Payroll employment, earnings and hours, and job vacancies, October 2022
The number of employees receiving pay or benefits from their employer—referred to as "payroll employees" in the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours—was little changed in October (-5,400), following an increase of 96,400 (+0.5%) in September.
Losses in goods-producing sector partially offset growth in services-producing sector
Payroll employment in the services-producing sector (+9,800; +0.1%) increased for the fifth consecutive month in October. Gains in public administration (+6,700; +0.5%) and professional, scientific and technical services (+6,500; +0.5%) were partially offset by losses in arts, entertainment and recreation (-3,500; -1.2%) and administrative and support, waste management and remediation services (-2,600; -0.3%).
Meanwhile, payroll employment in the goods-producing sector declined by 4,000 (-0.1%) in October, following a gain of 21,000 (+0.7%) in September. Manufacturing (-2,000; -0.1%) and construction (-1,100; -0.1%) recorded declines, while the remaining three goods-producing sectors showed little change.
Payroll employment increases in professional, scientific and technical services in October
Payroll employment in professional, scientific and technical services increased by 6,500 (+0.5%) in October, a slower pace of growth than in September (+7,700; +0.6%). Monthly increases were recorded in five provinces, with most of the increases concentrated in Ontario (+3,400; +0.7%), British Columbia (+1,600; +0.8%) and Quebec (+1,000; +0.4%). Meanwhile, little change was seen in Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
Nationally, six out of nine industries within the sector recorded payroll employment increases in October, led by computer systems design and related services (+4,400; +1.2%), and architectural, engineering and related services (+1,600; +0.7%). Since September 2021, payroll employment in the computer systems design and related services industry has outpaced the sector's growth rate.
Payroll employment in public administration increases for the fourth consecutive month
Payroll employment in public administration (+6,700; +0.5%) increased for the fourth consecutive month in October 2022, bringing the total increase to 31,200 (+2.6%) since July of the same year. Monthly payroll employment increases were recorded in five provinces, led by British Columbia (+1,400; +1.0%) and Alberta (+800; +0.8%).
Nationally, gains were observed in provincial and territorial public administration (+3,100; +1.0%) and federal government public administration (+1,800; +0.5%) in October, while little change was observed in local, municipal and regional public administration, and Indigenous public administration.
Payroll employment in public administration increased by 47,800 (+4.0%) year over year in October. Year-over-year gains were recorded in nine provinces, led by Ontario (+13,700; +3.1%) and Quebec (+11,200; +4.1%), while Saskatchewan showed little change. At the national level, federal government public administration (+20,700; +5.9%) recorded the largest year-over-year payroll employment increase within the sector in October.
Payroll employment declines in arts, entertainment and recreation
Payroll employment in arts, entertainment and recreation dropped by 3,500 (-1.2%) in October. The decrease was concentrated in Quebec (-3,300; -5.1%) and Ontario (-2,200; -2.0%), but was slightly mitigated by a gain in British Columbia (+1,100; +2.3%).
Year-over-year growth in the sector was 11.7% (+31,000) in October. Despite the gain, payroll employment was 6.5% below its pre-pandemic level, a wider gap than in September (-5.3%). Performing arts companies (-24.8%) and gambling industries (-15.6%) were furthest below their February 2020 levels. Arts, entertainment and recreation is one of seven sectors that have yet to recover to pre-pandemic levels of payroll employment.
Year-over-year growth in average weekly earnings increases in October
Average weekly earnings grew 3.4% to $1,172 in October on a year-over-year basis, a faster pace of growth than in September (+3.1%). While all provinces recorded year-over-year increases in average weekly earnings, New Brunswick (+6.1% to $1,068) and Newfoundland and Labrador (+5.8% to $1,165) led the gains in October. Meanwhile, slower growth was seen in Saskatchewan (+2.2% to $1,144), Ontario (+2.6% to $1,201) and British Columbia (+2.8% to $1,169). Growth in average weekly earnings can reflect a few factors, including changes in wages, in the composition of employment and in hours worked.
In October, average weekly earnings in the goods-producing sector grew 5.2% year over year, edging up slightly from September (+5.1%). Gains in manufacturing (+5.9% to $1,251) and construction (+3.8% to $1,454) were partially offset by slower growth in utilities (+2.9% to $2,033).
Overall year-over-year gains in average weekly earnings in October were moderated by slower growth in the services-producing sector (+3.0%). Strong year-over-year gains in wholesale trade (+6.6% to $1,419) and real estate and rental and leasing (+6.3% to $1,264) were partially pulled down by a decline in information and cultural industries (-5.2% to $1,567) and slower growth in public administration (+2.1% to $1,515) and health care and social assistance (+2.4% to $1,031).
Average weekly hours decline in October
Average weekly hours worked were down 0.3% (to 33.2 hours) in October compared with the previous month and down 0.9% compared with October 2021. Accommodation and food services posted the largest monthly (-1.3%) and year-over-year (-4.5%) decreases in October 2022.
Job vacancies hit 15-month low
Across all sectors, job vacancies fell by 44,300 (-4.8%) to 871,300 in October, the second statistically significant monthly decline since the record high (1,001,800) in May 2022 and the lowest level seen since August 2021 (data at the national level and by sector from the monthly Job Vacancy and Wage Survey are seasonally adjusted).
The month-over-month decrease from September to October 2022 was led by construction (-17,200; -20.4%) and administrative and support, waste management and remediation services (-11,000; -19.9%). No sector recorded a statistically significant increase in its number of unfilled positions, although job vacancies remained near record levels in health care and social assistance.
The job vacancy rate—which corresponds to the number of vacant positions as a proportion of total labour demand (the sum of filled and vacant positions)—was 4.9% in October, the lowest since June 2021.
There were 1.2 unemployed persons for every job vacancy in October 2022, up from the low of 1.0 in June, but down from 2.0 in February 2020, prior to the pandemic.
Job vacancies down in construction and three other sectors
The number of job vacancies in construction declined by 17,200 (-20.4% to 67,400) in October. The job vacancy rate in the sector was 5.6% in October, down from the peak of 7.1% in April, but remained higher than the pre-pandemic job vacancy rate of 3.9% in February 2020.
Job vacancies also declined in administrative and support, waste management and remediation services (-11,000; -19.9%); "other services" (-5,600; -14.6%); and agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (-3,500; -27.7%) in October.
Job vacancies remain elevated in health care and social assistance
There were 151,200 vacant positions in health care and social assistance in October, the highest level across all sectors and little changed from the record high of 152,800 in July. On a year-over-year basis, the job vacancy rate in the sector was up (+0.9 percentage points to 6.3%) in October, as growth in job vacancies over the period (+27,600; +22.3%) outpaced gains in payroll employment (+69,300; +3.2%). In comparison, the job vacancy rate was 3.5% in February 2020, prior to the pandemic.
Job vacancies hold steady in accommodation and food services, retail trade, manufacturing and professional, scientific and technical services
There were 120,600 job vacancies in accommodation and food services in October, little changed from September. On a year-over-year basis, payroll employment in the sector grew 12.2% (+136,300) in October, while job vacancies decreased 21.8% (-33,600). These movements pushed down the job vacancy rate in the sector from 12.1% in October 2021 to 8.8% in October 2022.
On a month-over-month basis, job vacancies were little changed in October in all the other sectors, including retail trade (94,600 job vacancies), manufacturing (72,500) and professional, scientific and technical services (63,300).
Job vacancies decrease in four provinces
Job vacancies decreased in Ontario (-36,700; -9.8%), Quebec (-25,900; -10.6%), British Columbia (-23,500; -14.8%) and Saskatchewan (-3,200; -12.0%) in October. Newfoundland and Labrador was the only province to record an increase in job vacancies (+1,900; +29.4%). Despite these changes, Newfoundland and Labrador remained the province with the lowest job vacancy rate (3.9%), while British Columbia (5.3%) and Quebec (5.3%) continued to have the highest rates (data by province is not seasonally adjusted).
Sustainable Development Goals
On January 1, 2016, the world officially began implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development — the United Nations' transformative plan of action that addresses urgent global challenges over the next 15 years. The plan is based on 17 specific sustainable development goals.
The Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours is an example of how Statistics Canada supports the reporting on the Global Goals for Sustainable Development. This release will be used in helping to measure the following goals:
Note to readers
Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours
The key objective of the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH) is to provide a monthly portrait of the level of earnings, employment and hours worked, by detailed industry, at the national, provincial and territorial levels.
Payroll employment, as measured by the SEPH, refers to the number of employees receiving pay or benefits (employment income) during a given month. The survey excludes the self-employed, owners and partners of unincorporated businesses and professional practices, and employees in the agricultural sector.
SEPH estimates are produced by integrating information from three sources: a census of approximately 1 million payroll deduction records provided by the Canada Revenue Agency; the Business Payrolls Survey, which collects data from a sample of 15,000 establishments; and administrative records of federal, provincial and territorial public administration employment, provided by these levels of government.
Estimates of average weekly earnings and hours worked are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling variability. This analysis focuses on differences between estimates that are statistically significant at the 68% confidence level. Payroll employment estimates are based on a census of administrative records and are not subject to sampling variability.
With each release of SEPH data, data for the preceding month are revised. Users are encouraged to use the most up-to-date data available for each month.
Statistics Canada also produces employment estimates from its Labour Force Survey (LFS). The LFS is a monthly household survey, the main objective of which is to divide the working-age population into three mutually exclusive groups: the employed (including the self-employed), the unemployed and those not in the labour force. This survey is the official source for the unemployment rate, and it collects data on the sociodemographic characteristics of all those in the labour market.
As a result of conceptual and methodological differences, estimates of changes from the SEPH and the LFS differ occasionally. However, the trends in the data are similar. To better understand the conceptual differences between employment measures from the LFS and the SEPH, refer to Section 8 of the Guide to the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (). 72-203-G
Unless otherwise stated, this release presents seasonally adjusted data, which facilitate month-to-month comparisons because the effects of seasonal variations are removed. For more information on seasonal adjustment, see Seasonally adjusted data – Frequently asked questions.
Non-farm payroll employment data are for all hourly and salaried employees and for the "other employees" category, which includes piece-rate and commission-only employees.
Unless otherwise specified, average weekly hours data are for hourly and salaried employees only and exclude businesses that could not be classified to a North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code.
All earnings data include overtime and exclude businesses that could not be classified to a NAICS code. Earnings data are based on gross taxable payroll before source deductions. Average weekly earnings are derived by dividing total weekly earnings by the number of payroll employees.
Job Vacancy and Wage Survey
Beginning with the release of October 2020 data, preliminary monthly estimates from the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey (JVWS) are published on a monthly basis. These estimates are now available for the reference months starting from April 2015. They provide more timely information on the number of job vacancies and the job vacancy rate by province and by industrial sector.
JVWS collection is done on a quarterly basis. The quarterly sample of business locations is allocated to the three collection months of the quarter, approximately balanced by province and by industrial sector across each of the three months. This allows both quarterly and monthly estimates to be produced.
The JVWS also provides comprehensive quarterly data on job vacancies by industrial sector and detailed occupation for Canada and the provinces, territories and economic regions; offered hourly wages; and job vacancy characteristics. Quarterly data for the second and third quarters of 2020 are unavailable because survey operations were temporarily suspended during the COVID-19 pandemic. More information about the concepts and use of data from the JVWS is available in the Guide to the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey (). 75-514-G
Preliminary monthly estimates are produced for job vacancies, job vacancy rates and payroll employment using available responses from business locations sampled in the corresponding reference month. The reference period for the JVWS is the first day of the respective month.
These preliminary monthly estimates are revised and finalized when the corresponding quarterly estimates are released or shortly thereafter. Users are encouraged to use the most up-to-date data available for each month.
Seasonally adjusted monthly job vacancy data are used for the first time in this release and available online (table 14-10-0406-01). The analyses of the job vacancy levels and rates at the national level and by sector (20 broad industrial sector groups) are based on seasonally adjusted data. However, the analyses of the job vacancy levels and rates by province are based on non-seasonally adjusted data.
While JVWS employment is calibrated to the SEPH, SEPH payroll employment and JVWS preliminary monthly employment figures may differ because of calibration grouping and differences in scope and reference period.
Real-time data tables
Real-time data tables 14-10-0357-01, 14-10-0358-01, 14-10-0331-01 and 14-10-0332-01 will be updated on January 9, 2023.
November 2022 data for the SEPH and the JVWS will be released on January 26, 2023.
More information about the concepts and use of the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours is available in the Guide to the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (72-203-G).
The product "Earnings and payroll employment in brief: Interactive app" (14200001) is now available. This interactive data visualization application provides a comprehensive picture of the Canadian labour market using the most recent data from the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours. The estimates are seasonally adjusted and available by province and largest industrial sector. Historical estimates that go back 10 years are also included. The interactive application allows users to explore and personalize the information presented quickly and easily. Combine multiple provinces and industrial sectors to create your own labour market domains of interest.
For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; firstname.lastname@example.org) or Media Relations (email@example.com).
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