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A significant positive effect of exporting on a firm's productivity growth has been found for countries such as, Canada, Italy, Slovenia and sub-Saharan African countries. However, the opposite has been reported for countries such as Chile, China, Germany, and Mexico. Baldwin and Yan (2012) have explored the possible explanations for the cross-country variations. See Wagner (2007), López (2005), and Greenaway and Kneller (2007) for a survey of the literature.
According to a 1974 survey that collected export data for all plants, only 0.4% of plants that filled in the short-form questionnaires reported exports (Baldwin and Gu 2003). Therefore, the excluded plants are mainly small plants, accounting for a very small proportion of total industry output. Special edits to the file post 2000 were also made because of changes that turned the ASM from a census to a survey. These changes required the exclusion of some observations that had been imputed from tax records.
See Baldwin and Rafiquzzaman (1994) for a discussion of the methodology used to create these groupings following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1987.
In other words, only continuing exporters and non-exporters during the first sub-periods are included in the analysis. Plants that export at both the beginning (1990 and 2000) and the end (1993 and 2003) of the first sub-periods are classified as exporters; plants that do not export at either the beginning or the end of the first sub-periods are classified as non-exporters.
For full regression results, see Appendix Table 11.
See Picot and Wannell (1997).
Where it was appropriate, the relatedness of the categories was tested and confirmed with Cronbach's alpha.
The relatedness of the categories was tested and confirmed using Cronbach's alpha.
Kaiser (1958) argues that the number of principal components should be selected by retaining components with associated eigenvalues greater than the average eigenvalue.
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