Survey Methodology
Statistical inference with non-probability survey samples

by Changbao WuNote 1

  • Release date: December 15, 2022


We provide a critical review and some extended discussions on theoretical and practical issues with analysis of non-probability survey samples. We attempt to present rigorous inferential frameworks and valid statistical procedures under commonly used assumptions, and address issues on the justification and verification of assumptions in practical applications. Some current methodological developments are showcased, and problems which require further investigation are mentioned. While the focus of the paper is on non-probability samples, the essential role of probability survey samples with rich and relevant information on auxiliary variables is highlighted.

Key Words: Auxiliary information; Bootstrap variance estimator; Calibration method; Doubly robust estimator; Estimating equations; Inverse probability weighting; Model-based prediction; Poststratification; Pseudo likelihood; Propensity score; Quota survey; Sensitivity analysis; Variance estimation.

Table of contents

How to cite

Wu, C. (2022). Statistical inference with non-probability survey samples. Survey Methodology, Statistics Canada, Catalogue No. 12-001-X, Vol. 48, No. 2. Paper available at


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