Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please "contact us" to request a format other than those available.
Age as of July 1.
- Census net undercoverage ( CNU ): Difference between undercoverage and overcoverage.
- Overcoverage: Number of persons or families who should not have been counted in the census or who were counted more than once.
- Undercoverage: Number of persons or families who were intended to have been enumerated in a census but were not enumerated.
Census division (CD)
Census division (CD) is the general term for provincially legislated areas (such as county, municipalité régionale de comté and regional district) or their equivalents. Census divisions are intermediate geographic areas between the province level and the municipality (census subdivision).
In Newfoundland and Labrador, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, provincial/territorial law does not provide for these administrative geographic areas. Therefore, Statistics Canada in cooperation with these provinces and territories has created equivalent areas called census divisions for disseminating statistical data. In Yukon, the census division is equivalent to the entire territory.
Refers to a married couple (with or without children of either or both spouses), a couple living common-law (with or without children of either or both partners) or a lone parent (of any marital status) with at least one child living in the same dwelling. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. The "children" in a census family include the grandchild who live in the household of at least one of their grandparents, in the absence of the parents.
Census metropolitan area ( CMA )
A census metropolitan area (CMA) is formed by one or more adjacent municipalities centred on a large urban area (known as the urban core). A CMA must have a total population of at least 100,000 of which 50,000 or more must live in the urban core. To be included in the CMA, other adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the central urban area, as measured by commuting flows derived from census place of work data.
Once an area becomes a CMA, it is retained as a CMA even if the population declines below 100,000 or its urban core population declines below 50,000. The urban areas in the CMA that are not contiguous to the urban core are called urban fringe. Rural areas in the CMA are called rural fringe.
All CMAs are subdivided into census tracts.
In the 2006 Census, the CMA of Ottawa-Gatineau (Ontario-Quebec) crossed provincial boundaries. When the geographic level selected is all of Canada, the totals include the CMA on both sides of the provincial border. If a province has been selected, only the part of the CMA in the province chosen is included in the totals.
Census subdivision (CSD)
Census subdivision (CSD) is the general term applying to municipalities (as determined by provincial legislation) or their equivalent (for example, Indian reserves, Indian settlements and unorganized territories).
In Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and British Columbia, the term also describes geographic areas that have been created by Statistics Canada in cooperation with the provinces as equivalents for municipalities for the dissemination of statistical data.
Represents a group of persons who have experienced a specific demographic event during a given year. In the case of births, persons born within a specified year are referred to as a generation.
Cohort component approach
This is the method used to produce estimates by age and sex, whereby the population is aged from year to year, and the components of demographic change are organised according to age and sex cohorts. Data required for this method include demographic events such as deaths, immigration, emigration, etc. that can be directly linked to persons belonging to the same birth and sex cohorts.
Union consisting of two people of opposite sex or of the same sex who live together as a couple, without being legally married.
A method of generating population estimates which uses the components of demographic change and a base population as the input.
Components of demographic growth
Any of the classes of events generating population movement variations. Births, deaths, migration, marriages, divorces and new widowhoods are the components responsible for the variations since they alter either the total population or the age, sex and marital status distribution of the population.
Economic region (ER)
Refers to a group of complete census divisions (with one exception in Ontario) created as a standard geographic unit for analysis of regional economic activity.
Within the province of Quebec, economic regions ("regions administratives") are designated by law. In all other provinces or territories, economic regions are created by agreement between Statistics Canada and the provinces or territories concerned. Prince Edward Island and the three territories each consist of one economic region. In Ontario, there is one exception where the economic region boundary does not respect census division boundaries: the census division of Halton is split between the ER of Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula and the ER of Toronto. Prince Edward Island and the three territories each consist of one economic region.
Canadian citizen or immigrant who has left Canada to establish a permanent residence in another country.
Represents departures from Canada of Canadian citizens or immigrants to another country, involving a change in usual place of residence. Emigration may be either temporary or permanent. Where the term 'emigration' is used alone in this manual, it references permanent emigration which involves severing residential ties with Canada and acquiring permanent residency in another country.
Error of closure
Difference between the postcensal estimate for the same date as the census and the results of the census adjusted for census net undercoverage (including adjustment for incompletely enumerated Indian reserves).
Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. It may consist of a family group (census family) with or without other persons, of two or more families sharing a dwelling, of a group of unrelated persons, or of one person living alone.
Within the framework of this publication, the term immigrant refers to immigrant or permanent resident. An immigrant is a person who does not have Canadian citizenship at birth but was granted the right by immigration authorities to live in Canada on a permanent basis. Children born in other countries to parents who are Canadian citizens that reside temporarily in another country are not included in the category.
Immigration represents entries into Canada of immigrants from another country, involving a change in usual place of residence.
Movements of persons within Canada's geographical boundaries, involving a change in usual place of residence. Internal migration denotes movement from one province or territory to another (i.e., interprovincial migration) or movements from some other smaller defined geographical unit to another (i.e., intraprovincial migration).
International migration represents movement of population between Canada and a foreign country which involves a change of the usual place of residence. A distinction is made with regard to immigrants, emigrants, returning emigrants, net temporary emigration, and net non-permanent residents.
Interprovincial migration represents movement from one province or territory to another involving a permanent change in residence. A person who takes up residence in another province or territory is an out-migrant with reference to the province or territory of origin and an in-migrant with reference to the province or territory of destination.
Intraprovincial migration or subprovincial migration
Movement from one region to another within the same province or territory involving a permanent change of residence. A person who takes up residence in another region is an out-migrant with reference to the region of origin and an in-migrant with reference to the region of destination.
Legal marital status
Indicates the legal conjugal arrangement of a person. Estimates are presented in the following categories: single, legally married (including persons who are separated), widowed or divorced.
- Single: Persons who have never been married, or persons whose marriage has been annulled and have not remarried.
- Legally Married: Persons whose spouse is living, unless a divorce has been obtained. Persons separated are also included in this category.
- Widowed: Persons who have lost their spouse through death and who have not remarried.
- Divorced: Persons who have obtained a divorce and who have not remarried.
Indicates the conjugal arrangement of a person. Estimates are presented in the following categories: single, married (including persons living common-law and persons who are separated), widowed or divorced.
- Single: Persons who have never been married, or persons whose marriage has been annulled and who have not remarried, and do not live common-law.
- Married (including persons living common-law and persons who are separated): Persons whose spouse is living, unless a divorce has been obtained.
- Widowed: Persons who have lost their spouse through death and who have not remarried, and who do not live common-law.
- Divorced: Persons who have obtained a divorce and who have not remarried, and who do not live common-law.
Variation of the population size over a given period as a result of the difference between the numbers of births and deaths.
Net internal migration
Sum of net intraprovincial and net interprovincial migration.
Net international migration
Net international migration is obtained according to the following formula: Immigrants + returning emigrants + net non-permanent residents – (emigrants + net temporary emigration).
Net interprovincial migration
Net interprovincial migration represents the difference between in-migrants and out-migrants for a given province or territory.
Net intraprovincial migration
Net intraprovincial migration represents the difference between in-migrants and out-migrants in a given intraprovincial region. A region can be defined as a census division, an economic region or a census metropolitan area.
Net non-permanent residents
Net non-permanent residents represent the variation in the number of non-permanent residents between two dates.
Net temporary emigration
Net temporary emigration represents the variation in the number of temporary emigrants between two dates. Temporary emigration includes Canadian citizens and immigrants living temporarily abroad who have not maintained a usual place of residence in Canada.
Non-permanent residents are persons who are lawfully in Canada on a temporary basis under the authority of a temporary resident permit, along with members of their family living with them. Non-permanent residents include foreign workers, foreign students, the humanitarian population and other temporary residents. The humanitarian population includes refugee claimants and temporary residents who are allowed to remain in Canada on humanitarian grounds and are not categorized as either foreign workers or foreign students. For Demography Division, the terms non-permanent resident and temporary resident are equivalent.
Estimated population and population according to the census are both defined as being the number of Canadians whose usual place of residence is in that area, regardless of where they happened to be on Census Day. Also included are any Canadians staying in a dwelling in that area on Census Day and having no usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada, as well as those considered non-permanent residents.
- Postcensal: Population estimate produced by using data from the most recent available census adjusted for census net undercoverage (including adjustment for incompletely enumerated Indian reserves) and estimate of the components of demographic growth since that last census. This estimate can be preliminary, updated or final.
- Intercensal: Population estimate derived by using postcensal estimates and data adjusted for census net undercoverage (including adjustment for incompletely enumerated Indian reserves) of censuses preceding and following the year in question.
Population growth or total growth
Variation of population size between two dates. It can also be obtained by summing the natural increase, total net migration and if possible, subtract residual deviation. It can be positive or negative.
Refers to the ratio of the number of events estimated in a period (from time period t to t+1, usually a year is the period) to the average populations at the beginning and the end of the period. In this regard, we calculate births, deaths, immigration rates. Generally, the rate is expressed in per 1,000.
- Demographic growth rate or population growth: Ratio of population growth between the year t and t+1, to the average population of both these years. The rate is generally expressed in per 1,000.
- Census net undercoverage rate: Difference between undercoverage rate and overcoverage rate.
- Census overcoverage rate: The ratio of the numbers of persons or families who should not have been counted in the census or who were counted more than once to the total number of persons that should have been enumerated in the census. Generally, the rate is expressed in percentage.
- Census undercoverage rate: The ratio of the estimated number of persons or families not enumerated in the census (who were intended to have been enumerated) to the total number of persons that should have been enumerated in the census. Generally, the rate is expressed in percentage.
Difference between demographic population growths calculated using intercensal estimates of population between two dates and that obtained by the sum of the components for the same period. This deviation results from the distribution of the error of closure between years within the quinquennial period. This distribution is calculated by taking into account the number of days within each month.
Canadian citizen or immigrant having previously emigrated from Canada and subsequently returned to the country.
Reverse Record Check ( RRC )
The Reverse Record Check is one of three studies which provide estimates of census coverage error, including independent estimates of census undercoverage and overcoverage. The RRC begins by working with a sample of all persons who were enumerated (or missed) in the previous census, along with all persons who were either born or entered into Canada over the intercensal period. With the exception of a very small sub-population of returning emigrants, the RRC sampling frame includes all persons who could potentially be part of the census target universe.
Total net migration
Sum of net international and net internal migration.
Vital Statistics includes all the demographic events (that is to say births, deaths, marriages and divorces) for which there are a legal requirement to inform the Provincial or Territorial Registrar's Office.
Unless otherwise specified, the term "year" refers to the period beginning July 1 of a given year and ending June 30 of the following year.