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  • Stats in brief: 45-28-0001202000100010
    Description:

    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to massive work interruptions in Canada and several other countries since mid-March 2020. The resulting economic lockdown has raised concerns about the ability of Canadian families to meet their financial obligations and essential needs. This article focuses on families who rely primarily on earnings—wages and salaries and self-employment income—to maintain their living standards.

    Release date: 2020-05-06

  • 13C0015
    Description:

    This annual product characterizes the Canadian population by income and demographics. Data may be requested by gender for marital status, age groups, counts by single year of age, sources of income, income distribution by age group, taxes paid, selected deductions and benefits, median employment income, median total income and median after-tax income, plus national and provincial indices of median total income. The statistics are derived primarily from the annual tax file provided by the Canada Revenue Agency.

    Data for some geographic areas are available starting from 1986. The latest data (2017) can be requested for Canada, provinces and territories, federal electoral districts, economic regions, census divisions, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations, census tracts and certain postal geographies.

    Release date: 2017-07-12

  • 13C0016
    Description:

    Annual information is available on census families (couple families and lone-parent families) and persons not in census families.

    Data for families may be requested by age group of family members, number and age of children, average family size, total family income range by age or by number of children, sources of family income, economic dependency, low income families, after-tax income, single-earner and dual-earner families and wife's contribution to total husband-wife employment income. Statistics on persons not in census families provide details on age group, income group and sources of income. The statistics are derived primarily from the annual tax file provided by the Canada Revenue Agency.

    Data for couple families, lone-parent families and persons not in census families can be requested beginning in 1990. The latest data (2017) can be requested for Canada, provinces and territories, federal electoral districts, economic regions, census divisions, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations, census tracts and certain postal geographies.

    Release date: 2017-07-12

  • 89C0022
    Description:

    Annual information is available on Canadian senior families and individuals. In these tables, a senior is defined as a person who is 55 years of age or older, and senior families are those in which the eldest spouse or parent is a senior. Data may be requested for the demographic profiles of senior family types by age group or for individuals in senior families, by age and gender. Also available are income profiles of senior couple families, senior lone-parent families, senior persons not in Census Families and senior individuals. The statistics are derived primarily from the annual tax file provided by the Canada Revenue Agency.

    Data for some geographic areas are available starting from 1990. The latest data (2017) can be requested for Canada, provinces and territories, federal electoral districts, economic regions, census divisions, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations, census tracts and certain postal geographies.

    Release date: 2017-07-12

  • 71C0018
    Description:

    The Labour Income Profile shows the number of men and women with labour income and the total amount of each income type, including wages, salaries and commissions, self-employment income and Employment Insurance (EI) benefits.

    Median dollar figures are provided for total income and employment income. Medians are also expressed as a percentage of the figure for the province/territory and for Canada. The statistics are derived primarily from the annual tax file provided by the Canada Revenue Agency.

    Data for some geographic areas are available since 1986. The latest data (2014) can be requested for Canada, provinces and territories, federal electoral districts, economic regions, census divisions, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations, census tracts and certain postal geographies.

    Release date: 2016-07-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014359
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the long-term labour market premiums associated with completing a college certificate and a bachelor's degree, compared to completing a high school diploma. Several labour market outcomes of individuals are examined with longitudinal data over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s.

    With the creation of a new linked file consisting of the 1991 Census of Population and the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF), it is now possible to follow individuals in the labour market for a longer period of time than is feasible with existing survey data. The purpose of this study is to compare labour market outcomes of individuals with different levels of educational attainment over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s. Three levels of education are considered, corresponding to the decisions made by students following high school graduation: a high school diploma, a college certificate, and a bachelor's degree. Longitudinal data are used to track total earnings (wages and salaries plus net self-employment income), coverage in an employer-sponsored pension plan, employment, union membership, and permanent and temporary layoffs over the period 1991 to 2010.

    Release date: 2014-02-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012342
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Immigrants in major industrialized countries are disproportionately represented in self-employment as compared to the domestic-born. Using a generational cohort method and data from the 20% sample file of the 1981 Canadian Census and the 20% sample file of the 2006 Canadian Census, this study examines whether the effects of three important determinants of self-employment--expected earnings differentials between paid employment and self-employment, difficulties in the labour market, and ethnic enclaves--differ between immigrants and the Canadian-born, between children of immigrants and children of the Canadian-born, and between children of immigrants and their parents.

    Release date: 2012-04-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100411535
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    About 1 in 6 Canadian workers is self-employed. Does taking on the responsibility of a business result in greater earning potential? More wealth? Affect spending patterns? This paper uses a variety of data sources to examine how the self-employed differ from paid employees in income level and dispersion, wealth, retirement preparation and spending.

    Release date: 2011-09-23

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 17-507-X
    Description:

    "Neighbourhood insights" is your guide to the statistical information packages available from the Small Area and Administrative Data Division. The guide provides descriptions of the various databanks, the geographic availability and the pricing structure. The guide also contains sample statistical tables showing data for Canada.

    Release date: 2006-05-04

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2004012
    Description:

    This study compares income estimates across several statistical programs at Statistics Canada. It examines how similar the estimates produced by different question sets are.

    Income data are collected by many household surveys. Some surveys have income as a major part of their content, and therefore collect income at a detailed level; others collect data from a much smaller set of income questions. No standard sets of income questions have been developed.

    Release date: 2004-12-23
Data (2)

Data (2) ((2 results))

  • Public use microdata: 95M0013X
    Description:

    This file provides data on the characteristics of the population such as ethnic origin, labour force activity and income levels. It contains 122 variables.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-04-15

  • Public use microdata: 95M0007X
    Description:

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to unaggregated data. This makes the public use microdata files (PUMFs) powerful research tools. Each file contains anonymous individual responses on a large number of variables. The PUMF user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. Tabulations not included in other census products can be created or relationships between variables can be analysed by using different statistical tests. PUMFs provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people. All subject-matter covered by the census is included in the microdata files. However, to ensure the anonymity of the respondents, geographic identifiers have been restricted to the provinces/territories and large metropolitan areas. Microdata files have traditionally been disseminated on magnetic tape, which required access to a mainframe computer. For the first time, the 1991 PUMFs will also be available on CD-ROM for microcomputer applications. This file contains data based on a 3% of the population enumerated in the 1991 Census. It provides information on the demographic, social and economic characteristics of the Canadian population. The Individual File allows users to return to the base unit of the census, enabling them to group and manipulate the data to suit their own data and research requirements.

    This product provides two basic tools to assist users in accessing and using the 1991 Census Public Use Microdata File - Individuals CD-ROM.

    Release date: 1995-04-11
Analysis (10)

Analysis (10) ((10 results))

  • Stats in brief: 45-28-0001202000100010
    Description:

    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to massive work interruptions in Canada and several other countries since mid-March 2020. The resulting economic lockdown has raised concerns about the ability of Canadian families to meet their financial obligations and essential needs. This article focuses on families who rely primarily on earnings—wages and salaries and self-employment income—to maintain their living standards.

    Release date: 2020-05-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014359
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the long-term labour market premiums associated with completing a college certificate and a bachelor's degree, compared to completing a high school diploma. Several labour market outcomes of individuals are examined with longitudinal data over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s.

    With the creation of a new linked file consisting of the 1991 Census of Population and the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF), it is now possible to follow individuals in the labour market for a longer period of time than is feasible with existing survey data. The purpose of this study is to compare labour market outcomes of individuals with different levels of educational attainment over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s. Three levels of education are considered, corresponding to the decisions made by students following high school graduation: a high school diploma, a college certificate, and a bachelor's degree. Longitudinal data are used to track total earnings (wages and salaries plus net self-employment income), coverage in an employer-sponsored pension plan, employment, union membership, and permanent and temporary layoffs over the period 1991 to 2010.

    Release date: 2014-02-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012342
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Immigrants in major industrialized countries are disproportionately represented in self-employment as compared to the domestic-born. Using a generational cohort method and data from the 20% sample file of the 1981 Canadian Census and the 20% sample file of the 2006 Canadian Census, this study examines whether the effects of three important determinants of self-employment--expected earnings differentials between paid employment and self-employment, difficulties in the labour market, and ethnic enclaves--differ between immigrants and the Canadian-born, between children of immigrants and children of the Canadian-born, and between children of immigrants and their parents.

    Release date: 2012-04-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100411535
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    About 1 in 6 Canadian workers is self-employed. Does taking on the responsibility of a business result in greater earning potential? More wealth? Affect spending patterns? This paper uses a variety of data sources to examine how the self-employed differ from paid employees in income level and dispersion, wealth, retirement preparation and spending.

    Release date: 2011-09-23

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2004012
    Description:

    This study compares income estimates across several statistical programs at Statistics Canada. It examines how similar the estimates produced by different question sets are.

    Income data are collected by many household surveys. Some surveys have income as a major part of their content, and therefore collect income at a detailed level; others collect data from a much smaller set of income questions. No standard sets of income questions have been developed.

    Release date: 2004-12-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002189
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring size of entry. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the information we have on the amount of entry in Canada.

    The paper also fulfils another purpose. Some studies have focused on cross-country comparisons (Geroski and Schwalbach 1991; OECD 2001). Interpretation of the results of these studies is difficult unless methodological issues regarding how entry is measured are addressed. Without an understanding of the extent to which different databases produce different results, international comparisons are difficult to evaluate. Cross-country comparisons that are derived from extremely different data sources may be misleading because of the lack of comparability.

    Since there is more than one reliable database that can be used to estimate entry in Canada, this paper asks how measured entry rates vary across different Canadian databases. By examining the difference in entry rates produced by these databases, we provide an estimate of the range or confidence interval that should be used in evaluating whether there are real differences in measured entry rates across countries. We also offer guidance as to the questions that should be asked about the databases used by researchers who conduct international studies. Finally, we make suggestions as to areas of comparison on which international studies should focus.

    Release date: 2002-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044756
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Earnings of physicians continue to exceed the overall average. This article presents a demographic and earnings profile of the medical profession and highlights changes between 1980 and 1995.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990014407
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The distribution of income changes over time, as does the proportion of total income received by different family types. This aritcle examines the relative shares of total family income for different family groups between 1970 and 1995, along with changes in the composition of these groups. It complements the family income study published in the Winter 1998 issue of perspectives.

    Release date: 1999-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014021
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The focus of this chapter is on the extent and nature of intergenerational income mobility, that is the degree to which an individual's income (as an adult) is related to the income earned by his or her parents (during the individual's childhood). As such our analysis is related to the economic literature surveyed for example in Becker and Tomes (1986), and more recently by Björklund and Jäntti (1997). However, we follow Hill and Duncan (1987) in suggesting that distinguishing between the various components of a family's income provides a way of incorporating both economic and sociological explanations into an empirical model of income mobility.

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997109
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In addition to confirming a wage gap between Canadian workers as a whole and those of Aboriginal origin, our research also generated new findings: there is greater disparity in the distribution of wages among Aboriginals than among Canadian workers as a whole, even after allowing for demographic differences.

    Our analysis does not stop there. Indeed, this analysis can hide considerable wage dispersions between Aboriginal groups since appreciable wage gaps were noted between these groups. Having said this, wage dispersion is most likely greater for certain Aboriginal groups than others. Since this aspect has never been studied before, the purpose of this paper is to document differences in wage dispersion for the four main Aboriginal groups. Our results show that North American Indians living on reserves are the most disadvantaged Aboriginal group because their earnings are substantially lower than those of the other groups.

    Release date: 1998-01-14
Reference (3)

Reference (3) ((3 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 17-507-X
    Description:

    "Neighbourhood insights" is your guide to the statistical information packages available from the Small Area and Administrative Data Division. The guide provides descriptions of the various databanks, the geographic availability and the pricing structure. The guide also contains sample statistical tables showing data for Canada.

    Release date: 2006-05-04

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2000010
    Description:

    This report explains the concept of income and provides definitions of the various sources of income and derived income variables. It also documents the various aspects of the census that can have an impact on census income estimates.

    Release date: 2000-07-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M1993015
    Description:

    This paper outlines the results of an initial evaluation of the income items in the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) test 3B.

    Release date: 1995-12-30
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