Earnings and wages by region or location

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Analysis (7)

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  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016062
    Geography: Province or territory

    This Economic Insights article highlights the slower pace of earnings growth for Canada as a whole during 2015 and the first half of 2016. It focuses on the impact that lower average earnings in Alberta during this period have had on earnings growth at the national level. The contribution of different industries to lower average earnings in Alberta is examined.

    Release date: 2016-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2012023
    Geography: Canada

    This paper examines the process by which migrants experience gains in earnings subsequent to migration and, in particular, the advantage that migrants obtain from moving to large, dynamic metropolitan labour markets, using Toronto as a benchmark. There are two potentially distinct patterns to gains in earnings associated with migration. The first is a step upwards in which workers realize immediate gains in earnings subsequent to migration. The second is accelerated gains in earnings subsequent to migration. Immediate gains are associated with obtaining a position in a more productive firm and/or a better match between worker skills and abilities and job tasks. Accelerated gains in earnings are associated processes that take time, such as learning or job switching as workers and firms seek out better matches. Evaluated here is the expectation that the economies of large metropolitan areas provide workers with an initial productive advantage stemming from a one-time improvement in worker productivity and/or a dynamic that accelerates gains in earnings over time through the potentially entwined processes of learning and matching. A variety of datasets and methodologies, including propensity score matching, are used to evaluate patterns of income gains associated with migration to Toronto.

    Release date: 2012-05-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2010020
    Geography: Canada

    Using 2001 Census data, this paper investigates the extent to which the urban-rural gap in the earnings of employed workers is associated with human capital composition and agglomeration economies. Both factors have been theoretically and empirically linked to urban-rural earnings differences. Agglomeration economies-the productivity enhancing effects of the geographic concentration of workers and firms-may underlie these differences as they may be stronger in larger urban centres. But human capital composition may also drive the urban-rural earnings gap if workers with higher levels of education and/or experience are more prevalent in cities. The analysis finds that up to one-half of urban-rural earnings differences are related to human capital composition. It also demonstrates that agglomeration economies related to city size are associated with earnings levels, but their influence is significantly reduced by the inclusion of controls for human capital.

    Release date: 2010-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007289
    Geography: Canada

    The degree to which workers leave the country was a much-discussed issue in Canada - as elsewhere - in the latter part of the 1990s, although recent empirical evidence shows that it was not such a widespread phenomenon after all, and that rates of leaving have declined substantially in recent years. One aspect of the international mobility dynamic that has not yet been addressed, however, is the effect on individuals' earnings of leaving the country and then returning. The lack of empirical evidence on this issue stems principally from the unavailability of the kind of longitudinal data required for such an analysis. The contribution of this paper is to present evidence on how leaving and returning to Canada affects individuals' earnings based on an analysis carried out with the Longitudinal Administrative Database. The models estimated use movers' (relative) pre-departure profiles as the basis of comparison for their post-return (relative) earnings patterns in order to control for any pre-existing differences in the earnings profiles of movers and non-movers (while also controlling for other factors that affect individuals' earnings at any point in time).

    Overall, those who leave the country have higher earnings than non-movers upon their returns, but most of these differences were already present in the pre-departure period. In terms of net earnings growth, individuals who were away for two to five years appear to do best, and enjoy earnings that are 12% higher in the five years following their return relative to their pre-departure levels (controlling for other factors), while those who leave for just one year have smaller gains, and those who spend longer periods abroad have lower (relative) earnings upon their returns as compared to before leaving (perhaps due to other events associated with their mobility patterns). Interestingly, these gains seem to be concentrated among those who had the lowest pre-move earnings levels (less than $60,000), while those higher up on the earnings ladder had smaller and more variable gains.

    Release date: 2007-01-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20031126699
    Geography: Canada

    This paper examines characteristics and earnings of health workers - professionals, technical personnel and support personnel - using the 1991 and 2001 censuses. It examines the characteristics of nurses and doctors in more detail.

    Release date: 2004-03-19

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2000008

    This paper attempts to quantify the magnitude of economic disparity among Canadian provinces. It uses the average annual earning of a province as an indicator of economic well-being for that province.

    Release date: 2000-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025068
    Geography: Canada

    This study defines average annual earnings as the product of three components: hourly earnings, weekly hours and annual weeks. It looks at each component's contribution to differences in provincial earnings.

    Release date: 2000-06-07
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