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  • Journals and periodicals: 11-402-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Presented in almanac style, the 2012 Canada Year Book contains more than 500 pages of tables, charts and succinct analytical articles on every major area of Statistics Canada's expertise. The Canada Year Book is the premier reference on the social and economic life of Canada and its citizens.

    Release date: 2012-12-24

  • 2. Survey QualityArchived
    Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211751
    Description:

    Survey quality is a multi-faceted concept that originates from two different development paths. One path is the total survey error paradigm that rests on four pillars providing principles that guide survey design, survey implementation, survey evaluation, and survey data analysis. We should design surveys so that the mean squared error of an estimate is minimized given budget and other constraints. It is important to take all known error sources into account, to monitor major error sources during implementation, to periodically evaluate major error sources and combinations of these sources after the survey is completed, and to study the effects of errors on the survey analysis. In this context survey quality can be measured by the mean squared error and controlled by observations made during implementation and improved by evaluation studies. The paradigm has both strengths and weaknesses. One strength is that research can be defined by error sources and one weakness is that most total survey error assessments are incomplete in the sense that it is not possible to include the effects of all the error sources. The second path is influenced by ideas from the quality management sciences. These sciences concern business excellence in providing products and services with a focus on customers and competition from other providers. These ideas have had a great influence on many statistical organizations. One effect is the acceptance among data providers that product quality cannot be achieved without a sufficient underlying process quality and process quality cannot be achieved without a good organizational quality. These levels can be controlled and evaluated by service level agreements, customer surveys, paradata analysis using statistical process control, and organizational assessment using business excellence models or other sets of criteria. All levels can be improved by conducting improvement projects chosen by means of priority functions. The ultimate goal of improvement projects is that the processes involved should gradually approach a state where they are error-free. Of course, this might be an unattainable goal, albeit one to strive for. It is not realistic to hope for continuous measurements of the total survey error using the mean squared error. Instead one can hope that continuous quality improvement using management science ideas and statistical methods can minimize biases and other survey process problems so that the variance becomes an approximation of the mean squared error. If that can be achieved we have made the two development paths approximately coincide.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211752
    Description:

    Coca is a native bush from the Amazon rainforest from which cocaine, an illegal alkaloid, is extracted. Asking farmers about the extent of their coca cultivation areas is considered a sensitive question in remote coca growing regions in Peru. As a consequence, farmers tend not to participate in surveys, do not respond to the sensitive question(s), or underreport their individual coca cultivation areas. There is a political and policy concern in accurately and reliably measuring coca growing areas, therefore survey methodologists need to determine how to encourage response and truthful reporting of sensitive questions related to coca growing. Specific survey strategies applied in our case study included establishment of trust with farmers, confidentiality assurance, matching interviewer-respondent characteristics, changing the format of the sensitive question(s), and non enforcement of absolute isolation of respondents during the survey. The survey results were validated using satellite data. They suggest that farmers tend to underreport their coca areas to 35 to 40% of their true extent.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211753
    Description:

    Nonresponse in longitudinal studies often occurs in a nonmonotone pattern. In the Survey of Industrial Research and Development (SIRD), it is reasonable to assume that the nonresponse mechanism is past-value-dependent in the sense that the response propensity of a study variable at time point t depends on response status and observed or missing values of the same variable at time points prior to t. Since this nonresponse is nonignorable, the parametric likelihood approach is sensitive to the specification of parametric models on both the joint distribution of variables at different time points and the nonresponse mechanism. The nonmonotone nonresponse also limits the application of inverse propensity weighting methods. By discarding all observed data from a subject after its first missing value, one can create a dataset with a monotone ignorable nonresponse and then apply established methods for ignorable nonresponse. However, discarding observed data is not desirable and it may result in inefficient estimators when many observed data are discarded. We propose to impute nonrespondents through regression under imputation models carefully created under the past-value-dependent nonresponse mechanism. This method does not require any parametric model on the joint distribution of the variables across time points or the nonresponse mechanism. Performance of the estimated means based on the proposed imputation method is investigated through some simulation studies and empirical analysis of the SIRD data.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211754
    Description:

    The propensity-scoring-adjustment approach is commonly used to handle selection bias in survey sampling applications, including unit nonresponse and undercoverage. The propensity score is computed using auxiliary variables observed throughout the sample. We discuss some asymptotic properties of propensity-score-adjusted estimators and derive optimal estimators based on a regression model for the finite population. An optimal propensity-score-adjusted estimator can be implemented using an augmented propensity model. Variance estimation is discussed and the results from two simulation studies are presented.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211756
    Description:

    We propose a new approach to small area estimation based on joint modelling of means and variances. The proposed model and methodology not only improve small area estimators but also yield "smoothed" estimators of the true sampling variances. Maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters is carried out using EM algorithm due to the non-standard form of the likelihood function. Confidence intervals of small area parameters are derived using a more general decision theory approach, unlike the traditional way based on minimizing the squared error loss. Numerical properties of the proposed method are investigated via simulation studies and compared with other competitive methods in the literature. Theoretical justification for the effective performance of the resulting estimators and confidence intervals is also provided.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211757
    Description:

    Collinearities among explanatory variables in linear regression models affect estimates from survey data just as they do in non-survey data. Undesirable effects are unnecessarily inflated standard errors, spuriously low or high t-statistics, and parameter estimates with illogical signs. The available collinearity diagnostics are not generally appropriate for survey data because the variance estimators they incorporate do not properly account for stratification, clustering, and survey weights. In this article, we derive condition indexes and variance decompositions to diagnose collinearity problems in complex survey data. The adapted diagnostics are illustrated with data based on a survey of health characteristics.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211759
    Description:

    A benefit of multiple imputation is that it allows users to make valid inferences using standard methods with simple combining rules. Existing combining rules for multivariate hypothesis tests fail when the sampling error is zero. This paper proposes modified tests for use with finite population analyses of multiply imputed census data for the applications of disclosure limitation and missing data and evaluates their frequentist properties through simulation.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201200411760
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging to provide a profile of community-dwelling seniors receiving home care and describe the types of care they receive from formal and informal sources. Seniors' unmet needs for professional home care are also examined.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201200411761
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Data from the Discharge Abstract Database of the Canadian Institute for Health Information were used to examine acute care hospital days for patients with a mental condition coded as the most responsible diagnosis or a comorbid diagnosis in 2009/2010.

    Release date: 2012-12-19
Stats in brief (53)

Stats in brief (53) (0 to 10 of 53 results)

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111731
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This health fact sheet presents information about the level of vitamin B12 in Canadians aged 3 to 79 by age group and sex. The results shown are based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-11-29

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111732
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This health fact sheet presents data on the levels of cholesterol in Canadians aged 6 to 79. The results shown are based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-11-29

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111733
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This health fact sheet presents information on the level of iodine in the Canadian population as measured by urinary iodine concentration. Data is shown for the population aged 3 to 79. The results shown are based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-11-29

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111734
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This health fact sheet presents information on the sufficiency of iron in the Canadian population as measured by hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentration. Data is presented by sex and age group for the population aged 3 to 79. The results shown are based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-11-29

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111735
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This health fact sheet presents data on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Canadian population aged 18 to 79. Data is presented by sex and age group as well as by number of metabolic syndrome components. The results shown are based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-11-29

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111708
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This is a Health fact sheet about the body mass index and waist circumference of Canadian adults. The results shown are based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-10-29

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111709
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This is a Health fact sheet about the prevalence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Canadians aged 35 to 79. The results shown are based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-10-29

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111710
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This is a Health fact sheet about the muscular strength of Canadians, as measured by grip strength. Findings are presented by age and sex. The results shown are based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-10-29

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111711
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This is a Health fact sheet about aerobic fitness which measures endurance or the ability to sustain physical activity. Results are presented for Canadians aged 15 to 69. The data comes from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-10-29

  • Stats in brief: 82-625-X201200111712
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This is a Health fact sheet about the body mass index of Canadian children and youth aged 5 to 17. The results shown are based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Release date: 2012-10-29
Articles and reports (143)

Articles and reports (143) (0 to 10 of 143 results)

  • 1. Survey QualityArchived
    Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211751
    Description:

    Survey quality is a multi-faceted concept that originates from two different development paths. One path is the total survey error paradigm that rests on four pillars providing principles that guide survey design, survey implementation, survey evaluation, and survey data analysis. We should design surveys so that the mean squared error of an estimate is minimized given budget and other constraints. It is important to take all known error sources into account, to monitor major error sources during implementation, to periodically evaluate major error sources and combinations of these sources after the survey is completed, and to study the effects of errors on the survey analysis. In this context survey quality can be measured by the mean squared error and controlled by observations made during implementation and improved by evaluation studies. The paradigm has both strengths and weaknesses. One strength is that research can be defined by error sources and one weakness is that most total survey error assessments are incomplete in the sense that it is not possible to include the effects of all the error sources. The second path is influenced by ideas from the quality management sciences. These sciences concern business excellence in providing products and services with a focus on customers and competition from other providers. These ideas have had a great influence on many statistical organizations. One effect is the acceptance among data providers that product quality cannot be achieved without a sufficient underlying process quality and process quality cannot be achieved without a good organizational quality. These levels can be controlled and evaluated by service level agreements, customer surveys, paradata analysis using statistical process control, and organizational assessment using business excellence models or other sets of criteria. All levels can be improved by conducting improvement projects chosen by means of priority functions. The ultimate goal of improvement projects is that the processes involved should gradually approach a state where they are error-free. Of course, this might be an unattainable goal, albeit one to strive for. It is not realistic to hope for continuous measurements of the total survey error using the mean squared error. Instead one can hope that continuous quality improvement using management science ideas and statistical methods can minimize biases and other survey process problems so that the variance becomes an approximation of the mean squared error. If that can be achieved we have made the two development paths approximately coincide.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211752
    Description:

    Coca is a native bush from the Amazon rainforest from which cocaine, an illegal alkaloid, is extracted. Asking farmers about the extent of their coca cultivation areas is considered a sensitive question in remote coca growing regions in Peru. As a consequence, farmers tend not to participate in surveys, do not respond to the sensitive question(s), or underreport their individual coca cultivation areas. There is a political and policy concern in accurately and reliably measuring coca growing areas, therefore survey methodologists need to determine how to encourage response and truthful reporting of sensitive questions related to coca growing. Specific survey strategies applied in our case study included establishment of trust with farmers, confidentiality assurance, matching interviewer-respondent characteristics, changing the format of the sensitive question(s), and non enforcement of absolute isolation of respondents during the survey. The survey results were validated using satellite data. They suggest that farmers tend to underreport their coca areas to 35 to 40% of their true extent.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211753
    Description:

    Nonresponse in longitudinal studies often occurs in a nonmonotone pattern. In the Survey of Industrial Research and Development (SIRD), it is reasonable to assume that the nonresponse mechanism is past-value-dependent in the sense that the response propensity of a study variable at time point t depends on response status and observed or missing values of the same variable at time points prior to t. Since this nonresponse is nonignorable, the parametric likelihood approach is sensitive to the specification of parametric models on both the joint distribution of variables at different time points and the nonresponse mechanism. The nonmonotone nonresponse also limits the application of inverse propensity weighting methods. By discarding all observed data from a subject after its first missing value, one can create a dataset with a monotone ignorable nonresponse and then apply established methods for ignorable nonresponse. However, discarding observed data is not desirable and it may result in inefficient estimators when many observed data are discarded. We propose to impute nonrespondents through regression under imputation models carefully created under the past-value-dependent nonresponse mechanism. This method does not require any parametric model on the joint distribution of the variables across time points or the nonresponse mechanism. Performance of the estimated means based on the proposed imputation method is investigated through some simulation studies and empirical analysis of the SIRD data.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211754
    Description:

    The propensity-scoring-adjustment approach is commonly used to handle selection bias in survey sampling applications, including unit nonresponse and undercoverage. The propensity score is computed using auxiliary variables observed throughout the sample. We discuss some asymptotic properties of propensity-score-adjusted estimators and derive optimal estimators based on a regression model for the finite population. An optimal propensity-score-adjusted estimator can be implemented using an augmented propensity model. Variance estimation is discussed and the results from two simulation studies are presented.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211756
    Description:

    We propose a new approach to small area estimation based on joint modelling of means and variances. The proposed model and methodology not only improve small area estimators but also yield "smoothed" estimators of the true sampling variances. Maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters is carried out using EM algorithm due to the non-standard form of the likelihood function. Confidence intervals of small area parameters are derived using a more general decision theory approach, unlike the traditional way based on minimizing the squared error loss. Numerical properties of the proposed method are investigated via simulation studies and compared with other competitive methods in the literature. Theoretical justification for the effective performance of the resulting estimators and confidence intervals is also provided.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211757
    Description:

    Collinearities among explanatory variables in linear regression models affect estimates from survey data just as they do in non-survey data. Undesirable effects are unnecessarily inflated standard errors, spuriously low or high t-statistics, and parameter estimates with illogical signs. The available collinearity diagnostics are not generally appropriate for survey data because the variance estimators they incorporate do not properly account for stratification, clustering, and survey weights. In this article, we derive condition indexes and variance decompositions to diagnose collinearity problems in complex survey data. The adapted diagnostics are illustrated with data based on a survey of health characteristics.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201200211759
    Description:

    A benefit of multiple imputation is that it allows users to make valid inferences using standard methods with simple combining rules. Existing combining rules for multivariate hypothesis tests fail when the sampling error is zero. This paper proposes modified tests for use with finite population analyses of multiply imputed census data for the applications of disclosure limitation and missing data and evaluates their frequentist properties through simulation.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201200411760
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging to provide a profile of community-dwelling seniors receiving home care and describe the types of care they receive from formal and informal sources. Seniors' unmet needs for professional home care are also examined.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201200411761
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Data from the Discharge Abstract Database of the Canadian Institute for Health Information were used to examine acute care hospital days for patients with a mental condition coded as the most responsible diagnosis or a comorbid diagnosis in 2009/2010.

    Release date: 2012-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 71-606-X2012006
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using the Labour Force Survey data, this series of analytical reports provides an overview of the labour market experiences of immigrants to Canada. These reports examine the labour force characteristics of immigrants, such as employment and unemployment at the Canada level and for the provinces. They also provide detailed analysis by region of birth and other aspects of the immigrant labour market.

    The first two reports analyzed the 2006 labour market experiences of immigrants. The third one updated many of these characteristics for 2007. The fourth report analyzed immigrants' employment rates in 2007 by region of postsecondary education, while the fifth report examined immigrants' employment quality in 2008. This sixth report examines immigrants' labour market outcomes from 2008 to 2011, with an overview of the recent downturn and its impact on immigrant workers relative to their Canadian-born counterparts.

    Release date: 2012-12-14
Journals and periodicals (14)

Journals and periodicals (14) (0 to 10 of 14 results)

  • Journals and periodicals: 11-402-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Presented in almanac style, the 2012 Canada Year Book contains more than 500 pages of tables, charts and succinct analytical articles on every major area of Statistics Canada's expertise. The Canada Year Book is the premier reference on the social and economic life of Canada and its citizens.

    Release date: 2012-12-24

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-651-X
    Description:

    This article presents employment and unemployment rates, and some information regarding salaries and industrial sectors of employees, for official-language minorities. These data are based on the Labour Force Survey and enable comparisons between official-language minority and majority according to their situation in the labour market for provinces or groups of provinces.

    Release date: 2012-11-01

  • Journals and periodicals: 88-001-X
    Description:

    This series, which consists of about six issues per year, presents a variety of science and technology statistics. Each issue concerns a different topic, for example: research and development expenditures and personnel in business enterprises, science and technology expenditures and personnel in the federal government or provincial governments; and estimates of higher education expenditures on research and development.

    Release date: 2012-09-20

  • Journals and periodicals: 67-001-X
    Description:

    This publication presents Canada's transactions with non-residents on a quarterly basis. These transactions are grouped under two main accounts: the current account which includes goods, services, investment income and current transfers; and the capital and financial account which includes information on a country's investing and financing activities. The transactions are further broken down by major geographical region: United States, United Kingdom, other countries of the European Union, Japan, other countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and all other countries. The data are presented quarterly and annually for the six most recent years.

    Each publication includes several pages of data analysis accompanied by graphics, definitions, CANSIM data bank numbers, data quality measures and a list of occasional articles and research papers. The first quarter issue includes revisions to quarterly and annual data for the most recent four years. Statistics are derived from surveys, administrative data and other sources.

    Release date: 2012-09-04

  • Journals and periodicals: 75-001-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This publication brings together and analyzes a wide range of labour and income data. Topics include youth in the labour market, pensions and retirement, work arrangements, education and training, and trends in family income. One section highlights new products, surveys, research projects and conferences. Another section uses charts and text to describe a variety of subjects related to labour and income. Each winter print issue contains an index of all published articles.

    To find the latest updates on labour market and household issues such as gambling, minimum wage, retirement and unionization, please visit: Topics of interest on labour and income.

    Release date: 2012-08-22

  • Journals and periodicals: 11-008-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This publication discusses the social, economic, and demographic changes affecting the lives of Canadians.

    Free downloadable PDF and HTML files: Published every six weeksPrinted issue: Published every six months (twice per year)

    Release date: 2012-07-30

  • Journals and periodicals: 21-006-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    These occasional papers focus on the analysis of population trends in rural Canada. Studies of changing patterns in rural communities through space and time cover a range of topics: demography, health, education, manufacturing and labour, household and family.

    Release date: 2012-07-12

  • Journals and periodicals: 50-002-X
    Description:

    This service bulletin presents summary information, timely financial and operating statistics and analysis (time series, charts, special tabulations, etc.) covering bus, urban transit, courier and local messengers industry, taxi and limousine services industry and marine transportation.

    Release date: 2012-07-04

  • Journals and periodicals: 67-202-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This publication presents Canada's asset and liability position with non-residents, with a detailed breakdown by claims (direct investment, portfolio, etc.) by industry and by country or organization (United States, United Kingdom, European Union, Japan, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and all other countries). The data also include the foreign holdings of Canada's public debt. In addition, data are provided on Canadian portfolio investments abroad and on the investment income arising from Canada's external assets and liabilities. This publication includes several pages of data analysis accompanied by graphics, definitions and data quality measures. Statistics are derived from surveys, administrative data and other sources.

    Release date: 2012-06-20

  • Journals and periodicals: 11-010-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This monthly periodical is Statistics Canada's flagship publication for economic statistics. Each issue contains a monthly summary of the economy, major economic events and a feature article. A statistical summary contains a wide range of tables and graphs on the principal economic indicators for Canada, the provinces and the major industrial nations. A historical listing of this same data is contained in the Canadian economic observer: historical supplement (Catalogue no. 11-210-XPB and XIB).

    Release date: 2012-06-15
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