Toronto – A data Story on Ethnocultural Diversity and Inclusion in Canada

Release date: April 29, 2019

A Data Story: A discussion with Statistics Canada

Anil Arora Chief Statistician of Canada

Toronto, April 29, 2019

Delivering insight through data for a better Canada.

Statistics Canada and measuring diversity and inclusion

Logo-Centre on gender, diversity and inclusion

Who are we?

Statistics Canada has two primary objectives:

  1. To provide statistical information and analysis about Canada's economic and social structure;
  2. To promote sound statistical practices and standards.

Forces at play in defining a measure on diversity and inclusion

Measuring diversity and inclusion

Various data sources are used to measure and take into account the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and religious diversity and pluralism in Canada

Evolution of ethnocultural questions in the Canadian census

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Description for Figure 1 - Evolution of ethnocultural questions in the Canadian census
Evolution of the ethnocultural question in the Canadian census, 1871 to 2016
1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 2016
Place of birth X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Citizenship X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Year of immigration X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
(Year of naturalization) X X X X X
Immigrant status X X X X X X
Place of birth of parents X X X X X X X X
(Colour) X
Origin X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Population groups/visible minorities X X X X X
Aboriginal groups (Aboriginal identity) X X X X X X
Registered or Treaty Indian status X X X X X X
Membership in a First Nation or Indian band X X X X X X
(French Canadian) X
Mother tongue X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Knowledge of official languages X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Knowledge of non-official languages X X X X X X
Language spoken most often at home X X X X X X X X X
Language spoken regularly at home X X X X
Language used most often at work X X X X
Language used regularly at work X X X X
Religion X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1871 to 2001, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Key concepts in immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada: 2016 Census

For more information, please refer to the 2016 Census dictionary.

Key concepts in immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada: Road to the 2021 Census

For more information on the road to the 2021 Census, please refer to The road to the 2021 Census.

Portrait of ethnocultural diversity in Ontario and Toronto

Net international migration is the main driver of population growth in Ontario

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Description for Chart 1 - Sources of population growth in Ontario, 1971-1972 to 2017-2018
Sources of population growth in Ontario, 1971-1972 to 2017-2018
  Natural increase Net international migration Net interprovincial migration
1971-1972 68,683 50,894 14,462
1972-1973 65,320 66,064 940
1973-1974 61,746 96,679 -9,802
1974-1975 66,026 97,582 -28,194
1975-1976 63,082 69,424 -18,932
1976-1977 62,074 50,158 -6,402
1977-1978 59,711 33,371 8,510
1978-1979 61,471 30,327 -4,325
1979-1980 59,117 62,741 -22,362
1980-1981 60,519 53,349 -33,247
1981-1982 60,173 53,642 -5,665
1982-1983 61,946 33,892 23,585
1983-1984 63,922 27,746 36,400
1984-1985 65,448 27,988 33,885
1985-1986 66,332 42,774 33,562
1986-1987 67,519 88,256 42,601
1987-1988 65,424 97,819 35,215
1988-1989 71,151 181,584 9,739
1989-1990 78,813 117,464 -5,961
1990-1991 79,123 66,832 -11,627
1991-1992 78,454 85,561 -11,045
1992-1993 74,101 69,969 -14,189
1993-1994 69,845 80,731 -9,420
1994-1995 69,082 76,780 -2,841
1995-1996 65,353 81,047 -2,822
1996-1997 55,911 89,115 1,977
1997-1998 53,094 78,180 9,231
1998-1999 50,524 73,883 16,706
1999-2000 49,938 108,485 22,369
2000-2001 46,623 151,383 18,623
2001-2002 47,958 146,586 5,354
2002-2003 45,846 107,641 637
2003-2004 48,719 107,865 -6,935
2004-2005 47,513 104,160 -11,172
2005-2006 50,023 106,292 -17,501
2006-2007 50,169 94,635 -20,047
2007-2008 53,045 102,371 -14,750
2008-2009 51,967 100,225 -15,601
2009-2010 52,169 111,755 -4,662
2010-2011 48,272 101,784 -4,007
2011-2012 52,071 99,948 -10,611
2012-2013 47,538 98,635 -13,901
2013-2014 45,841 87,618 -14,564
2014-2015 42,318 68,066 -8,695
2015-2016 42,761 126,867 9,077
2016-2017 40,834 141,835 13,382
2017-2018 40,747 192,679 17,886

In 2016, immigrants represented nearly 29% of the total population in Ontario, compared with 28% in British Columbia, 21% in Alberta and 14% in Quebec.

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Description for Chart 2 - Number and proportion of immigrants in Ontario population, 1971 to 2016
Number of immigrants in Ontario and demographic weight of the immigrant population within Ontario's population, 1971 to 2016
  Number Percentage
1971 1,707,395 22.2
1981 2,015,700 23.6
1991 2,369,175 23.7
2001 3,024,375 26.9
2011 3,611,365 28.5
2016 3,852,145 29.1
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1971 to 2001, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

In Ontario, the highest proportion of immigrants is in the census metropolitan area of Toronto

Number and proportion (%) of immigrants in the census metropolitan areas (CMA), Ontario, 2016
  Number of immigrants Proportion (%)
Toronto 2,705,550 46.1
Hamilton 177,070 24.1
Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo 118,610 23.0
Windsor 74,495 22.9
Ottawa-Gatineau (Ontario part) 219,705 22.6
Guelph 30,885 20.6
London 94,690 19.5
Oshawa 67,570 18.0
St. Catherines-Niagara 67,190 16.9
Other CMAs 98,290 10.0
Outside CMA 198,090 8.1
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.
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Description for Map 1 - Number and proportion of immigrants in Ontario, by census subdivision, 2016
Number and proportion (%) of immigrants in Ontario, by census subdivision, 2016
Geography Immigrants Weight
Pickering 31,155 34.2
Ajax 46,340 38.9
Uxbridge 2,665 12.7
Vaughan 140,960 46.3
Markham 192,220 58.7
Richmond Hill 111,225 57.4
Whitchurch-Stouffville 14,740 32.5
Aurora 16,510 30.2
Newmarket 23,235 28.1
King 5,985 24.6
East Gwillimbury 4,335 18.5
Georgina 6,010 13.4
Chippewas of Georgina Island First Nation 0 0.0
Toronto 1,266,000 47.0
Mississauga 381,730 53.4
Brampton 308,790 52.3
Caledon 16,310 24.6
Mono 1,660 19.4
Orangeville 3,510 12.4
Oakville 68,850 35.9
Milton 39,105 35.9
Halton Hills 9,745 16.2
New Tecumseth 4,835 14.3
Bradford West Gwillimbury 9,625 27.5

Source of countries for immigration in Ontario have changed a lot over time

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Description for Chart 3 - Region of birth of recent immigrants in Ontario, 1971 to 2016
Region of birth of recent immigrants in Ontario, 1971 to 2016
  1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2016
Oceania and others 2.6 1.1 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4
Asia (including Middle East) 10.5 35.8 46.5 61.0 63.1 68.8
Africa 2.0 4.8 6.7 6.3 8.2 8.3
Caribbean, Bermuda, Central America, and South America 10.9 17.7 17.7 9.7 12.3 9.8
United States 7.5 6.4 2.9 2.7 4.1 3.1
Europe 66.5 34.2 25.8 20.0 12.0 9.6
Note: "Recent immigrants" are immigrants who received landed immigrant or permanent resident status in Canada for the first time in the five years preceding a given census.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1971 to 2006, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Top country of birth reported by recent immigrants in Ontario, 2016

The share of immigrants from certain parts of the world could continue to grow, while those from earlier waves of immigration could continue to decline

2016

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Description for Map 2 - Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Ontario, by region of birth, 2016
Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Ontario, by region of birth, 2016
  Percentage
North America 2.8
Caribbean and Bermuda 6.2
Central America 1.8
South America 4.7
Northern Europe 7.6
Western Europe 3.8
Southern Europe 10.7
Eastern Europe 7.6
Northern Africa 1.4
Western Africa 1.1
Central Africa 0.4
Southern Africa 0.5
Eastern Africa 2.5
West Central Asia and Middle East 8.8
Southern Asia 17.2
Eastern Asia 13.3
Southeast Asia 9.3
Oceania and others 0.3
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

2036 - Projected

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Description for Map 3 - Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Ontario, by region of birth, 2036 - Projected
Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Ontario, by region of birth, 2036 - Projected
  Percentage
North America 2.8 to 3.0
Caribbean and Bermuda 5.1 to 5.6
Central America 1.8 to 2.0
South America 4.7 to 5.1
Northern Europe 3.8 to 4.5
Western Europe 1.7 to 2.0
Southern Europe 4.4 to 5.3
Eastern Europe 5.4 to 6.6
Northern Africa 2.0 to 2.3
Western Africa 1.8 to 2.0
Central Africa 0.6 to 0.7
Southern Africa 0.4 to 0.5
Eastern Africa 2.7 to 3.0
West Central Asia and Middle East 11.0 to 12.7
Southern Asia 22.2 to 23.6
Eastern Asia 13.1 to 13.8
Southeast Asia 10.9 to 12.0
Oceania and others 0.4 to 0.5
Source: Statistics Canada, Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551. (Based on six scenarios).

Although the diversity of the Ontario population has primarily been driven by various waves of international immigration, the population of people born in Canada to at least one immigrant parent is growing.

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Description for Chart 4 - Proportion of immigrants and second-generation individuals in Ontario, 2016 (census) and 2036 (projected based on six scenarios)
Proportion of immigrants and second-generation individuals in Ontario, 2016 (census) and 2036 (projected based on six scenarios)
  2016 2036 (projected)
Immigrants 29.1 33.0
Second generation 23.0 24.5
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016; Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551.

In the Toronto CMA, immigrants and second generation individuals represented 75% of the population in 2016.

This proportion could rise to between 77% and 81% by 2036.

Linguistic diversity in Toronto: more than 160 languages1

Mother tongue of the Toronto population (CMA)

Mother tongue of immigrants in Toronto (CMA)

1Including Indigenous and immigrant languages.

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

Relative proportion of the Toronto CMA population who reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue, 2016

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Description for Figure 2 - Relative proportion of the Toronto CMA population who reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue, 2016
Relative proportion of the Toronto CMA population who reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue, 2016
  Total number of people Percentage in category Percentage of the total population
Total 5,883,670    
Immigrant languages 2,738,800   46.5
Cantonese 260,355 9.5 4.4
Mandarin 233,885 8.5 4.0
Punjabi (Panjabi) 186,030 6.8 3.2
Italian 164,510 6.0 2.8
Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino) 161,510 5.9 2.7
Urdu 148,630 5.4 2.5
Spanish 136,460 5.0 2.3
Tamil 121,785 4.4 2.1
Portuguese 111,445 4.1 1.9
Persian (Farsi) 105,815 3.9 1.8
Arabic 97,320 3.6 1.7
Russian 85,945 3.1 1.5
Polish 73,315 2.7 1.2
Gujarati 72,315 2.6 1.2
Hindi 59,475 2.2 1.0
Korean 57,590 2.1 1.0
Vietnamese 51,240 1.9 0.9
Greek 45,215 1.7 0.8
Bengali 42,465 1.6 0.7
German 31,230 1.1 0.5
Ukrainian 27,875 1.0 0.5
Romanian 26,040 1.0 0.4
Serbian 22,365 0.8 0.4
Hungarian 19,800 0.7 0.3
Croatian 17,555 0.6 0.3
Somali 14,955 0.5 0.3
Turkish 14,545 0.5 0.2
Malayalam 14,280 0.5 0.2
Albanian 14,015 0.5 0.2
Armenian 13,510 0.5 0.2
Macedonian 12,865 0.5 0.2
Min Nan (Chaochow, Teochow, Fukien, Taiwanese) 12,150 0.4 0.2
Chinese, n.o.s. 11,800 0.4 0.2
Hebrew 11,345 0.4 0.2
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 11,000 0.4 0.2
Telugu 10,885 0.4 0.2
Japanese 10,430 0.4 0.2
Ilocano 10,265 0.4 0.2
Akan (Twi) 10,115 0.4 0.2
Dutch 9,070 0.3 0.2
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 8,865 0.3 0.2
Pashto 8,360 0.3 0.1
Amharic 8,035 0.3 0.1
Bulgarian 7,220 0.3 0.1
Hakka 7,020 0.3 0.1
Sindhi 6,815 0.2 0.1
Cebuano 5,800 0.2 < 0.1
Slovak 5,440 0.2 < 0.1
Wu (Shanghainese) 5,405 0.2 < 0.1
Marathi 5,315 0.2 < 0.1
Tibetan 5,305 0.2 < 0.1
Tigrigna 5,040 0.2 < 0.1
Czech 5,040 0.2 < 0.1
Nepali 5,015 0.2 < 0.1
Creole, n.o.s. 4,960 0.2 < 0.1
Malay 4,775 0.2 < 0.1
Yoruba 4,495 0.2 < 0.1
Maltese 4,025 0.1 < 0.1
Swahili 4,000 0.1 < 0.1
Slovene (Slovenian) 3,920 0.1 < 0.1
Yiddish 3,730 0.1 < 0.1
Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e. 3,575 0.1 < 0.1
Khmer (Cambodian) 3,395 0.1 < 0.1
Lithuanian 3,305 0.1 < 0.1
Kurdish 2,930 0.1 < 0.1
Bosnian 2,860 0.1 < 0.1
Estonian 2,815 0.1 < 0.1
Konkani 2,810 0.1 < 0.1
Creole languages, n.i.e. 2,805 0.1 < 0.1
Finnish 2,705 < 0.1 < 0.1
Lao 2,530 < 0.1 < 0.1
Hiligaynon 2,515 < 0.1 < 0.1
Serbo-Croatian 2,500 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kannada 2,470 < 0.1 < 0.1
Latvian 2,345 < 0.1 < 0.1
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. 2,075 < 0.1 < 0.1
Igbo 2,025 < 0.1 < 0.1
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Thai 1,775 < 0.1 < 0.1
Danish 1,665 < 0.1 < 0.1
Azerbaijani 1,645 < 0.1 < 0.1
Pampangan (Kapampangan, Pampango) 1,460 < 0.1 < 0.1
Afrikaans 1,280 < 0.1 < 0.1
Edo 1,260 < 0.1 < 0.1
Swedish 1,230 < 0.1 < 0.1
Other languages, n.i.e. 1,160 < 0.1 < 0.1
Georgian 1,155 < 0.1 < 0.1
Oromo 1,090 < 0.1 < 0.1
Austronesian languages, n.i.e. 1,090 < 0.1 < 0.1
Burmese 1,085 < 0.1 < 0.1
Harari 1,040 < 0.1 < 0.1
Semitic languages, n.i.e. 970 < 0.1 < 0.1
Shona 825 < 0.1 < 0.1
Min Dong 775 < 0.1 < 0.1
Oriya (Odia) 690 < 0.1 < 0.1
Uzbek 625 < 0.1 < 0.1
Lingala 605 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ganda 595 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ga 550 < 0.1 < 0.1
Slavic languages, n.i.e. 545 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bikol 510 < 0.1 < 0.1
Pangasinan 490 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kinyarwanda (Rwanda) 445 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ewe 435 < 0.1 < 0.1
Rundi (Kirundi) 430 < 0.1 < 0.1
Turkic languages, n.i.e. 430 < 0.1 < 0.1
Afro-Asiatic languages, n.i.e. 420 < 0.1 < 0.1
Norwegian 415 < 0.1 < 0.1
Uyghur 410 < 0.1 < 0.1
Belarusan 365 < 0.1 < 0.1
Mongolian 355 < 0.1 < 0.1
Nilo-Saharan languages, n.i.e. 350 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tibeto-Burman languages, n.i.e. 350 < 0.1 < 0.1
Dravidian languages, n.i.e. 345 < 0.1 < 0.1
Waray-Waray 330 < 0.1 < 0.1
Vlaams (Flemish) 310 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kashmiri 300 < 0.1 < 0.1
Fulah (Pular, Pulaar, Fulfulde) 285 < 0.1 < 0.1
Karenic languages 285 < 0.1 < 0.1
Haitian Creole 270 < 0.1 < 0.1
Scottish Gaelic 245 < 0.1 < 0.1
Italic (Romance) languages, n.i.e. 245 < 0.1 < 0.1
Wolof 225 < 0.1 < 0.1
Celtic languages, n.i.e. 205 < 0.1 < 0.1
Chinese languages, n.i.e. 195 < 0.1 < 0.1
Welsh 185 < 0.1 < 0.1
Catalan 185 < 0.1 < 0.1
Berber languages, n.i.e. 140 < 0.1 < 0.1
Frisian 140 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kabyle 120 < 0.1 < 0.1
Icelandic 90 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bamanankan 90 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bilen 80 < 0.1 < 0.1
Cushitic languages, n.i.e. 70 < 0.1 < 0.1
Austro-Asiatic languages, n.i.e. 70 < 0.1 < 0.1
Fijian 65 < 0.1 < 0.1
Germanic languages, n.i.e. 60 < 0.1 < 0.1
Dinka 55 < 0.1 < 0.1
Malagasy 45 < 0.1 < 0.1
Hmong-Mien languages 25 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tai-Kadai languages, n.i.e. 25 < 0.1 < 0.1
Note: The category 'Total' is a total population count. The sum of the languages in this table is greater than the total population count because a person may report more than one language in the census.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016. See interactive bubble chart.

Growing multilingualism in the home

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Description for Chart 5 – Languages spoken most often and regularly at home, Toronto CMA, 2006 to 2016
Languages spoken most often and regularly at home, Toronto CMA, 2006 to 2016
  English only (%) Non-official language only (%) English and non-official language (%)
2006 31.4 29.8 37.6
2011 28.5 28.4 41.9
2016 25.9 27.1 45.7
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

In 2016, 1.4% (or 37,625) of immigrants in Toronto CMA spoke French at home (alone or in combination with other languages).

Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

More than 250 ethnic or cultural origins were reported by the population of Ontario

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Description for Chart 6 - Top 20 ethnic origins reported in Ontario, 2016
Top 20 ethnic origins reported in Ontario, 2016
  Single responses Multiple responses
Spanish 32,070 139,075
Welsh 11,020 187,460
Russian 53,175 167,675
Jamaican 140,265 116,800
British Isles origins, n.i.e. 70,960 252,225
Portuguese 191,740 133,190
Filipino 255,710   82,050
Ukrainian 79,900 296,540
First Nations (North American Indian) 89,170 296,335
Polish 166,840 356,650
Dutch 155,585 372,165
East Indian 602,005 172,495
Chinese 698,420 150,920
Italian 453,205 478,605
German 186,780 1,002,890
French 147,055 1,202,205
Irish 198,930 1,896,535
Scottish 216,095 1,891,200
English 510,985 2,297,820
Canadian 1,330,280 1,779,485
Note: In this chart, the total responses is greater than the total population because a person can report more than one ethnic origin.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

In 2016, 43% of the population of Ontario reported more than one origin in the census.

The share of Toronto's population who report being Catholic or Protestant may continue to decrease, while the share of those with no religious affiliation could increase…

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Description for Chart 7a - Proportion of the population, by religious group, Toronto CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projected based on seven scenarios)
Proportion of the population, by religious group, Toronto CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projected based on seven scenarios)
  2011 2016 2021 2026 2031 2036
No religious affiliation Maximum 21.2 23.0 24.4 25.7 26.8 27.8
Minimum 21.2 21.6 21.9 22.1 22.1 22.1
Catholic Maximum 30.4 29.0 27.7 26.6 25.6 24.6
Minimum 30.4 28.2 26.3 24.5 23.0 21.7
Protestant Maximum 16.5 14.6 13.0 11.8 10.8 10.0
Minimum 16.5 14.5 12.7 11.4 10.3 9.4
Orthodox Christian Maximum 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.0
Minimum 3.7 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6
Other Christian Maximum 6.0 7.0 7.7 8.4 8.9 9.4
Minimum 6.0 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.1
Note: The shaded area indicates the interval between the minimum and maximum values projected by the seven scenarios considered.
Source: Statistics Canada, 2017. Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551.

… and the share of some non-Christian religions could increase

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Description for Chart 7b - Proportion of the population, by religious group, Toronto CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projected based on seven scenarios)
Proportion of the population, by religious group, Toronto CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projected based on seven scenarios)
  2011 2016 2021 2026 2031 2036
Buddhist Maximum 2.2 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.2
Minimum 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Hindu Maximum 5.9 6.5 7.1 7.7 8.1 8.5
Minimum 5.9 6.4 6.8 7.1 7.3 7.6
Jewish Maximum 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.2
Minimum 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.1
Muslim Maximum 7.7 8.9 10.1 11.2 12.2 13.2
Minimum 7.7 8.6 9.3 9.8 10.2 10.6
Sikh Maximum 2.9 3.3 3.8 4.3 4.7 5.0
Minimum 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.0 4.3 4.6
Other religions Maximum 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Minimum 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Note: The shaded area indicates the interval between the minimum and maximum values projected by the seven scenarios considered.
Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey (adjusted) and Demosim 2017.

In 2017, 55% of Toronto's population who reported a religious affiliation attended religious ceremonies at least 3 times a year.

In Ontario, the three largest visible minority groups as defined under the Employment Equity Act are South Asian, Chinese and Black.

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Description for Chart 8 - Main groups defined as visible minorities in Ontario, 2001 to 2016
Main groups defined as visible minorities in Ontario, 2001 to 2016
  2001 2006 2011 2016
South Asian 554,870 794,170 965,990 1,150,415
Chinese 481,505 576,980 629,140 754,545
Black 411,095 473,760 539,205 627,715
Filipino 156,515 203,220 275,380 311,675
Arab 88,540 111,405 151,645 210,440
Latin American 106,835 147,135 172,560 195,950
West Asian 67,100 96,615 122,530 154,670
Southeast Asian 86,410 110,045 137,875 133,860
Korean 53,955 69,540 78,295 88,935
Japanese 24,925 28,080 29,085 30,830
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Inclusion and equity: Challenges and issues

Context of admission and living arrangements among recent immigrants in Toronto

Three broad admission categories for recent immigrants:

Living arrangements in the household, Toronto CMA, 2016
Living arrangements in the household Non-Immigrants (%) Recent Immigrants (%)
In a couple without children  12.4 10.6
In a couple with children 48.3 46.9
In a lone-parent family  10.9 5.8
Persons in multigenerational households 9.6 14.1
Living with others (relatives or non-relatives) 9.7 18.7
Living alone 9.0 3.9
Note: "Recent immigrants" are immigrants who received landed immigrant status or permanent resident status in Canada for the first time in the five years preceding the Census year.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

Between 2006 and 2017, about 3 in 10 immigrants who intended to live in the CMA of Toronto were not able to conduct a conversation in English or French at the time of their admission in the country.

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Description for Chart 9 - Proportion of immigrants who do not know English or French at the time of their admission, by admission year, Toronto CMA as their intended destination
Proportion of immigrants who do not know English or French at the time of their admission, by admission year, Toronto CMA as their intended destination
  Total Economic immigrants, Principal applicants Immigrants sponsored by family Refugees
2006 34.7 10.7 44.2 29.7
2007 31.6 7.5 39.5 31.9
2008 28.5 7.8 35.3 36.4
2009 26.0 7.1 33.7 32.1
2010 25.8 7.8 32.2 31.1
2011 25.7 8.1 28.4 26.7
2012 29.5 7.1 43.9 29.2
2013 37.4 7.7 54.7 38.5
2014 30.9 8.5 46.6 46.5
2015 25.9 5.4 40.3 42.1
2016 22.8 2.3 29.7 44.8
2017 18.7 1.2 31.1 44.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database, 2016.

In 2016, 29% of Toronto's recent immigrants with a mother tongue other than English or French used a non-official language at work.

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Description for Chart 10 - Use of other languages at work by immigrants with a mother tongue other than English or French, by period of immigration and selected census metropolitan areas, 2016
Use of other languages at work by immigrants with a mother tongue other than English or French1, by period of immigration and selected census metropolitan areas, 2016
  Before 1981 (%) 1981 to 1990 (%) 1991 to 2000 (%) 2001 to 2005 (%) 2006 to 2010 (%) 2011 to 2016 (%)
Montréal 14.7 15.3 15.1 13.4 14.4 22.0
Toronto 14.9 19.9 19.8 21.0 25.8 28.7
Vancouver 20.4 29.5 34.3 34.6 39.2 42.5
1 Only single responses to the question on mother tongue were considered.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2006 and 2016.

In Toronto, the employment rate for immigrant men is now similar to that of Canadian-born men, but a gap persists for immigrant women.

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Description for Chart 11a - Employment rate for the core-aged group women (25 to 54), immigrant status and immigration period, Toronto CMA, 2006 to 2018
Employment rate for the core-aged group women (25 to 54), immigrant status and immigration period, Toronto CMA, 2006 to 2018 
  All immigrants Recent immigrants (less than 5 years in Canada) Established immigrants (at least 10 years in Canada) Canadian-born women
2006 70.7 56.0 77.2 83.0
2007 72.2 52.6 78.1 83.9
2008 70.0 53.3 76.7 84.1
2009 68.8 55.0 74.7 82.5
2010 69.0 53.9 75.0 82.7
2011 68.5 49.2 75.2 81.9
2012 69.5 54.7 74.5 81.4
2013 71.6 55.0 76.3 81.8
2014 68.9 49.5 74.3 81.3
2015 68.4 48.9 74.0 82.2
2016 70.0 52.5 74.9 81.9
2017 71.7 55.4 77.1 82.3
2018 70.9 52.3 75.8 82.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.
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Description for Chart 11b - Employment rate for the core-aged group men (25 to 54), immigrant status and immigration period, Toronto CMA, 2006 to 2018
Employment rate for the core-aged group men (25 to 54), immigrant status and immigration period, Toronto CMA, 2006 to 2018
  All immigrants Recent immigrants (less than 5 years in Canada) Established immigrants (at least 10 years in Canada) Canadian-born men
2006 87.1 81.5 88.2 88.3
2007 85.6 80.8 87.1 88.4
2008 85.8 83.7 86.6 89.9
2009 81.2 76.2 82.8 86.4
2010 82.1 74.2 83.2 86.7
2011 82.6 73.4 83.7 85.9
2012 84.2 77.7 85.2 84.7
2013 83.9 77.8 84.8 87.2
2014 83.6 77.3 84.5 86.9
2015 86.8 79.2 88.1 86.6
2016 86.3 80.5 87.6 87.6
2017 86.6 81.9 87.7 86.9
2018 87.0 85.6 87.4 86.1
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

The unemployment rate of immigrants is higher than for the Canadian-born. These gaps narrow when isolating the influence of key social and ethnocultural characteristics.

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Description for Chart 12 - Unemployment rate ratio (observed and adjusted) of immigrants to Canadian-born, by sex, Toronto CMA, 1996 to 2016
Unemployment rate ratio (observed and adjusted1) of immigrants to Canadian-born, by sex, Toronto CMA, 1996 to 2016
  Women - observed Women - adjusted1 Men - observed Men - adjusted1
1996 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.4
2001 1.9 1.3 1.6 1.4
2006 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.1
2011 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.1
2016 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0
1 The adjusted rates isolate the influence of work experience, marital status, education, visible minority status and knowledge of official languages.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.
Observed unemployment rates (%) of core-aged group, by immigrant status and sex, Toronto CMA
  Women Men
Non-immigrants Immigrants Non-immigrants Immigrants
1996 5.7 11.6 5.1 8.6
2001 3.8 7.3 3.2 5.2
2006 4.6 7.8 3.9 5.0
2011 5.5 9.3 5.3 6.6
2016 5.1 8.1 5.4 5.6
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Among women and men, the gap between the annual median salaries of immigrants and the Canadian-born is mostly due to a range of ethnocultural and socioeconomic characteristics and work experience

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Description for Chart 13 and 14 - Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged immigrant men and women workers and Canadian-born workers, Toronto CMA, 1996 to 2016
Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged immigrant men and women workers and Canadian-born workers, Toronto CMA, 1996 to 2016
  Women Men
Observed Adjusted1 Observed Adjusted1
1995 0.78 0.96 0.76 0.98
2000 0.77 0.94 0.80 0.95
2005 0.75 0.92 0.79 0.93
2010 0.76 0.90 0.79 0.92
2015 0.74 0.89 0.80 0.92
1 The adjusted rates isolate the influence of age, marital status, education, knowledge of official languages, visible minority status, full-time or part-time work, the number of weeks worked in a year, and the major occupation group.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Median wages of immigrants rise with the number of years since admission to Canada.

Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database, 2016

The proportion of immigrants in a low-income situation is much higher than the proportion of Canadian-born.

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Description for Chart 15 - Proportion of the population aged 25 to 54 years who were in a low-income situation based on the Market Basket Measure (MBM), by immigrant status, Toronto CMA, 2015
Proportion of the population aged 25 to 54 years who were in a low-income situation based on the Market Basket Measure (MBM), by immigrant status, Toronto CMA, 2015
Non-immigrants Immigrants
10.2 19.7
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

The proportion of immigrants who earned a university degree outside Canada and the United States and who have a job that requires a high school diploma or less is much higher than the proportion of Canadian-born.

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Description for Chart 16 and 17 - Overqualification rate among workers aged 25 years and over with university diploma, by field of study and immigrant status, CMA of Toronto, 2016
Overqualification rate among workers aged 25 years and over with university diploma, by field of study and immigrant status, CMA of Toronto, 2016
  Women Men
Field of study Canadian-Born Immigrant with university degree from outside of Canada and the US Canadian-Born Immigrant with university degree from outside of Canada and the US
Science and science technology 12.9 31.7 12.0 27.8
Engineering and engineering technology 5.1 23.9 4.4 21.2
Mathematics and computer and information science 8.1 24.5 6.0 13.9
Business and administration 11.0 40.5 9.8 30.4
Arts and humanities 16.2 43.1 16.2 42.0
Social and behavioural sciences 15.8 39.1 15.0 37.7
Legal professions and studies 4.9 27.0 3.0 33.0
Health care 5.0 30.3 4.2 25.7
Education and teaching 5.2 43.5 5.6 36.9
Trades, services, natural resources and conservation 9.7 32.3 10.2 33.5
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

Housing conditions for immigrants residing in Toronto CMA in 2016

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Description for Chart 18 - Housing characteristics in Toronto CMA, by immigrant status, 2016
Housing characteristics in Toronto CMA, by immigrant status, 2016
  Non-immigrants (%) Total immigrants (%) Recent immigrants (%) Established immigrants (5+ years) (%)
Renter 25.7 27.3 53.5 23.3
Unaffordable housing1 24.1 33.8 51.2 31.1
Not suitable 12.2 18.6 35.7 16.0
Major repairs needed 5.7 4.8 4.5 4.9
1 At least 30% of household income is dedicated to housing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

In Toronto, 1 in 6 immigrants reported experiencing discrimination or being treated unfairly in the last five years

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Description for Chart 19 - Reasons for discrimination mentioned by immigrants, by selected census metropolitan areas, 2014
Reasons for discrimination mentioned by immigrants, by selected census metropolitan areas, 2014
  Montréal (%) Toronto (%) Vancouver (%)
Ethnic or cultural affiliation 11.5 9.7 8.2
Race or skin colour 7.7 8.4 7.2
Language 8.9 3.6 5.4
Religion 5.2 3.2 2.5
Source: Statistics Canada, General Social Survey (victimization), 2014.
The likelihood of reporting discrimination is similar among the second generation
Toronto CMA Immigrants Second generation
Total 16% 19%
Ethnic or cultural affiliation 10% 8%
Race or skin colour 8% 10%
Source: Statistic Canada, General Social Survey (victimization), 2014.

The number of police-reported hate crimes—particularly crimes motivated by hatred of religion, race or ethnic origin—has been on the rise since 2014

Number of police-reported hate crimes, Toronto CMA
  2014 2015 2016 2017
Number of police-reported hate crimes in Toronto CMA 318 295 290 519
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Description for Charts 22 and 23 - Number of police-reported hate crimes, Toronto CMA, 2016
Number of police-reported hate crimes, Toronto CMA, 2016
Reason 2016 2017
Religion 107 238
Race or ethnic origin 136 216
Source: Statistics Canada, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey.

Number of police-reported hate crimes in Toronto CMA

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