Table 7 
Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted 

Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted
  October
2023
November
2023
Standard error1 October to November 2023 November 2022 to November 2023 October to November 2023 November 2022 to November 2023
  thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates) change in thousands (except rates)change in thousands (except rates) % change% change
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador              
Population 191.6 192.0 ... 0.4 6.1 0.2 3.3
Labour force 125.0 123.2 0.8 -1.8 -1.5 -1.4 -1.2
Employment 116.7 114.9 0.8 -1.8 -1.6 -1.5 -1.4
Unemployment 8.3 8.3 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 1.2
Participation rate 65.2 64.2 0.4 -1.0 -2.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.6 6.7 0.3 0.1 0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 60.9 59.8 0.5 -1.1 -2.9 ... ...
Halifax, Nova Scotia              
Population 414.1 415.6 ... 1.5 17.2 0.4 4.3
Labour force 281.0 282.2 1.5 1.2 11.3 0.4 4.2
Employment 263.6 265.7 1.6 2.1 9.0 0.8 3.5
Unemployment 17.5 16.5 0.8 -1.0 2.3 -5.7 16.2
Participation rate 67.9 67.9 0.4 0.0 -0.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.2 5.8 0.3 -0.4 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 63.7 63.9 0.4 0.2 -0.5 ... ...
Moncton, New Brunswick              
Population 146.0 146.5 ... 0.5 6.4 0.3 4.6
Labour force 95.2 95.2 0.9 0.0 2.1 0.0 2.3
Employment 89.2 89.4 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.9
Unemployment 6.0 5.7 0.4 -0.3 1.2 -5.0 26.7
Participation rate 65.2 65.0 0.6 -0.2 -1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.3 6.0 0.4 -0.3 1.2 ... ...
Employment rate 61.1 61.0 0.6 -0.1 -2.2 ... ...
Saint John, New Brunswick               
Population 116.7 116.9 ... 0.2 3.1 0.2 2.7
Labour force 73.6 73.1 0.9 -0.5 1.5 -0.7 2.1
Employment 69.3 69.1 0.9 -0.2 1.9 -0.3 2.8
Unemployment 4.3 3.9 0.4 -0.4 -0.5 -9.3 -11.4
Participation rate 63.1 62.5 0.8 -0.6 -0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 5.3 0.5 -0.5 -0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 59.4 59.1 0.8 -0.3 0.0 ... ...
Saguenay, Quebec              
Population 136.4 136.5 ... 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.7
Labour force 76.5 76.8 1.0 0.3 -2.1 0.4 -2.7
Employment 73.9 74.5 1.0 0.6 0.0 0.8 0.0
Unemployment 2.5 2.3 0.4 -0.2 -2.0 -8.0 -46.5
Participation rate 56.1 56.3 0.8 0.2 -1.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.3 3.0 0.4 -0.3 -2.4 ... ...
Employment rate 54.2 54.6 0.8 0.4 -0.3 ... ...
Québec, Quebec              
Population 703.0 704.0 ... 1.0 8.9 0.1 1.3
Labour force 471.5 477.9 3.3 6.4 18.0 1.4 3.9
Employment 458.1 465.0 3.3 6.9 19.7 1.5 4.4
Unemployment 13.4 12.9 1.0 -0.5 -1.8 -3.7 -12.2
Participation rate 67.1 67.9 0.5 0.8 1.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 2.8 2.7 0.2 -0.1 -0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 65.2 66.1 0.5 0.9 2.0 ... ...
Sherbrooke, Quebec              
Population 195.3 195.7 ... 0.4 4.0 0.2 2.1
Labour force 117.9 119.7 1.3 1.8 2.2 1.5 1.9
Employment 112.9 113.9 1.3 1.0 -0.1 0.9 -0.1
Unemployment 4.9 5.9 0.4 1.0 2.5 20.4 73.5
Participation rate 60.4 61.2 0.7 0.8 -0.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.2 4.9 0.4 0.7 2.0 ... ...
Employment rate 57.8 58.2 0.7 0.4 -1.3 ... ...
Trois-Rivières, Quebec               
Population 139.6 139.7 ... 0.1 1.6 0.1 1.2
Labour force 86.0 87.9 0.9 1.9 6.8 2.2 8.4
Employment 82.2 84.0 1.0 1.8 5.7 2.2 7.3
Unemployment 3.8 3.9 0.3 0.1 1.1 2.6 39.3
Participation rate 61.6 62.9 0.7 1.3 4.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.4 4.4 0.4 0.0 0.9 ... ...
Employment rate 58.9 60.1 0.7 1.2 3.4 ... ...
Montréal, Quebec              
Population 3,765.0 3,775.1 ... 10.1 84.9 0.3 2.3
Labour force 2,567.6 2,571.5 8.5 3.9 84.9 0.2 3.4
Employment 2,428.5 2,424.9 8.8 -3.6 49.9 -0.1 2.1
Unemployment 139.1 146.6 4.4 7.5 35.0 5.4 31.4
Participation rate 68.2 68.1 0.2 -0.1 0.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.4 5.7 0.2 0.3 1.2 ... ...
Employment rate 64.5 64.2 0.2 -0.3 -0.2 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario/Quebec               
Population 1,278.8 1,282.2 ... 3.4 37.9 0.3 3.0
Labour force 890.5 890.2 4.5 -0.3 44.2 -0.0 5.2
Employment 847.0 848.9 4.5 1.9 37.5 0.2 4.6
Unemployment 43.5 41.2 1.6 -2.3 6.5 -5.3 18.7
Participation rate 69.6 69.4 0.4 -0.2 1.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.9 4.6 0.2 -0.3 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 66.2 66.2 0.4 0.0 1.0 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Quebec part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 295.7 296.1 ... 0.4 4.6 0.1 1.6
Labour force 198.0 200.4 1.4 2.4 0.9 1.2 0.5
Employment 190.0 191.8 1.5 1.8 0.4 0.9 0.2
Unemployment 8.0 8.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 6.3 4.9
Participation rate 67.0 67.7 0.5 0.7 -0.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.0 4.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 64.3 64.8 0.5 0.5 -0.9 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 983.1 986.1 ... 3.0 33.4 0.3 3.5
Labour force 692.6 689.8 4.2 -2.8 43.3 -0.4 6.7
Employment 657.0 657.1 4.3 0.1 37.2 0.0 6.0
Unemployment 35.5 32.7 1.5 -2.8 6.1 -7.9 22.9
Participation rate 70.5 70.0 0.4 -0.5 2.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.1 4.7 0.2 -0.4 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 66.8 66.6 0.4 -0.2 1.5 ... ...
Kingston, Ontario              
Population 155.1 155.6 ... 0.5 6.4 0.3 4.3
Labour force 95.9 95.8 0.8 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1 -0.2
Employment 91.3 90.3 0.8 -1.0 -0.5 -1.1 -0.6
Unemployment 4.6 5.6 0.3 1.0 0.5 21.7 9.8
Participation rate 61.8 61.6 0.5 -0.2 -2.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.8 5.8 0.3 1.0 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 58.9 58.0 0.6 -0.9 -2.9 ... ...
Belleville, Ontario              
Population 101.2 94.9 ... -6.3 -1.4 -6.2 -1.5
Labour force 61.3 55.4 3.0 -5.9 -2.4 -9.6 -4.2
Employment 57.2 52.7 2.7 -4.5 -2.7 -7.9 -4.9
Unemployment 4.0 2.7 0.8 -1.3 0.3 -32.5 12.5
Participation rate 60.6 58.4 2.1 -2.2 -1.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.5 4.9 1.4 -1.6 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 56.5 55.5 2.0 -1.0 -2.0 ... ...
Peterborough, Ontario              
Population 117.6 117.9 ... 0.3 3.0 0.3 2.6
Labour force 72.1 73.1 1.6 1.0 3.4 1.4 4.9
Employment 70.7 71.5 1.6 0.8 3.9 1.1 5.8
Unemployment 1.4 1.7 0.6 0.3 -0.4 21.4 -19.0
Participation rate 61.3 62.0 1.4 0.7 1.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 1.9 2.3 0.8 0.4 -0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 60.1 60.6 1.4 0.5 1.8 ... ...
Oshawa, Ontario              
Population 360.2 360.9 ... 0.7 7.9 0.2 2.2
Labour force 239.5 242.3 2.0 2.8 4.2 1.2 1.8
Employment 222.9 224.7 2.1 1.8 -1.3 0.8 -0.6
Unemployment 16.6 17.6 1.0 1.0 5.5 6.0 45.5
Participation rate 66.5 67.1 0.6 0.6 -0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.9 7.3 0.4 0.4 2.2 ... ...
Employment rate 61.9 62.3 0.6 0.4 -1.7 ... ...
Toronto, Ontario              
Population 5,878.8 5,900.0 ... 21.2 210.7 0.4 3.7
Labour force 3,947.1 3,954.2 11.1 7.1 157.8 0.2 4.2
Employment 3,684.5 3,691.8 11.0 7.3 135.0 0.2 3.8
Unemployment 262.6 262.4 5.9 -0.2 22.8 -0.1 9.5
Participation rate 67.1 67.0 0.2 -0.1 0.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.7 6.6 0.2 -0.1 0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 62.7 62.6 0.2 -0.1 0.1 ... ...
Hamilton, Ontario              
Population 686.9 688.2 ... 1.3 13.2 0.2 2.0
Labour force 440.0 443.8 2.9 3.8 -1.8 0.9 -0.4
Employment 417.3 420.4 3.0 3.1 -4.7 0.7 -1.1
Unemployment 22.7 23.4 1.3 0.7 2.9 3.1 14.1
Participation rate 64.1 64.5 0.4 0.4 -1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.3 0.3 0.1 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 60.8 61.1 0.4 0.3 -1.9 ... ...
St. Catharines–Niagara, Ontario               
Population 385.4 386.3 ... 0.9 9.0 0.2 2.4
Labour force 245.1 245.5 2.8 0.4 19.5 0.2 8.6
Employment 228.1 227.7 2.8 -0.4 13.0 -0.2 6.1
Unemployment 17.0 17.8 1.0 0.8 6.5 4.7 57.5
Participation rate 63.6 63.6 0.7 0.0 3.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.9 7.3 0.4 0.4 2.3 ... ...
Employment rate 59.2 58.9 0.7 -0.3 2.0 ... ...
Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo, Ontario              
Population 530.6 532.6 ... 2.0 20.3 0.4 4.0
Labour force 364.8 364.6 2.0 -0.2 7.5 -0.1 2.1
Employment 343.8 342.2 2.1 -1.6 7.1 -0.5 2.1
Unemployment 20.9 22.4 1.1 1.5 0.4 7.2 1.8
Participation rate 68.8 68.5 0.4 -0.3 -1.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.7 6.1 0.3 0.4 -0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 64.8 64.3 0.4 -0.5 -1.1 ... ...
Brantford, Ontario              
Population 122.6 122.8 ... 0.2 1.8 0.2 1.5
Labour force 80.5 81.0 0.9 0.5 -4.2 0.6 -4.9
Employment 77.2 77.7 1.0 0.5 -2.6 0.6 -3.2
Unemployment 3.3 3.4 0.4 0.1 -1.6 3.0 -32.0
Participation rate 65.7 66.0 0.7 0.3 -4.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.1 4.2 0.5 0.1 -1.7 ... ...
Employment rate 63.0 63.3 0.8 0.3 -3.1 ... ...
Guelph, Ontario              
Population 147.2 147.5 ... 0.3 3.7 0.2 2.6
Labour force 104.7 107.7 1.2 3.0 6.9 2.9 6.8
Employment 98.4 101.4 1.3 3.0 5.3 3.0 5.5
Unemployment 6.3 6.3 0.6 0.0 1.6 0.0 34.0
Participation rate 71.1 73.0 0.9 1.9 2.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 5.8 0.6 -0.2 1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 66.8 68.7 0.9 1.9 1.9 ... ...
London, Ontario              
Population 493.7 495.4 ... 1.7 16.7 0.3 3.5
Labour force 334.0 332.9 2.3 -1.1 19.9 -0.3 6.4
Employment 314.4 313.5 2.3 -0.9 18.0 -0.3 6.1
Unemployment 19.5 19.4 0.9 -0.1 1.9 -0.5 10.9
Participation rate 67.7 67.2 0.5 -0.5 1.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 5.8 0.3 0.0 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 63.7 63.3 0.5 -0.4 1.6 ... ...
Windsor, Ontario              
Population 318.6 319.6 ... 1.0 9.7 0.3 3.1
Labour force 199.4 199.3 2.1 -0.1 6.5 -0.1 3.4
Employment 185.2 184.2 2.1 -1.0 7.9 -0.5 4.5
Unemployment 14.2 15.2 1.0 1.0 -1.3 7.0 -7.9
Participation rate 62.6 62.4 0.7 -0.2 0.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 7.1 7.6 0.5 0.5 -1.0 ... ...
Employment rate 58.1 57.6 0.7 -0.5 0.7 ... ...
Barrie, Ontario              
Population 188.9 189.3 ... 0.4 4.6 0.2 2.5
Labour force 130.4 129.7 1.7 -0.7 -2.0 -0.5 -1.5
Employment 124.4 123.6 1.8 -0.8 -1.9 -0.6 -1.5
Unemployment 6.1 6.1 0.8 0.0 -0.1 0.0 -1.6
Participation rate 69.0 68.5 0.9 -0.5 -2.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.7 4.7 0.5 0.0 0.0 ... ...
Employment rate 65.9 65.3 1.0 -0.6 -2.6 ... ...
Greater Sudbury, Ontario              
Population 148.0 148.2 ... 0.2 2.0 0.1 1.4
Labour force 91.2 92.9 1.0 1.7 4.7 1.9 5.3
Employment 86.5 87.2 1.0 0.7 2.6 0.8 3.1
Unemployment 4.8 5.7 0.4 0.9 2.1 18.8 58.3
Participation rate 61.6 62.7 0.7 1.1 2.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.3 6.1 0.4 0.8 2.0 ... ...
Employment rate 58.4 58.8 0.7 0.4 0.9 ... ...
Thunder Bay, Ontario              
Population 108.0 108.2 ... 0.2 1.6 0.2 1.5
Labour force 67.1 66.8 0.6 -0.3 3.7 -0.4 5.9
Employment 64.1 63.7 0.6 -0.4 3.7 -0.6 6.2
Unemployment 3.0 3.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 6.7 3.2
Participation rate 62.1 61.7 0.6 -0.4 2.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.5 4.8 0.3 0.3 -0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 59.4 58.9 0.6 -0.5 2.6 ... ...
Winnipeg, Manitoba              
Population 739.7 742.0 ... 2.3 24.7 0.3 3.4
Labour force 502.2 502.3 1.7 0.1 12.5 0.0 2.6
Employment 476.0 478.6 1.7 2.6 11.1 0.5 2.4
Unemployment 26.2 23.7 0.9 -2.5 1.4 -9.5 6.3
Participation rate 67.9 67.7 0.2 -0.2 -0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 4.7 0.2 -0.5 0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 64.4 64.5 0.2 0.1 -0.7 ... ...
Regina, Saskatchewan              
Population 230.5 231.3 ... 0.8 9.4 0.3 4.2
Labour force 157.8 160.2 1.1 2.4 12.1 1.5 8.2
Employment 149.4 152.0 1.2 2.6 10.6 1.7 7.5
Unemployment 8.5 8.3 0.5 -0.2 1.6 -2.4 23.9
Participation rate 68.5 69.3 0.5 0.8 2.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.4 5.2 0.3 -0.2 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 64.8 65.7 0.5 0.9 2.0 ... ...
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan              
Population 294.5 295.5 ... 1.0 12.4 0.3 4.4
Labour force 212.0 212.6 1.1 0.6 15.5 0.3 7.9
Employment 200.5 201.2 1.2 0.7 12.3 0.3 6.5
Unemployment 11.6 11.4 0.6 -0.2 3.2 -1.7 39.0
Participation rate 72.0 71.9 0.4 -0.1 2.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.5 5.4 0.3 -0.1 1.2 ... ...
Employment rate 68.1 68.1 0.4 0.0 1.4 ... ...
Lethbridge, Alberta              
Population 113.2 113.6 ... 0.4 5.0 0.4 4.6
Labour force 74.2 77.0 1.2 2.8 3.3 3.8 4.5
Employment 70.5 73.7 1.2 3.2 3.1 4.5 4.4
Unemployment 3.7 3.3 0.4 -0.4 0.2 -10.8 6.5
Participation rate 65.5 67.8 1.1 2.3 -0.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.0 4.3 0.6 -0.7 0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 62.3 64.9 1.1 2.6 -0.1 ... ...
Calgary, Alberta              
Population 1,369.5 1,375.0 ... 5.5 64.5 0.4 4.9
Labour force 971.2 964.2 5.5 -7.0 18.5 -0.7 2.0
Employment 915.0 905.7 5.8 -9.3 17.8 -1.0 2.0
Unemployment 56.2 58.6 2.7 2.4 0.8 4.3 1.4
Participation rate 70.9 70.1 0.4 -0.8 -2.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 6.1 0.3 0.3 0.0 ... ...
Employment rate 66.8 65.9 0.4 -0.9 -1.9 ... ...
Edmonton, Alberta              
Population 1,304.0 1,309.5 ... 5.5 63.9 0.4 5.1
Labour force 909.1 912.2 4.8 3.1 55.8 0.3 6.5
Employment 854.1 855.3 4.8 1.2 46.2 0.1 5.7
Unemployment 55.0 56.9 2.3 1.9 9.6 3.5 20.3
Participation rate 69.7 69.7 0.4 0.0 0.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 6.2 0.3 0.2 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 65.5 65.3 0.4 -0.2 0.3 ... ...
Kelowna, British Columbia               
Population 194.4 194.8 ... 0.4 5.2 0.2 2.7
Labour force 116.8 113.2 2.0 -3.6 0.9 -3.1 0.8
Employment 113.3 108.8 2.0 -4.5 1.5 -4.0 1.4
Unemployment 3.4 4.4 0.7 1.0 -0.6 29.4 -12.0
Participation rate 60.1 58.1 1.1 -2.0 -1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 2.9 3.9 0.5 1.0 -0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 58.3 55.9 1.0 -2.4 -0.7 ... ...
Abbotsford–Mission, British Columbia              
Population 178.9 179.3 ... 0.4 4.5 0.2 2.6
Labour force 113.9 114.2 1.2 0.3 -4.6 0.3 -3.9
Employment 107.0 109.0 1.2 2.0 -4.1 1.9 -3.6
Unemployment 6.9 5.2 0.5 -1.7 -0.5 -24.6 -8.8
Participation rate 63.7 63.7 0.7 0.0 -4.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.1 4.6 0.4 -1.5 -0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 59.8 60.8 0.7 1.0 -3.9 ... ...
Vancouver, British Columbia               
Population 2,465.8 2,472.6 ... 6.8 73.2 0.3 3.1
Labour force 1,701.4 1,710.6 5.6 9.2 82.9 0.5 5.1
Employment 1,602.4 1,611.0 5.6 8.6 56.7 0.5 3.6
Unemployment 99.1 99.7 2.8 0.6 26.3 0.6 35.8
Participation rate 69.0 69.2 0.2 0.2 1.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 5.8 0.2 0.0 1.3 ... ...
Employment rate 65.0 65.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 ... ...
Victoria, British Columbia               
Population 365.9 366.7 ... 0.8 10.0 0.2 2.8
Labour force 244.3 242.9 1.9 -1.4 17.1 -0.6 7.6
Employment 235.0 233.1 2.0 -1.9 15.4 -0.8 7.1
Unemployment 9.3 9.9 0.7 0.6 1.8 6.5 22.2
Participation rate 66.8 66.2 0.5 -0.6 2.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.8 4.1 0.3 0.3 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 64.2 63.6 0.6 -0.6 2.6 ... ...
...
not applicable
Note(s):
The sum of individual categories may not always add up to the total as a result of rounding.
Source(s):
Date modified: