Web developers and programmers (9.0%) 21222 Information systems specialists (8.5%) 21230 Computer systems developers and programmers (4.4%)
14.10 Electrical, electronics and communications engineering 21310 Electrical and electronics engineers (37.4%) 21232 Software developers and programmers (7.2%) 21222 Information systems specialists (4.6%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (4.5%) 21311 Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (4.2%)
14.13 Engineering science 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (64.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.14 Environmental/environmental health engineering 21300 Civil engineers (53.7%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (12.4%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (11.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.18 Materials engineering 2132 Manufacturing and processing engineers (26.4%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (28.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.19 Mechanical engineering 21301 Mechanical engineers (44.6%) 21321 Industrial and manufacturing engineers (4.4%) 21231 Software engineers and designers (2.6%) 22301 Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians (2.6%) 2001 Managers in engineering, architecture, science and information systems (2.9%)
14.21 Mining and mineral engineering 21330 Mining engineers (48.4%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (36.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.25 Petroleum engineering 213 Professional occupations in engineering (51.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.27 Systems engineering 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (53.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.33 Construction engineering 21300 Civil engineers (32.7%) 7001 Managers in construction and facility operation and maintenance (15.5%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (16.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.35 Industrial engineering 21321 Industrial and manufacturing engineers (17.9%) 11201 Professional occupations in business management consulting (10.0%) 21222 Information systems specialists (6.1%) 212 Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering) (8.1%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (15.2%)
14.36 Manufacturing engineering 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (64.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.38 Surveying engineering 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (49.0%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.39 Geological/geophysical engineering 21331 Geological engineers (42.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.42 Mechatronics, robotics, and automation engineering 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (63.9%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
14.47 Electrical and computer engineering 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (71.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
15.00 General engineering technologies/technicians 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (67.8%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
15.07 Quality control and safety technologies/technicians 22232 Occupational health and safety specialists (41.9%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (20.4%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation (primary grouping)
01.00 Agriculture, general 21112 Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists (24.0%) 80020 Managers in agriculture (9.7%) 6410 Retail salespersons and non-technical wholesale trade sales and account representatives (6.4%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (7.0%) 6 Sales and service occupations (17.3%)
01.01 Agricultural business and management 21112 Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists (14.1%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (32.9%) 6 Sales and service occupations (29.1%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
01.03 Agricultural production operations 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (33.1%) 6 Sales and service occupations (25.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
01.09 Animal sciences 32104 Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians (23.5%) 6 Sales and service occupations (21.6%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (14.5%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (14.1%) 8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations (13.0%)
01.10 Food science and technology 21110 Biologists and related scientists (15.9%) 211 Professional occupations in natural sciences (10.4%) 22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences (9.0%) 6 Sales and service occupations (17.0%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (15.2%)
01.11 Plant sciences 21112 Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists (51.0%) 80020 Managers in agriculture (9.0%) 2211 Technical occupations in life sciences (7.7%) 6 Sales and service occupations (6.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
03.01 Natural resources conservation and research 41400 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers (10.7%) 21110 Biologists and related scientists (4.8%) 41201 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (3.6%) 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (2.6%) 13100 Administrative officers (2.6%)
03.02 Environmental/natural resources management and policy 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (14.2%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (12.7%) 13 Administrative occupations and transportation logistics occupations (10.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (20.7%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (12.9%)
03.05 Forestry 21111 Forestry professionals (26.1%) 412 Professional occupations in education services (11.5%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (17.9%) 2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations (11.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Health and related fields (primary grouping)
31.01 Parks, recreation, and leisure studies 41406 Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers (9.7%) 54100 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness (9.4%) 12103 Conference and event planners (4.7%) 11202 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (4.6%) 13110 Administrative assistants (3.4%)
31.05 Sports, kinesiology, and physical education/physical fitness 31204 Kinesiologists and other professional occupations in therapy and assessment (11.3%) 54100 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness (4.9%) 41221 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4.2%) 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (3.5%) 32201 Massage therapists (3.1%)
31.06 Outdoor education 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (52.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.00 General health services/allied health/health sciences 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (9.4%) 33102 Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates (3.3%) 41404 Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers (3.1%) 32103 Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists (3.1%) 42201 Social and community service workers (2.8%)
51.02 Communication disorders sciences and services 32109 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment (33.2%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (23.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.06 Dental support services and allied professions 32111 Dental hygienists and dental therapists (78.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.07 Health and medical administrative services 2122 Computer and information systems professionals (16.4%) 1120 Human resources and business service professionals (11.3%) 4140 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (10.1%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (21.4%) 6 Sales and service occupations (15.0%)
51.09 Allied health diagnostic, intervention and treatment professions 32121 Medical radiation technologists (40.8%) 32122 Medical sonographers (15.7%) 32103 Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists (11.5%) 31204 Kinesiologists and other professional occupations in therapy and assessment (8.4%) 31303 Physician assistants, midwives and allied health professionals (4.0%)
51.10 Clinical/medical laboratory science/research and allied professions 32120 Medical laboratory technologists (65.4%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (8.2%) 3 Health occupations (17.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.11 Health/medical preparatory programs 3130 Nursing and allied health professionals (11.8%) 3212 Medical technologists and technicians (10.3%) 321 Technical occupations in health (except practitioners of natural healing) (10.4%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (10.9%) 6 Sales and service occupations (15.2%)
51.15 Mental and social health services and allied professions 42201 Social and community service workers (24.5%) 41301 Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies (14.4%) 41300 Social workers (5.3%) 4220 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services (5.8%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (8.5%)
51.20 Pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences and administration 31120 Pharmacists (85.8%) 60020 Retail and wholesale trade managers (2.5%) 33103 Pharmacy technical assistants and pharmacy assistants (1.3%) 3212 Medical technologists and technicians (1.7%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (1.7%)
51.22 Public health 21120 Public and environmental health and safety professionals (17.6%) 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (5.2%) 42201 Social and community service workers (4.5%) 41404 Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4.4%) 1311 Office administrative assistants - general, legal and medical (4.2%)
51.23 Rehabilitation and therapeutic professions 31204 Kinesiologists and other professional occupations in therapy and assessment (19.1%) 31202 Physiotherapists (9.7%) 31203 Occupational therapists (8.5%) 42201 Social and community service workers (4.6%) 32109 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment (4.4%)
51.27 Medical illustration and informatics 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (45.3%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.31 Dietetics and clinical nutrition services 31121 Dietitians and nutritionists (70.6%) 652 Support occupations in food, accommodation and tourism (5.8%) 6 Sales and service occupations (7.1%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (5.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.32 Health professions education, ethics, and humanities 4122 Secondary, elementary and kindergarten school teachers (37.2%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.34 Alternative and complementary medical support services 31303 Physician assistants, midwives and allied health professionals (25.2%) 3120 Therapy and assessment professionals (18.7%) 3 Health occupations (18.7%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.35 Somatic bodywork and related therapeutic services 3 Health occupations (78.6%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
51.38 Registered nursing, nursing administration, nursing research and clinical nursing 31301 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (90.1%) 31300 Nursing coordinators and supervisors (1.7%) 33102 Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates (1.2%) 32101 Licensed practical nurses (0.8%) 30010 Managers in health care (0.7%)
Personal, protective and transportation services (primary grouping)
43.01 Criminal justice and corrections 42201 Social and community service workers (8.8%) 42100 Police officers (except commissioned) (7.0%) 64410 Security guards and related security service occupations (5.4%) 43201 Correctional service officers (4.6%) 13111 Legal administrative assistants (3.6%)
43.03 Security and protective services, specialized programs 42 Front-line public protection services and paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community, education services (18.9%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (30.4%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (23.5%) Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act Note x: suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
43.04 Security science and technology 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (10.6%) 14 Administrative and financial support and supply chain logistics occupations (9.7%) 64 Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations (9.4%) 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences (9.0%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (17.8%)
Other (primary grouping)
30.99 Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other 131 Administrative occupations (12.7%) 41 Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services (10.6%) 6 Sales and service occupations (21.5%) 1 Business, finance and administration occupations (21.4%) 4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services (15.3%)

References

Frenette, M. 2009. Career Goals in High School: Do Students Know What It Takes to Reach Them, and Does It Matter? Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Statistics Canada Catalogue 11F0019M320.

Frenette, M. and K. Frank. 2016. Earnings of Postsecondary Graduates by Detailed Field of Study. Economic Insights. Statistics Canada Catalogue 11-626-X, No. 056.

Frenette, M. and T. Handler. 2020a. Which Bachelor’s Degree Programs Were Associated with the Highest Pay Prior to the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Focus on Very Detailed Fields of Study. Economic Insights. Statistics Canada Catalogue 11-626-X, No. 120.

Frenette, M. and T. Handler. 2020b. Which Master’s Degree Programs Were Associated with the Highest Pay Prior to the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Focus on Very Detailed Fields of Study. Economic Insights. Statistics Canada Catalogue 11-626-X, No. 121.

Frenette, M. and T. Handler. 2020c. Which Doctoral Degree Programs Were Associated with the Highest Pay Prior to the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Focus on Very Detailed Fields of Study. Economic Insights. Statistics Canada Catalogue 11-626-X, No. 122.

Statistics Canada. 2017. Are Young Bachelor’s Degree Holders Finding Jobs That Match Their Studies? Census in Brief. Statistics Canada Catalogue 98-200-X2016025.

Date modified: