Annual Demographic Estimates: Subprovincial Areas, July 1, 2023
Appendix A: Glossary

Age

Age as of July 1.

Ageing (of a population)

An increase in the number of old persons as a percentage of the total population.

Average absolute error of closure

Defined as the mean of the absolute differences between the postcensal estimates on Census Day and the results of the Census adjusted for the census net undercoverage.

Average age

The average age of a population is the average age of all its members.

Census coverage

Census net undercoverage: Difference between undercoverage and overcoverage.

Overcoverage: Number of persons who should not have been counted in the census or who were counted more than once.

Undercoverage: Number of persons who were intended to be enumerated in a census but were not.

Census agglomeration (CA)

A census agglomeration (CA) is formed by one or more adjacent municipalities centred on a population centre (known as the core). A CA must have a core population of at least 10,000 based on data from the previous Census of Population Program. To be included in the CA, other adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuting flows derived from data on place of work from the previous Census Program.

If the population of the core of a CA falls below 10,000, the CA is retired from the next census. All areas inside the CA that are not population centres are rural areas.

When a CA has a core of at least 50,000, based on data from the previous Census of Population, it is subdivided into census tracts. Census tracts are maintained for the CA even if the population of the core subsequently falls below 50,000.

Census division (CD)

Census division (CD) is the general term for provincially legislated areas (such as county, municipalité régionale de comté and regional district) or their equivalents. Census divisions are intermediate geographic areas between the province level and the municipality (census subdivision).

In Newfoundland and Labrador, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, provincial or territorial law does not provide for these administrative geographic areas. Therefore, Statistics Canada, in cooperation with these provinces and territories, has created equivalent areas called census divisions for the purpose of disseminating statistical data. In Yukon, the census division is equivalent to the entire territory.

Census metropolitan area (CMA)

A census metropolitan area (CMA) is formed by one or more adjacent municipalities centred on a population centre (known as the core). A CMA must have a total population of at least 100,000 of which 50,000 or more must live in the core. To be included in the CMA, other adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuting flows derived from census place of work data.

Once an area becomes a CMA, it is retained as a CMA even if its total population declines below 100,000 or the population of its core falls below 50,000. Small population centres with a population count of less than 10,000 are called fringe. All areas inside the CMA that are not population centres are rural areas.

All CMAs are subdivided into census tracts.

The CMA of Ottawa-Gatineau (Ontario-Quebec) crosses provincial boundaries. When the geographic level selected is all of Canada, the totals include the CMA on both sides of the provincial border. If a province has been selected, only the part of the CMA in the province chosen is included in the totals.

Cohort

Represents a group of persons who have experienced a specific demographic event during a given year. In the case of births, persons born within a specified year are referred to as a generation.

Components of demographic growth

All demographic events (births, deaths and migrations) that influence the size or the age and gender composition of the population.

Demographic dependency ratio

The ratio of the combined population aged between 0 to 14 years old and the population aged 65 years and older to the population aged between 15 and 64 years old.

Economic region (ER)

An economic region is a grouping of complete census divisions (with one exception in Ontario) created as a standard geographic unit for analysis of regional economic activity.

Within the province of Quebec, economic regions (“régions administratives”) are designated by law. In all other provinces or territories, economic regions are created by agreement between Statistics Canada and the provinces or territories concerned. Prince Edward Island and the three territories each consist of one economic region. In Ontario, there is one exception where the economic region boundary does not respect census division boundaries: the census division of Halton is split between the ER of Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula and the ER of Toronto.

Emigrant

Canadian citizen or immigrant who has left Canada to establish a residence in another country, involving a change in usual place of residence. Emigration may be either long-term or short-term.

Error of closure

Difference between the postcensal estimate at the census date and the results of the census adjusted for census net undercoverage (including adjustment for incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements).

Gender

Gender refers to an individual's personal and social identity as a man, woman or non binary person (a person who is not exclusively a man or a woman).

Gender includes the following concepts:

  • gender identity, which refers to the gender that a person feels internally and individually;
  • gender expression, which refers to the way a person presents their gender, regardless of their gender identity, through body language, aesthetic choices or accessories (e.g., clothes, hairstyle and makeup), which may have traditionally been associated with a specific gender.

A person's gender may differ from their sex at birth, and from what is indicated on their current identification or legal documents such as their birth certificate, passport or driver's licence. A person's gender may change over time.

Some people may not identify with a specific gender.

Generation

Unless otherwise specified, refers here to a group of persons born within a given period. The 2006 generation represents people born during the year 2006.

Immigrant

An immigrant refers to a person who is a permanent resident or a landed immigrant. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Persons who are born abroad to a Canadian parent are not immigrants but are included in the returning emigrant component.

For the Centre for Demography, the terms “immigrant”, “landed immigrant” and “permanent resident” refer to the same concept.

Incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements

Reserves and settlements for which enumeration either was not permitted or could not be completed for various reasons, such as evacuations because of forest fires or access restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Internal migration

Internal migration represents all movements of persons within Canada's geographical boundaries, involving a change in usual place of residence. Internal migration denotes movement from one province or territory to another (i.e., interprovincial migration) and movements from some other smaller defined geographical unit to another (i.e., intraprovincial migration).

International migration

International migration represents movement of population between Canada and a foreign country which involves a change of the usual place of residence. A distinction is made with regard to immigrants, emigrants, returning emigrants and net non-permanent residents.

Interprovincial migration

Interprovincial migration represents all movement from one province or territory to another involving a change in the usual place residence. A person who takes up residence in another province or territory is an out-migrant with reference to the province or territory of origin and an in-migrant with reference to the province or territory of destination.

Intraprovincial migration or subprovincial migration

Intraprovincial migration or subprovincial migration represents all movement from one region to another within the same province or territory involving a change of the usual place residence. A person who takes up residence in another region is an out-migrant with reference to the region of origin and an in-migrant with reference to the region of destination.

Long-term emigrant

Citizen or landed immigrant who has left the country to take up long-term residence in another country.

Long-term returning emigrant

Canadian citizen or landed immigrant who has already emigrated from Canada on a long-term basis and subsequently returned to live in Canada.

Median age

The median age is an age "x", such that exactly one half of the population is older than "x" and the other half is younger than "x".

Men+

The gender category "Men+" includes men (and/or boys), as well as some non-binary persons.

Natural increase

Variation of the population size over a given period as a result of the difference between the numbers of births and deaths.

Net emigration

Net emigration is obtained according to the following formula: Emigrants - Returning emigrants. For estimates from 1991 to June 2016, net emigration is obtained according to the following formula: (Emigrants + Net temporary emigration) - Returning emigrants.

Net internal migration

Sum of net intraprovincial and net interprovincial migration.

Net international migration

Net international migration is obtained according to the following formula: Immigrants + Net non-permanent residentsNet emigration.

Net interprovincial migration

Net interprovincial migration represents the difference between in-migrants and out-migrants for a given province or territory.

Net intraprovincial migration

Net intraprovincial migration represents the difference between in-migrants and out-migrants in a given region. A region can be defined as a census division, an economic region or a census metropolitan area.

Net non-permanent residents

Net non-permanent residents represent the variation in the number of non-permanent residents between two dates.

Net temporary emigration

For demographic estimates from 1991 to June 2016, net temporary emigration represents the variation in the number of temporary emigrants between two dates. Temporary emigration includes Canadian citizens and immigrants living temporarily abroad who have not maintained a usual place of residence in Canada. From July 2016, net temporary emigration is distributed among emigrants and returning emigrants.

Non-permanent residents

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country with a usual place of residence in Canada and who has a work or study permit or who has claimed refugee status (asylum claimant).

Family members living with work or study permit holders are also included unless these family members are already Canadian citizens, landed immigrants (permanent residents), or non-permanent residents themselves.

For the Centre for Demography, the terms “non-permanent resident” and “temporary immigrant” refer to the same concept.

Population

Estimated population and population according to the census are both defined as being the number of Canadians whose usual place of residence is within that area, regardless of where they happened to be on Census day. Also included are any Canadians staying in a dwelling in that area on Census day and having no usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada, as well as those considered non-permanent residents.

Population estimate

Postcensal: Population estimate produced by using data from the most recent available census adjusted for census net undercoverage (including adjustment for incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements) and estimate of the components of demographic growth since that last census. This estimate can be preliminary, updated or final.

Intercensal: Population estimate derived by using postcensal estimates and data adjusted for census net undercoverage (including adjustment for incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements) of censuses preceding and following the year in question.

Population growth or total growth

Variation of population size between two dates. It can also be obtained by summing the natural increase, total net migration and if possible, subtract residual deviation. It can be positive or negative.

Precocity error

Difference between preliminary and final estimate in terms of its relative proportion of the total population for the relevant geographical area. It can be calculated for either population estimates or components of population growth.

Rate

Refers to the ratio of the number of events estimated in a year (t, t+1) to the average populations at the beginning and the end of the period. In this regard, births, deaths, immigration rates, etc are calculated. Generally, the rates are expressed in per 1,000.

Demographic growth or population growth: Ratio of population growth between the year t and t+1, to the average population of both these years. The rate is generally expressed in per 1,000.

Census net undercoverage of population: Difference between undercoverage rate and overcoverage rate.

Overcoverage of population: The ratio of the number of persons who should not have been counted in the census or who were counted more than once to the total number of persons that should have been enumerated in the census. Generally, the rate is expressed in percentage.

Undercoverage of population: The ratio of the estimated number of persons not enumerated in the census (who were intended to have been enumerated) to the total number of persons that should have been enumerated in the census. Generally, the rate is expressed in percentage.

Residual deviation

Difference between demographic population growth calculated using intercensal estimates of population between two dates and that obtained by the sum of the components for the same period. This deviation results from the distribution of the error of closure (by using the number of days) over the five-year period concerned.

Returning emigrant

Canadian citizen or immigrant having previously emigrated from Canada and subsequently returned to the country. Returning emigration may be either long-term or short-term.

Sex at birth

Sex at birth refers to sex assigned at birth. Sex at birth is typically assigned based on a person's reproductive system and other physical characteristics.

Sex at birth may also be understood as the sex recorded at a person's birth (for example, what was recorded on their birth certificate).

Short-term emigrant

Citizen or landed immigrant who has left the country to take up short-term residence in another country.

Short-term returning emigrant

Canadian citizen or landed immigrant who has already emigrated from Canada on a short-term basis and subsequently returned to live in Canada.

Sprague coefficients

Series of factors which, when multiplied to a population distributed by multiples age groups, give a distribution of the same population by single years of age.

Total net migration

Sum of net international and net internal migration.

Vital statistics

Includes all the demographic events (births, deaths, marriages and divorces) for which there are a legal requirement to inform the Provincial or Territorial Registrar's Office.

Women+

The gender category "Women+" includes women (and/or girls), as well as some non-binary persons.

Year

Unless otherwise specified, the term “year” refers to the period beginning July 1 of a given year and ending June 30 of the following year.


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