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We would like to thank Danielle Lalande from Statistics Canada for her sound advice and great dedication throughout this study.

We would also like to thank François Soulard and François Gendron from Statistics Canada for sharing their knowledge with us and for allowing us to conduct this study.

We are also grateful to the following persons for providing data sets that enabled us to conduct this study:

  • Haseen Khan, Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Environment and Conservation,
  • Scott Painter, Environment Canada in Burlington, Ontario,
  • Andrea Ryan, Environment Canada, British Columbia,
  • Serge Hébert, Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs of Quebec.

We would also like to thank Nathalie Hamel, Danielle Lalande, Wesley Yung, François Soulard and François Gendron from Statistics Canada for having revised this document.

This study was performed with help of funds from the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI) initiative.

Note of appreciation

Canada owes the success of its statistical system to a long-standing partnership between Statistics Canada, the citizens of Canada, its businesses, governments and other institutions. Accurate and timely statistical information could not be produced without their continued co-operation and goodwill.

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Statistics Canada is committed to serving its clients in a prompt, reliable and courteous manner. To this end, the Agency has developed standards of service which its employees observe in serving its clients.


Published by authority of the Minister responsible for Statistics Canada.

© Minister of Industry, 2007

Use of this publication is governed by the Statistics Canada Open Licence Agreement.

Catalogue no. 16-001-MIE

Frequency: Occasional

ISBN 978-0-662-45248-5