Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada
Internal Migration: Overview, 2015/2016

by Dylan Saunders

Release date: June 5, 2018

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Highlights

  • In 2015/2016, British Columbia and Ontario were the principal beneficiaries of net interprovincial migration among the provinces in Canada.
  • Three of the four Atlantic provinces posted gains through interprovincial migration in 2015/2016, New Brunswick was the lone exception. This was the first annual period since 2009/2010 that more than one Atlantic province added persons through interprovincial migration.
  • Alberta and Quebec had the largest interprovincial migratory losses in absolute terms, while Saskatchewan and Manitoba had the lowest interprovincial migratory rates among the provinces. Alberta also had the largest fluctuation of interprovincial migration from one annual period to the next since the early 1980s.
  • The largest migratory flows in Canada were from Alberta to British Columbia and Ontario.
  • The country’s three largest census divisions (CDs) – Toronto, Greater Vancouver and Montréal – all recorded losses through intraprovincial migration.
  • The greatest net flows between CDs all originated from one of the three largest CDs (or in Toronto’s case, its directly neighbouring CDs) to the surrounding more suburban CDs.
  • Led by the Simcoe (Ontario) and Capital (British Columbia) CDs, the 10 largest internal migration growths in absolute numbers among CDs were all in Ontario and British Columbia. The 10 largest declines were observed in multiple provinces, particularly Alberta.

Key statistics

  • Number of interprovincial migrants in Canada:
    2014/2015: 283,809 migrants
    2015/2016: 277,029 migrants
  • Interprovincial migration rates in Canada:
    2014/2015: 8.0 per thousand
    2015/2016: 7.7 per thousand
  • Provinces with the highest net interprovincial migration rates (2015/2016):
    1 – British Columbia (+5.6 per thousand)
    2 – Nova Scotia (+0.8 per thousand)
    3 – Ontario (+0.7 per thousand)
  • Provinces with the lowest net interprovincial migration rates (2015/2016):
    1 – Saskatchewan (-3.7 per thousand)
    2 – Manitoba (-3.7 per thousand)
    3 – Alberta (-3.6 per thousand)
  • Census divisions with the highest net internal migration rates (2015/2016):
    1 – Mirabel, Quebec (+21.4 per thousand)
    2 – Central Okanagan, British Columbia (+20.3 per thousand)
    3 – Okanagan-Similkameen, British Columbia (+19.4 per thousand)
  • Census divisions with the lowest net internal migration rates (2015/2016):
    1 – Division No. 16 (Wood Buffalo), Alberta (-64.0 per thousand)
    2 – Northern Rockies, British Columbia (-46.2 per thousand)
    3 – Stikine, British Columbia (-45.6 per thousand)
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This article presents the most recent internal migration trends in Canada from 2015/2016 (July 1 to June 30). Internal migration represents all movements of people within Canada’s geographical boundaries, involving a change in usual place of residence. It denotes movements of people from one province or territory to another (interprovincial migration) or from one region to another within the same province or territory (intraprovincial migration).

The analysis will cover a variety of migration indicators for the 2015/2016 annual period, divided into five sections: interprovincial migration, net interprovincial migration, interprovincial flows of in-migrants and out-migrants, age structures of interprovincial migrants, and internal migration between census divisions. A short section also gives an overview of preliminary data for 2016/2017.

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Data source

The interprovincial migration estimates used for this article are from Statistics Canada’s Demographic Estimates Program (DEP). Since no mechanism exists to record interprovincial migratory movement in Canada, Statistics Canada produces these estimates using the T1 Family file (T1FF), an administrative data file composed of the individual T1 and T4 tax files, and the Canada child benefit file (CCB) (formerly Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB)) received from the Canada Revenue Agency. These data are used to estimate migrants by comparing the addresses over two consecutive tax years. Additional information on the methodology is available in the publication Population and Family Estimation Methods at Statistics Canada, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-528-X.

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Interprovincial migration

Interprovincial migration represents movements of people from one province or territory to another. In 2015/2016, the number of interprovincial migrants in Canada was 277,029, down from 283,809 in 2014/2015. Over the same period, the national interprovincial migration rate was down to 7.7 per thousand, from 8.0 per thousand (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Data table for Figure 1
Data table for Figure 1
Number and rate of interprovincial migrants, Canada, 1971/1972 to 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Number and rate of interprovincial migrants. The information is grouped by Period (appearing as row headers), Number and Rate (per 1,000 population) (appearing as column headers).
Period Number Rate (per 1,000 population)
1971/1972 395,432 17.9
1972/1973 396,138 17.7
1973/1974 437,549 19.3
1974/1975 411,709 17.9
1975/1976 375,351 16.1
1976/1977 357,389 15.2
1977/1978 364,421 15.3
1978/1979 358,805 14.9
1979/1980 371,388 15.2
1980/1981 382,932 15.5
1981/1982 357,919 14.3
1982/1983 305,486 12.1
1983/1984 279,372 11.0
1984/1985 270,565 10.5
1985/1986 287,260 11.1
1986/1987 302,602 11.5
1987/1988 322,375 12.1
1988/1989 327,700 12.1
1989/1990 356,807 13.0
1990/1991 316,567 11.4
1991/1992 316,659 11.2
1992/1993 303,294 10.6
1993/1994 289,391 10.0
1994/1995 285,464 9.8
1995/1996 291,764 9.9
1996/1997 292,873 9.8
1997/1998 309,234 10.3
1998/1999 276,930 9.1
1999/2000 285,817 9.4
2000/2001 269,220 8.7
2001/2002 290,490 9.3
2002/2003 274,899 8.7
2003/2004 261,380 8.2
2004/2005 285,544 8.9
2005/2006 285,868 8.8
2006/2007 305,062 9.3
2007/2008 301,237 9.1
2008/2009 277,846 8.3
2009/2010 259,234 7.7
2010/2011 257,085 7.5
2011/2012 280,347 8.1
2012/2013 261,295 7.5
2013/2014 275,059 7.8
2014/2015 283,809 8.0
2015/2016 277,029 7.7

Compared with recent years, interprovincial migration in Canada has been relatively steady. Since 2009/2010, the interprovincial migration rate has hovered between 7.5 per thousand and 8.1 per thousand, while the number of migrants has remained around 260,000 and 280,000. However, in relation to previous periods, as far back as 1971/1972, the beginning of the Demographic Estimates Program that marked the start of the period covered by the current system of demographic accounts, interprovincial migration has been very low. The interprovincial migration rate of 7.7 per thousand in 2015/2016 was the fourth lowest on record, and all four have come since 2009/2010. The 277,029 interprovincial migrants in 2015/2016 was considerably lower than the largest observed total of 437,549 interprovincial migrants in 1973/1974. In fact, the average number of interprovincial migrants over the seven annual periods from 2009/2010 to 2015/2016 was the lowest seven year average on record. The aging of the Canadian population is a trend that may potentially explain why fewer Canadians are migrating within Canada, as older Canadians are less likely to migrate than younger Canadians.

Net interprovincial migration

Net interprovincial migration represents the difference between in-migrants and out-migrants for a given province or territory. It can be presented as either a number or a rate. Net interprovincial migration was negative in five provinces and two territories, and was positive in five provinces and one territory in 2015/2016.

Among the five provinces and two territories with negative interprovincial migration in 2015/2016, Alberta (-15,108) accounted for over 40% of this net loss. This was Alberta’s first negative net interprovincial migration since 2009/2010 (-3,271), the year following the 2008/2009 economic downturn, and its lowest net interprovincial migration since 1987/1988 (-23,223). This negative net migration, which corresponds to a rate of -3.6 per thousand, coincided with the declining oil prices that affected Alberta’s labour market starting at the end of 2014 and continued into 2016 (Bourbeau & Fields 2017). From July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016, the average unemployment rate for the province was 7.1%, the highest 12 month moving average from July to June since 1995/1996 (not including 2016/2017) (Statistics Canada 2018). The difference in net interprovincial migration between the 2014/2015 (+21,594) and 2015/2016 (-15,108) annual periods was nearly 37,000. This was the second largest change in a province or territory’s net interprovincial migration from one annual period to another since 1971/1972, which was the beginning of the period covered by the current system of demographic accounting. The largest change also occurred in Alberta from 1981/1982 to 1982/1983, for a difference of more than 48,000 migrants (+36,562 to -11,650), coinciding with the recession of 1981/1982.

Meanwhile in Quebec, despite posting the second largest negative net interprovincial migration in Canada (-11,118), due to its large population, its net interprovincial migration rate was somewhat moderated (-1.3 per thousand).

Despite having nearly twice the population of Alberta, there was noticeably less migratory movements in Quebec in 2015/2016 compared with the western province. Although their net interprovincial migration losses were similar, Alberta received nearly three times more (+56,978) in-migrants than Quebec (+19,259), and also had almost two and a half times more out-migrants (-72,086) than Quebec (-30,377). This is partly due to the fact that traditionally, francophone Quebecers have exceptionally low interprovincial migration rates (Finnie 2000).

On the contrary, among the five provinces and one territory with positive interprovincial migration, British Columbia (+26,573) and Ontario (+9,077) accounted for most of these gains in 2015/2016. British Columbia’s 26,573 net interprovincial migrants were the province’s largest since 1994/1995. British Columbia’s net interprovincial migration rate was also the highest among the provinces (+5.6 per thousand). The 2015/2016 annual period was the first since 2002/2003 in which Ontario recorded positive net interprovincial migration. However, due to the size of the province’s population, its net interprovincial rate was relatively small (+0.7 per thousand).

The migratory dynamics of these two provinces differed in 2015/2016. While Ontario’s population was nearly three times the size of British Columbia, they posted the two largest number of in-migrants for the annual period. Ontario paced the nation with 71,790 in-migrants, while British Columbia was not far behind at 63,788. Conversely, British Columbia had substantially fewer out-migrants (-37,215) compared with Ontario (-62,713) (Table 1 and Figure 2).

Table 1
Net interprovincial migration of provinces and territories, Canada, 2006/2007 to 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Net interprovincial migration of provinces and territories. The information is grouped by Period (appearing as row headers), N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T., Nvt. and Total number of migrants, calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Period N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt. Total number of migrants
number
2006/2007 -4,067 -849 -4,126 -2,632 -12,865 -20,047 -5,500 1,549 33,809 15,005 101 -221 -157 305,062
2007/2008 -528 -291 -1,794 -908 -11,682 -14,750 -3,703 4,171 15,317 14,643 235 -420 -290 301,237
2008/2009 1,877 -536 -751 -237 -7,419 -15,601 -3,111 2,983 13,184 9,995 228 -577 -35 277,846
2009/2010 1,558 60 612 571 -3,258 -4,662 -2,412 2,153 -3,271 8,728 325 -351 -53 259,234
2010/2011 30 -210 -41 -158 -4,763 -4,007 -3,517 545 8,443 3,421 363 -179 73 257,085
2011/2012 545 -618 -2,866 -1,806 -6,915 -10,611 -4,212 1,878 27,652 -2,711 313 -496 -153 280,347
2012/2013 495 -901 -3,517 -3,290 -10,431 -13,901 -5,006 392 38,598 -1,868 -94 -482 5 261,295
2013/2014 234 -941 -2,571 -3,517 -14,312 -14,564 -6,851 -1,839 35,382 9,475 51 -488 -59 275,059
2014/2015 161 -682 -2,311 -2,790 -16,142 -8,695 -6,678 -4,528 21,594 20,379 87 -223 -172 283,809
2015/2016 232 30 754 -1,113 -11,118 9,077 -4,881 -4,272 -15,108 26,573 276 -250 -200 277,029
Net since 2006/2007 537 -4,938 -16,611 -15,880 -98,905 -97,761 -45,871 3,032 175,600 103,640 1,885 -3,687 -1,041 2,778,003

Figure 2

Data table for Figure 2
Data table for Figure 2
Net interprovincial migration rate of provinces and territories, Canada, 2014/2015 to 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Net interprovincial migration rate of provinces and territories. The information is grouped by Period (appearing as row headers), N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T. and Nvt., calculated using per 1,000 population units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Period N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt.
per 1,000 population
2014/2015 0.3 -4.7 -2.5 -3.7 -2.0 -0.6 -5.2 -4.0 5.2 4.4 2.3 -5.1 -4.7
2015/2016 0.4 0.2 0.8 -1.5 -1.3 0.7 -3.7 -3.7 -3.6 5.6 7.3 -5.6 -5.4

Among the Atlantic provinces, Nova Scotia (+0.8 per thousand), Newfoundland and Labrador (+0.4 per thousand) and Prince Edward Island (+0.2 per thousand) posted positive net interprovincial rates. Although these rates were relatively small, this was the first time since 2009/2010 that Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island recorded positive net migration rates. Their 2014/2015 rates were -2.5 per thousand and -4.7 per thousand, respectively. New Brunswick, at -1.5 per thousand, was the only Atlantic province to have a negative net interprovincial migration rate for 2015/2016.

Saskatchewan and Manitoba both had net interprovincial migration rates of -3.7 per thousand. Despite having the lowest rates among the provinces, both of the losses by these Prairie provinces have diminished from the previous year (-4.0 per thousand and -5.2 per thousand, respectively).

Yukon (+7.3 per thousand) was the sole territory with a positive net interprovincial rate for 2015/2016. The Northwest Territories (-5.6 per thousand) and Nunavut (-5.4 per thousand) both had negative net interprovincial migration rates over the same period. It is important to keep in mind that the territories exhibit significant fluctuations in their annual rates from year to year due to their small populations.

Since comparable data was available beginning in 1971/1972, Alberta and British Columbia have been the two primary recipients of net interprovincial migration in Canada. From 1971/1972 to 2015/2016, Alberta has gained 626,375 net interprovincial migrants, while British Columbia added 602,233 migrants. These were the only two regions as presented in Figure 3 that had positive cumulative net interprovincial migration between 1971/1972 and 2015/2016. With its first net interprovincial migration gain since 2002/2003, Ontario edged closer to regaining positive cumulative net interprovincial migration in 2015/2016 (-6,407 or essentially null), which it was accustomed to between 1985/1986 and 2012/2013. Since the data became available, Quebec (-595,074), Manitoba (-224,215) and Saskatchewan (-201,986) have consistently recorded cumulative net migratory losses. However these losses go in differing directions, as Quebec’s cumulative net migratory losses primarily go to Ontario, while the bulk of Saskatchewan and Manitoba’s go to Alberta and British Columbia. The Atlantic provinces (-179,455), after trifling with net gains in the 1970s, have had a cumulative net migratory loss starting in 1980/1981, predominantly to Alberta.

Figure 3

Data table for Figure 3
Data table for Figure 3
Cumulative net interprovincial migration by region, Canada, 1971 to 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Cumulative net interprovincial migration by region. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), Atlantic provinces, Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C. and Territories, calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year Atlantic provinces Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Territories
number
1971 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1972 1,011 -21,637 14,462 -8,880 -18,995 4,190 28,088 1,761
1973 7,969 -41,391 15,402 -14,369 -35,519 9,688 55,281 2,939
1974 9,354 -53,972 5,600 -16,025 -45,991 12,599 86,786 1,649
1975 19,690 -64,333 -22,594 -22,144 -45,294 35,754 96,401 2,520
1976 29,824 -77,687 -41,526 -27,126 -39,998 62,333 91,366 2,814
1977 24,948 -104,053 -47,928 -30,657 -36,816 97,043 96,382 1,081
1978 19,573 -150,482 -39,418 -35,331 -38,535 129,586 113,958 649
1979 14,597 -181,366 -43,743 -46,077 -41,413 163,012 135,963 -973
1980 5,149 -211,342 -66,105 -59,941 -45,906 204,447 176,127 -2,429
1981 -7,479 -234,183 -99,352 -69,344 -49,714 248,697 213,991 -2,616
1982 -18,806 -259,973 -105,017 -71,969 -50,037 285,259 222,696 -2,153
1983 -8,996 -284,651 -81,432 -69,425 -46,457 273,609 221,207 -3,855
1984 -4,629 -302,068 -45,032 -69,086 -44,324 241,623 227,843 -4,327
1985 -5,945 -310,088 -11,147 -69,681 -45,749 220,852 225,874 -4,116
1986 -14,949 -315,437 22,415 -71,978 -52,688 217,021 221,373 -5,757
1987 -22,544 -319,166 65,016 -74,737 -57,645 187,023 228,799 -6,746
1988 -29,498 -326,859 100,231 -80,612 -69,752 163,800 250,278 -7,588
1989 -30,833 -334,477 109,970 -89,925 -86,823 162,272 278,099 -8,283
1990 -33,211 -343,119 104,009 -100,286 -106,265 167,865 319,493 -8,486
1991 -33,705 -354,444 92,382 -107,826 -118,441 176,848 353,546 -8,360
1992 -35,558 -366,996 81,337 -115,467 -126,922 179,831 391,550 -7,775
1993 -39,288 -375,416 67,148 -121,011 -133,270 178,650 431,649 -8,462
1994 -46,176 -384,174 57,728 -125,625 -138,701 177,020 469,520 -9,592
1995 -56,355 -393,121 54,887 -128,845 -142,353 176,464 498,811 -9,488
1996 -64,767 -405,747 52,065 -132,411 -144,514 184,120 520,836 -9,582
1997 -75,676 -423,183 54,042 -138,284 -147,308 210,402 530,716 -10,709
1998 -91,343 -440,141 63,273 -143,560 -149,248 253,491 520,687 -13,159
1999 -97,888 -453,206 79,979 -145,673 -153,581 278,682 506,203 -14,516
2000 -103,500 -465,352 102,348 -149,129 -161,528 301,356 491,593 -15,788
2001 -111,435 -474,794 120,971 -153,452 -169,938 321,813 483,307 -16,472
2002 -116,841 -479,144 126,325 -157,796 -178,758 348,048 474,751 -16,585
2003 -118,692 -480,973 126,962 -160,671 -183,899 359,951 473,714 -16,392
2004 -122,107 -481,795 120,027 -163,236 -188,420 370,557 481,579 -16,605
2005 -131,071 -486,758 108,855 -170,463 -197,935 404,980 489,793 -17,401
2006 -142,563 -496,169 91,354 -178,344 -205,018 450,775 498,593 -18,628
2007 -154,237 -509,034 71,307 -183,844 -203,469 484,584 513,598 -18,905
2008 -157,758 -520,716 56,557 -187,547 -199,298 499,901 528,241 -19,380
2009 -157,405 -528,135 40,956 -190,658 -196,315 513,085 538,236 -19,764
2010 -154,604 -531,393 36,294 -193,070 -194,162 509,814 546,964 -19,843
2011 -154,983 -536,156 32,287 -196,587 -193,617 518,257 550,385 -19,586
2012 -159,728 -543,071 21,676 -200,799 -191,739 545,909 547,674 -19,922
2013 -166,941 -553,502 7,775 -205,805 -191,347 584,507 545,806 -20,493
2014 -173,736 -567,814 -6,789 -212,656 -193,186 619,889 555,281 -20,989
2015 -179,358 -583,956 -15,484 -219,334 -197,714 641,483 575,660 -21,297
2016 -179,455 -595,074 -6,407 -224,215 -201,986 626,375 602,233 -21,471

Flows of interprovincial migrants

Interprovincial migratory flows refer to the movement of individuals from one province or territory to another. The analysis of interprovincial migratory flows serves to describe the migratory dynamics between each province and territory (Table 2).

Table 2
Annual number of interprovincial migrants, Canada, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Annual number of interprovincial migrants. The information is grouped by Origin (appearing as row headers), Destination, N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T. and Nvt., calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Origin Destination
N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt.
number
Newfoundland and Labrador Note ...: not applicable 108 987 373 196 2,081 141 108 1,738 496 16 78 46
Prince Edward Island 96 Note ...: not applicable 494 318 85 897 24 46 528 330 8 6 12
Nova Scotia 786 450 Note ...: not applicable 1,714 628 5,239 329 248 3,046 1,663 68 114 68
New Brunswick 351 369 2,175 Note ...: not applicable 1,456 3,385 175 238 2,203 872 18 51 68
Quebec 186 115 735 1,545 Note ...: not applicable 18,985 461 314 4,006 3,788 64 103 75
Ontario 2,128 925 4,970 2,718 10,862 Note ...: not applicable 3,548 2,770 16,163 17,666 297 448 218
Manitoba 172 32 328 199 403 4,638 Note ...: not applicable 1,863 3,985 4,090 46 74 45
Saskatchewan 129 37 330 217 347 3,942 1,594 Note ...: not applicable 8,249 4,551 64 55 17
Alberta 2,216 640 3,637 2,445 3,086 19,421 2,961 7,434 Note ...: not applicable 29,304 289 571 82
British Columbia 392 146 1,230 602 2,007 12,390 1,610 2,068 15,933 Note ...: not applicable 515 248 74
Yukon 3 18 42 25 42 180 23 35 293 554 Note ...: not applicable 32 8
Northwest Territories 71 25 96 43 56 283 51 113 765 423 125 Note ...: not applicable 43
Nunavut 70 9 83 49 91 349 77 23 69 51 21 64 Note ...: not applicable
Total in-migrants 6,600 2,874 15,107 10,248 19,259 71,790 10,994 15,260 56,978 63,788 1,531 1,844 756
Total out-migrants 6,368 2,844 14,353 11,361 30,377 62,713 15,875 19,532 72,086 37,215 1,255 2,094 956
Net migration 232 30 754 -1,113 -11,118 9,077 -4,881 -4,272 -15,108 26,573 276 -250 -200

The largest migratory flows (the largest 20%) are shown in the circular chart (Figure 4), in which a different colour is assigned to each province and territory. Origins and destinations are represented by the circle’s segments. Flows have the same colour as their origin, the width indicates their size and the arrow their direction.

Figure 4

Data table for Figure 4
Data table for Figure 4
Largest interprovincial migration flows, by region of origin and destination, Canada, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Largest interprovincial migration flows. The information is grouped by Origin (appearing as row headers), Destination, N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T. and Nvt., calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Origin Destination
N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt.
number
Newfoundland and Labrador Note ...: not applicable 108 987 373 196 2,081 141 108 1,738 496 16 78 46
Prince Edward Island 96 Note ...: not applicable 494 318 85 897 24 46 528 330 8 6 12
Nova Scotia 786 450 Note ...: not applicable 1,714 628 5,239 329 248 3,046 1,663 68 114 68
New Brunswick 351 369 2,175 Note ...: not applicable 1,456 3,385 175 238 2,203 872 18 51 68
Quebec 186 115 735 1,545 Note ...: not applicable 18,985 461 314 4,006 3,788 64 103 75
Ontario 2,128 925 4,970 2,718 10,862 Note ...: not applicable 3,548 2,770 16,163 17,666 297 448 218
Manitoba 172 32 328 199 403 4,638 Note ...: not applicable 1,863 3,985 4,090 46 74 45
Saskatchewan 129 37 330 217 347 3,942 1,594 Note ...: not applicable 8,249 4,551 64 55 17
Alberta 2,216 640 3,637 2,445 3,086 19,421 2,961 7,434 Note ...: not applicable 29,304 289 571 82
British Columbia 392 146 1,230 602 2,007 12,390 1,610 2,068 15,933 Note ...: not applicable 515 248 74
Yukon 3 18 42 25 42 180 23 35 293 554 Note ...: not applicable 32 8
Northwest Territories 71 25 96 43 56 283 51 113 765 423 125 Note ...: not applicable 43
Nunavut 70 9 83 49 91 349 77 23 69 51 21 64 Note ...: not applicable

In 2015/2016, the largest flow of migration between two Canadian provinces was 29,304 persons from Alberta to British Columbia. The second greatest flow was also from Alberta, which was 19,421 persons to Ontario. These large migration exchanges at the expense of Alberta, which had the highest total of out-migrants among the provinces, coincide with the province’s negative net interprovincial migration in 2015/2016.

The following three largest exchanges all involved the largest province in terms of population, Ontario. These flows of migrants were from Quebec to Ontario (18,985), Ontario to British Columbia (17,666) and Ontario to Alberta (16,163).

As an alternative to interpret the migratory relationships among the provinces, the net interprovincial migration rates can be broken down by reference province. Arranging the net interprovincial migration rates of each province by the reference province makes it possible to analyze the relationships among the provinces while considering the impact of these flows in relation to the size of the province or territory (Figure 5). An example of this is the flow of persons from Saskatchewan to British Columbia. In Saskatchewan, the negative exchange with British Columbia contributed to a rate of -2.2 per thousand for the Prairie province. On the contrary, this exchange had a less profound impact on British Columbia due to its larger population, for a rate of 0.5 per thousand.

Figure 5

Data table for Figure 5
Data table for Figure 5
Net interprovincial migration rates, by province of reference and regions of origin and destination, Canada, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Net interprovincial migration rates. The information is grouped by Province of reference (appearing as row headers), Region of origin or destination
, Net rate, Atlantic provinces, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and Territories, calculated using per thousand units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province of reference Region of origin or destination
Net rate
Atlantic provinces Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Territories
rate (per 1,000 population)
Newfoundland and Labrador -0.4 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.9 -0.2 0.0 0.4
Prince Edward Island 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 -0.1 0.8 -1.2 0.2 0.2
Nova Scotia 0.7 0.1 -0.3 0.0 0.1 0.6 -0.5 0.0 0.8
New Brunswick -0.6 0.1 -0.9 0.0 0.0 0.3 -0.4 0.0 -1.5
Quebec 0.0 0.0 -1.0 0.0 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 0.0 -1.3
Ontario 0.1 0.6 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 -0.4 0.0 0.7
Manitoba 0.0 0.0 -0.8 0.0 -0.2 -0.8 -1.9 0.0 -3.7
Saskatchewan -0.1 0.0 -1.0 0.2 0.0 -0.7 -2.2 0.0 -3.7
Alberta -0.3 0.2 -0.8 0.2 0.2 0.0 -3.2 0.0 -3.6
British Columbia 0.2 0.4 1.1 0.5 0.5 2.8 0.0 0.0 5.6

A prominent trend when analyzing the net interprovincial migration rates by the province of reference was the impact Alberta had on other provinces in 2015/2016. In previous years, the net interprovincial rate of Alberta was the highest among the provinces, which subsequently contributed to most of the provinces having negative net migration exchanges with Alberta. However in 2015/2016, a majority of the provinces had positive net flows with Alberta, most notably British Columbia (+2.8 per thousand). The four Atlantic provinces also benefited from migratory exchanges with Alberta. Newfoundland and Labrador (+0.9 per thousand), Prince Edward Island (+0.8 per thousand), Nova Scotia (+0.6 per thousand) and New Brunswick (+0.3 per thousand) all recorded positive net flows with Alberta in 2015/2016. Although these positive net migration rates with Alberta were relatively small, they were much more impactful when compared with 2014/2015 in which all the Atlantic provinces’ net interprovincial migration rates with Alberta were negative.

Another noticeable migratory relationship in 2015/2016 was the net migration gains British Columbia obtained from all provinces. Net exchanges with Alberta (+2.8 per thousand) and Ontario (+1.1 per thousand) contributed the most to the largest net interprovincial migration rate of 5.6 per thousand among the provinces.

Despite a negative migration rate of -0.4 per thousand with British Columbia, Ontario had its first positive net interprovincial migration rate since 2002/2003 (+0.7 per thousand). Migration from Quebec to Ontario (+0.6 per thousand) was the main contributor to Ontario’s positive net interprovincial migration rate, as was having a positive net contribution from Alberta (+0.2 per thousand).

Typical population movements in Canada are those from the central and eastern provinces to the western provinces and those among the western provinces. However in 2015/2016, this dynamic had changed. Although there were still substantial movements among western provinces, especially from the Prairie provinces to British Columbia and from the central and eastern provinces to British Columbia, there were also considerable movements from other western provinces to Central and Eastern Canada. Ontario and the Atlantic provinces, which normally lose people to Alberta and to a lesser extent Saskatchewan and Manitoba, were the beneficiaries of migration from these Prairie provinces in 2015/2016. This shift in the migration of persons from the Prairie provinces to Central and Eastern Canada can be partly attributed to the economic conditions surrounding declining oil prices beginning at the end of 2014 (Bourbeau & Fields 2017).

Age structures of interprovincial migrants

The age structures of interprovincial migrants differ when compared with all Canadians. In 2015/2016, roughly one-third (33.2%) of Canadians were aged 15 to 39, whereas over half (53.7%) of migrants were between the same ages. In contrast, over one-third (34.4%) of Canadians were between the ages of 40 to 64, while less than one-quarter (24.0%) of migrants were in the same age cohort. Adding to this contrast, 16.3% of Canadians were aged 65 and over, but just 6.7% of migrants were seniors. On the other hand, the 0 to 14 year old distribution of all Canadians and migrants were relatively similar (16.0% and 15.6% respectively).

An analysis of the age pyramid of interprovincial migrants and that of all Canadians overall, shown in relative values, clearly indicates the substantial differences in behaviour by age (Figure 6). Young adults and their young children made up the largest share of migrants. Internal mobility was greatest among individuals aged 0 to 4 and 20 to 39 years old, as shown on the age pyramid. The 25 to 29 year old age group was the most mobile, accounting for 17.3% of interprovincial migrants whereas they represented only 6.9% of the total population. This was not surprising since pursuing postsecondary studies, joining the labour market and starting a family are some examples of the many motivations for moving to another province.

Figure 6

Data table for Figure 6
Data table for Figure 6
Age pyramid of interprovincial migrants and Canadians as a whole (per 1,000 population), by sex, Canada, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Age pyramid of interprovincial migrants and Canadians as a whole (per 1. The information is grouped by Age (appearing as row headers), Canadians as a whole, Interprovincial migrants, Male and Female, calculated using per thousand units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age Canadians as a whole Interprovincial migrants
Male Female Male Female
per thousand
0 5.5 5.2 8.0 7.4
1 5.5 5.2 7.8 7.2
2 5.5 5.2 7.4 6.7
3 5.5 5.2 6.9 6.1
4 5.5 5.3 6.4 5.6
5 5.6 5.3 5.9 5.2
6 5.6 5.4 5.5 4.8
7 5.7 5.4 5.0 4.5
8 5.6 5.3 4.6 4.2
9 5.5 5.2 4.3 4.0
10 5.4 5.1 4.0 3.8
11 5.3 5.1 3.8 3.8
12 5.3 5.1 3.7 3.9
13 5.3 5.0 3.8 3.9
14 5.4 5.1 3.9 4.0
15 5.5 5.2 4.2 4.1
16 5.7 5.4 4.6 4.3
17 5.8 5.5 5.1 4.7
18 6.1 5.8 5.9 5.5
19 6.6 6.2 6.8 6.8
20 6.8 6.4 8.0 8.2
21 7.0 6.5 9.1 9.7
22 7.0 6.6 10.3 11.1
23 7.1 6.8 11.8 12.6
24 7.2 6.9 13.6 14.1
25 7.2 7.0 15.4 15.6
26 7.1 7.0 17.3 17.1
27 6.8 6.8 18.7 18.1
28 6.7 6.8 18.6 18.0
29 6.8 6.9 17.3 16.6
30 6.9 7.0 15.4 14.7
31 7.0 7.0 13.5 12.9
32 7.0 7.0 11.7 11.1
33 6.9 7.0 10.6 9.9
34 7.0 7.0 10.1 9.4
35 7.0 7.0 9.8 9.0
36 6.8 6.9 9.3 8.5
37 6.7 6.7 8.9 8.1
38 6.6 6.6 8.5 7.6
39 6.6 6.6 8.1 7.0
40 6.6 6.6 7.8 6.4
41 6.5 6.5 7.5 6.0
42 6.4 6.4 7.2 5.6
43 6.5 6.5 7.0 5.4
44 6.6 6.6 6.8 5.3
45 6.8 6.7 6.7 5.4
46 6.7 6.7 6.6 5.4
47 6.7 6.7 6.4 5.4
48 6.7 6.6 6.2 5.4
49 6.9 6.8 5.8 5.2
50 7.3 7.2 5.5 5.0
51 7.6 7.6 5.2 4.8
52 7.8 7.7 4.9 4.6
53 7.7 7.7 4.7 4.4
54 7.7 7.6 4.6 4.3
55 7.6 7.6 4.5 4.1
56 7.4 7.5 4.4 3.9
57 7.3 7.3 4.2 3.7
58 7.1 7.2 4.0 3.5
59 6.9 7.0 3.7 3.4
60 6.7 6.8 3.3 3.2
61 6.5 6.7 3.0 3.1
62 6.2 6.4 2.8 3.0
63 5.9 6.1 2.6 2.8
64 5.7 5.9 2.6 2.7
65 5.6 5.8 2.6 2.7
66 5.4 5.6 2.7 2.6
67 5.3 5.6 2.6 2.5
68 5.2 5.5 2.4 2.4
69 4.8 5.1 2.1 2.2
70 4.2 4.5 1.8 2.0
71 3.9 4.3 1.5 1.9
72 3.7 4.1 1.3 1.7
73 3.5 3.9 1.1 1.6
74 3.2 3.6 1.1 1.6
75 3.0 3.4 1.1 1.5
76 2.8 3.2 1.1 1.4
77 2.6 3.1 1.1 1.4
78 2.4 2.9 1.0 1.3
79 2.2 2.7 0.9 1.2
80 2.1 2.6 0.8 1.2
81 1.9 2.5 0.7 1.1
82 1.8 2.3 0.7 1.0
83 1.7 2.3 0.6 0.9
84 1.5 2.2 0.5 0.8
85 1.4 2.0 0.4 0.7
86 1.2 1.8 0.3 0.7
87 1.0 1.7 0.3 0.6
88 0.9 1.5 0.2 0.5
89 0.7 1.3 0.2 0.4
90 0.6 1.2 0.1 0.3
91 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.2
92 0.4 0.9 0.1 0.2
93 0.3 0.7 0.0 0.1
94 0.2 0.6 0.0 0.1
95 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.1
96 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0
97 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0
98 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
99 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
100 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0

The circular charts (Figures 7a and 7b) show the largest interprovincial migratory flows for the 18 to 24 and the 65 and older age groups in 2015/2016 (the largest 20%), and reveal the contrasting migratory dynamics of these two age groups. Comparing the scales of the two figures show that the magnitude of the flows were much larger for the 18 to 24 year old age group, despite the population for the 65 year old age group being almost twice as large. One major difference in 2015/2016 compared with 2014/2015 was the decrease of in-flows to Alberta among the 18 to 24 year old age group. With that being said, Alberta still had the largest in-flows for the 18 to 24 year old age group in 2015/2016, while Ontario had the greatest out-flows and the largest net flows were observed in British Columbia. For those aged 65 and older, the largest out-flows originated in Ontario, whereas both the largest in-flows and net flows were observed in British Columbia. Despite the difference in the volume of flows between the two age groups, it is evident that a similar proportion of the migratory flows were shared among the provinces for both age groups.

For more information, see CANSIM table 051-0012: Interprovincial migrants, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories annual (persons).

Figure 7a

Data table for Figure 7a
Data table for Figure 7A
Largest interprovincial migration flows, by region of origin and destination, migrants aged 18 to 24, Canada, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Largest interprovincial migration flows. The information is grouped by Origin (appearing as row headers), Destination, N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T. and Nvt., calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Origin Destination
N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt.
number
Newfoundland and Labrador Note ...: not applicable 11 158 51 38 279 20 20 301 82 0 7 2
Prince Edward Island 27 Note ...: not applicable 96 79 23 154 4 9 146 44 1 1 3
Nova Scotia 155 75 Note ...: not applicable 315 102 831 33 45 725 242 12 15 8
New Brunswick 63 64 433 Note ...: not applicable 276 625 23 42 534 131 3 8 6
Quebec 16 10 80 154 Note ...: not applicable 2190 60 46 690 436 6 15 11
Ontario 206 127 687 282 1497 Note ...: not applicable 548 502 3062 2609 51 77 30
Manitoba 13 1 33 22 59 669 Note ...: not applicable 351 619 531 5 6 4
Saskatchewan 14 6 38 22 47 462 244 Note ...: not applicable 1154 611 6 2 0
Alberta 184 80 437 293 417 2309 390 900 Note ...: not applicable 3669 36 59 7
British Columbia 32 24 162 63 330 1901 196 291 2621 Note ...: not applicable 73 25 3
Yukon 0 0 4 1 4 16 1 4 49 69 Note ...: not applicable 3 0
Northwest Territories 5 0 11 1 6 19 3 5 96 41 14 Note ...: not applicable 3
Nunavut 1 1 6 1 8 35 12 3 7 1 1 7 Note ...: not applicable

Figure 7b

Data table for Figure 7b
Data table for Figure 7B
Largest interprovincial migration flows, by region of origin and destination, migrants aged 65 and over, Canada, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Largest interprovincial migration flows. The information is grouped by Origin (appearing as row headers), Destination, N.L., P.E.I., N.S., N.B., Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta., B.C., Y.T., N.W.T. and Nvt., calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Origin Destination
N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nvt.
number
Newfoundland and Labrador Note ...: not applicable 12 72 40 8 179 8 8 64 40 0 1 1
Prince Edward Island 6 Note ...: not applicable 49 24 4 61 0 0 20 33 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 39 49 Note ...: not applicable 146 32 382 15 9 95 126 7 0 4
New Brunswick 17 36 117 Note ...: not applicable 101 225 9 6 64 72 0 0 0
Quebec 8 10 52 152 Note ...: not applicable 1377 22 14 123 242 1 2 0
Ontario 206 108 430 247 809 Note ...: not applicable 230 106 713 1529 11 6 7
Manitoba 14 1 16 5 20 232 Note ...: not applicable 118 286 358 4 2 2
Saskatchewan 6 1 15 9 11 113 114 Note ...: not applicable 586 430 3 2 0
Alberta 100 9 102 85 98 568 153 320 Note ...: not applicable 2125 11 9 2
British Columbia 24 20 106 41 115 822 192 203 1454 Note ...: not applicable 43 10 0
Yukon 0 0 0 2 1 9 1 2 16 41 Note ...: not applicable 0 0
Northwest Territories 6 1 6 1 0 14 3 5 35 24 3 Note ...: not applicable 0
Nunavut 1 1 5 2 2 14 2 0 4 3 0 1 Note ...: not applicable

Internal migration between census divisions (CDs)

Start of text box

For the analysis of this section, a rate higher than -1 per thousand and lower than 1 per thousand is considered to be nil or low. Rates are based on the ratio of the number of events during the period (t, t+x) to the average of the populations at the beginning and end of the period.

This section analyzes internal migration in Canada at the CD level.Note 1 Internal migration of the CDs can be broken down into two components – interprovincial migration which is composed of movements of people from one CD to another in different provinces or territories, and intraprovincial migration which is the movement of people from one CD to another within the same province or territory. Canada has 293 CDs, which are neighbouring municipalities joined together for the purpose of regional planning and managing common services.Note 2

In 2015/2016, internal migration gains (Map 1) were observed in 132 of Canada’s 293 CDs (45.1%), losses were recorded in 130 CDs (44.4%) and 31 CDs remained relatively stable. Over the same period, intraprovincial migration growth (Map 2) was posted in 136 of the 293 CDs (46.4%), 128 CDs (43.7%) endured losses and the remaining 29 CDs held relatively steady. On the other hand, only 64 CDs (21.8%) had interprovincial migration gains (Map 3), whereas 93 CDs (31.7%) had interprovincial losses and nearly half of the CDs (136 or 46.4%) were relatively unchanged.

Map 1

Data table for Map 1
Data table for Map 1
Net internal migration rates (per thousand), by census division, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Net internal migration rates (per thousand). The information is grouped by Census division code (appearing as row headers), Census division name, Province, Colour on map and Rate (per thousand) (appearing as column headers).
Census division code Census division name Province Colour on map Rate (per thousand)
2474 Mirabel Quebec Dark green 21.4
5935 Central Okanagan British Columbia Dark green 20.3
5907 Okanagan-Similkameen British Columbia Dark green 19.4
3522 Dufferin Ontario Dark green 19.3
5921 Nanaimo British Columbia Dark green 19.0
5909 Fraser Valley British Columbia Dark green 18.2
2475 La Rivière-du-Nord Quebec Dark green 17.7
3546 Haliburton Ontario Dark green 17.3
5924 Strathcona British Columbia Dark green 17.0
3543 Simcoe Ontario Dark green 16.8
5939 Columbia-Shuswap British Columbia Dark green 15.9
5937 North Okanagan British Columbia Dark green 15.7
5917 Capital British Columbia Dark green 15.6
5931 Squamish-Lillooet British Columbia Dark green 15.6
3544 Muskoka Ontario Dark green 15.2
2468 Les Jardins-de-Napierville Quebec Dark green 15.2
2477 Les Pays-d'en-Haut Quebec Dark green 15.0
5905 Kootenay Boundary British Columbia Dark green 14.2
5926 Comox Valley British Columbia Dark green 14.2
5919 Cowichan Valley British Columbia Dark green 13.7
2463 Montcalm Quebec Dark green 13.7
5929 Sunshine Coast British Columbia Dark green 13.7
3516 Kawartha Lakes Ontario Dark green 13.0
2462 Matawinie Quebec Dark green 12.9
5927 Powell River British Columbia Dark green 11.7
3515 Peterborough Ontario Dark green 11.4
5945 Central Coast British Columbia Dark green 11.4
5933 Thompson-Nicola British Columbia Dark green 11.3
3514 Northumberland Ontario Dark green 11.1
2478 Les Laurentides Quebec Dark green 10.3
5923 Alberni-Clayoquot British Columbia Dark green 10.2
3542 Grey Ontario Dark green 10.2
4613 Division No. 13 Manitoba Light green 9.7
1205 Annapolis Nova Scotia Light green 9.5
2446 Brome-Missisquoi Quebec Light green 9.5
3549 Parry Sound Ontario Light green 8.9
2421 La Côte-de-Beaupré Quebec Light green 8.3
3532 Oxford Ontario Light green 8.1
2433 Lotbinière Quebec Light green 7.9
3526 Niagara Ontario Light green 7.8
3528 Haldimand-Norfolk Ontario Light green 7.8
3512 Hastings Ontario Light green 7.8
3509 Lanark Ontario Light green 7.7
3518 Durham Ontario Light green 7.7
2480 Papineau Quebec Light green 7.7
3523 Wellington Ontario Light green 7.6
3529 Brant Ontario Light green 7.4
3510 Frontenac Ontario Light green 7.4
2435 Mékinac Quebec Light green 7.3
6001 Yukon Yukon Territory Light green 7.3
2422 La Jacques-Cartier Quebec Light green 7.2
2470 Beauharnois-Salaberry Quebec Light green 7.1
5903 Central Kootenay British Columbia Light green 7.0
6104 Region 4 Northwest Territories Light green 6.9
2445 Memphrémagog Quebec Light green 6.8
2479 Antoine-Labelle Quebec Light green 6.6
3524 Halton Ontario Light green 6.5
4602 Division No. 2 Manitoba Light green 6.3
1006 Division No. 6 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 6.2
2442 Le Val-Saint-François Quebec Light green 6.1
2471 Vaudreuil-Soulanges Quebec Light green 6.1
4610 Division No. 10 Manitoba Light green 5.9
2482 Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais Quebec Light green 5.8
3513 Prince Edward Ontario Light green 5.4
2434 Portneuf Quebec Light green 5.2
3507 Leeds and Grenville Ontario Light green 5.2
3506 Ottawa Ontario Light green 5.0
3551 Manitoulin Ontario Light green 5.0
2467 Roussillon Quebec Light green 5.0
2447 La Haute-Yamaska Quebec Light green 4.9
3541 Bruce Ontario Light green 4.9
3539 Middlesex Ontario Light green 4.9
3534 Elgin Ontario Light green 4.7
4604 Division No. 4 Manitoba Light green 4.5
4609 Division No. 9 Manitoba Light green 4.4
3530 Waterloo Ontario Light green 4.4
2449 Drummond Quebec Light green 4.3
1201 Shelburne Nova Scotia Light green 4.1
2457 La Vallée-du-Richelieu Quebec Light green 4.1
2411 Les Basques Quebec Light green 4.1
2464 Les Moulins Quebec Light green 4.0
4618 Division No. 18 Manitoba Light green 3.8
1005 Division No. 5 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 3.7
2469 Le Haut-Saint-Laurent Quebec Light green 3.7
2438 Bécancour Quebec Light green 3.7
4711 Division No. 11 Saskatchewan Light green 3.7
2439 Arthabaska Quebec Light green 3.7
2402 Le Rocher-Percé Quebec Light green 3.7
4607 Division No. 7 Manitoba Light green 3.6
2437 Francheville Quebec Light green 3.5
2473 Thérèse-De Blainville Quebec Light green 3.5
2461 Joliette Quebec Light green 3.5
2456 Le Haut-Richelieu Quebec Light green 3.5
1209 Halifax Nova Scotia Light green 3.4
4612 Division No. 12 Manitoba Light green 3.2
1307 Westmorland New Brunswick Light green 3.2
1210 Colchester Nova Scotia Light green 3.2
4704 Division No. 4 Saskatchewan Light green 3.0
2425 Lévis Quebec Light green 2.9
1203 Digby Nova Scotia Light green 2.9
2412 Rivière-du-Loup Quebec Light green 2.8
2430 Le Granit Quebec Light green 2.7
2410 Rimouski-Neigette Quebec Light green 2.7
1001 Division No. 1 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 2.5
2454 Les Maskoutains Quebec Light green 2.5
2459 Lajemmerais Quebec Light green 2.5
2453 Pierre-De Saurel Quebec Light green 2.4
5901 East Kootenay British Columbia Light green 2.4
3525 Hamilton Ontario Light green 2.4
1206 Lunenburg Nova Scotia Light green 2.4
2428 Les Etchemins Quebec Light green 2.3
4614 Division No. 14 Manitoba Light green 2.1
2427 Robert-Cliche Quebec Light green 2.1
1102 Queens Prince Edward Island Light green 2.1
1310 York New Brunswick Light green 2.1
5953 Fraser-Fort George British Columbia Light green 2.1
6106 Region 6 Northwest Territories Light green 2.0
1306 Albert New Brunswick Light green 1.9
2431 Les Appalaches Quebec Light green 1.9
2451 Maskinongé Quebec Light green 1.8
2472 Deux-Montagnes Quebec Light green 1.8
3511 Lennox and Addington Ontario Light green 1.8
2416 Charlevoix Quebec Light green 1.7
2436 Shawinigan Quebec Light green 1.7
2452 D'Autray Quebec Light green 1.5
4811 Division No. 11 Alberta Light green 1.5
2417 L'Islet Quebec Light green 1.3
4601 Division No. 1 Manitoba Light green 1.2
2432 L'Érable Quebec Light green 1.2
4803 Division No. 3 Alberta Light green 1.2
3531 Perth Ontario Light green 1.2
3536 Chatham-Kent Ontario Light green 1.0
3538 Lambton Ontario Grey 0.9
1007 Division No. 7 Newfoundland and Labrador Grey 0.9
2476 Argenteuil Quebec Grey 0.9
2419 Bellechasse Quebec Grey 0.9
2460 L'Assomption Quebec Grey 0.9
3547 Renfrew Ontario Grey 0.8
5941 Cariboo British Columbia Grey 0.7
3540 Huron Ontario Grey 0.6
2440 Les Sources Quebec Grey 0.6
2409 La Mitis Quebec Grey 0.6
2443 Sherbrooke Quebec Grey 0.5
2429 Beauce-Sartigan Quebec Grey 0.4
2401 Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine Quebec Grey 0.2
2481 Gatineau Quebec Grey 0.2
1202 Yarmouth Nova Scotia Grey 0.1
3502 Prescott and Russell Ontario Grey 0.1
2486 Rouyn-Noranda Quebec Grey 0.0
2418 Montmagny Quebec Grey -0.1
3501 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Ontario Grey -0.1
2444 Coaticook Quebec Grey -0.2
3537 Essex Ontario Grey -0.2
3548 Nipissing Ontario Grey -0.3
5915 Greater Vancouver British Columbia Grey -0.3
3559 Rainy River Ontario Grey -0.4
3557 Algoma Ontario Grey -0.5
2458 Longueuil Quebec Grey -0.6
2450 Nicolet-Yamaska Quebec Grey -0.6
4802 Division No. 2 Alberta Grey -0.6
1204 Queens Nova Scotia Grey -0.7
2426 La Nouvelle-Beauce Quebec Grey -0.7
4712 Division No. 12 Saskatchewan Grey -0.9
2455 Rouville Quebec Orange -1.0
4706 Division No. 6 Saskatchewan Orange -1.0
1103 Prince Prince Edward Island Orange -1.1
4707 Division No. 7 Saskatchewan Orange -1.1
2423 Québec Quebec Orange -1.2
4815 Division No. 15 Alberta Orange -1.2
4806 Division No. 6 Alberta Orange -1.4
1215 Inverness Nova Scotia Orange -1.5
4805 Division No. 5 Alberta Orange -1.6
2465 Laval Quebec Orange -1.7
1308 Kent New Brunswick Orange -1.7
1004 Division No. 4 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -1.8
1211 Cumberland Nova Scotia Orange -1.9
2406 Avignon Quebec Orange -2.0
5947 Skeena-Queen Charlotte British Columbia Orange -2.0
1207 Kings Nova Scotia Orange -2.0
3553 Greater Sudbury / Grand Sudbury Ontario Orange -2.2
2491 Le Domaine-du-Roy Quebec Orange -2.4
2483 La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau Quebec Orange -2.6
3558 Thunder Bay Ontario Orange -2.6
6205 Keewatin Nunavut Orange -2.8
1309 Northumberland New Brunswick Orange -2.8
1214 Antigonish Nova Scotia Orange -2.8
2420 L'Île-d'Orléans Quebec Orange -2.8
2489 La Vallée-de-l'Or Quebec Orange -2.9
1302 Charlotte New Brunswick Orange -2.9
2493 Lac-Saint-Jean-Est Quebec Orange -2.9
3560 Kenora Ontario Orange -3.0
5943 Mount Waddington British Columbia Orange -3.1
2405 Bonaventure Quebec Orange -3.1
4605 Division No. 5 Manitoba Orange -3.2
1008 Division No. 8 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -3.2
2487 Abitibi-Ouest Quebec Orange -3.2
2408 Matane Quebec Orange -3.2
4606 Division No. 6 Manitoba Orange -3.3
2413 Témiscouata Quebec Orange -3.4
4703 Division No. 3 Saskatchewan Orange -3.4
2484 Pontiac Quebec Orange -3.5
1002 Division No. 2 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -3.5
1312 Victoria New Brunswick Orange -3.6
1315 Gloucester New Brunswick Orange -3.6
6208 Kitikmeot Nunavut Orange -3.8
1212 Pictou Nova Scotia Orange -3.9
1301 Saint John New Brunswick Orange -4.1
1303 Sunbury New Brunswick Orange -4.2
4808 Division No. 8 Alberta Orange -4.2
1313 Madawaska New Brunswick Orange -4.2
2441 Le Haut-Saint-François Quebec Orange -4.3
3519 York Ontario Orange -4.3
2407 La Matapédia Quebec Orange -4.3
4715 Division No. 15 Saskatchewan Orange -4.4
2492 Maria-Chapdelaine Quebec Orange -4.4
1314 Restigouche New Brunswick Orange -4.4
1217 Cape Breton Nova Scotia Orange -4.6
2494 Le Saguenay-et-son-Fjord Quebec Orange -4.6
1009 Division No. 9 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -4.7
4709 Division No. 9 Saskatchewan Orange -4.7
2414 Kamouraska Quebec Orange -4.9
1305 Kings New Brunswick Orange -5.1
1208 Hants Nova Scotia Orange -5.2
1213 Guysborough Nova Scotia Orange -5.3
4611 Division No. 11 Manitoba Orange -5.4
1216 Richmond Nova Scotia Orange -5.5
5951 Bulkley-Nechako British Columbia Orange -5.6
1311 Carleton New Brunswick Orange -5.6
4608 Division No. 8 Manitoba Orange -5.7
1101 Kings Prince Edward Island Orange -5.8
4801 Division No. 1 Alberta Orange -5.9
2448 Acton Quebec Orange -6.2
5949 Kitimat-Stikine British Columbia Orange -6.2
1304 Queens New Brunswick Orange -6.3
3521 Peel Ontario Orange -6.4
2488 Abitibi Quebec Orange -6.5
3554 Timiskaming Ontario Orange -6.6
4603 Division No. 3 Manitoba Orange -6.9
4617 Division No. 17 Manitoba Orange -7.4
6204 Baffin Nunavut Orange -7.4
2403 La Côte-de-Gaspé Quebec Orange -7.5
2499 Nord-du-Québec Quebec Orange -7.8
3520 Toronto Ontario Orange -7.9
2404 La Haute-Gaspésie Quebec Orange -8.1
2495 La Haute-Côte-Nord Quebec Orange -8.2
4716 Division No. 16 Saskatchewan Orange -8.3
2485 Témiscamingue Quebec Orange -8.8
2415 Charlevoix-Est Quebec Orange -9.0
4616 Division No. 16 Manitoba Orange -9.2
4708 Division No. 8 Saskatchewan Orange -9.3
3556 Cochrane Ontario Orange -9.4
4620 Division No. 20 Manitoba Orange -9.7
1218 Victoria Nova Scotia Red -10.3
4809 Division No. 9 Alberta Red -10.5
4702 Division No. 2 Saskatchewan Red -10.7
4714 Division No. 14 Saskatchewan Red -10.8
2490 La Tuque Quebec Red -11.0
4813 Division No. 13 Alberta Red -11.2
2466 Montréal Quebec Red -11.4
4622 Division No. 22 Manitoba Red -11.5
1003 Division No. 3 Newfoundland and Labrador Red -11.7
4621 Division No. 21 Manitoba Red -11.7
4807 Division No. 7 Alberta Red -11.8
4718 Division No. 18 Saskatchewan Red -12.2
6102 Region 2 Northwest Territories Red -12.3
4810 Division No. 10 Alberta Red -12.3
4705 Division No. 5 Saskatchewan Red -13.2
1011 Division No. 11 Newfoundland and Labrador Red -13.7
4623 Division No. 23 Manitoba Red -13.7
4812 Division No. 12 Alberta Red -14.3
3552 Sudbury Ontario Red -14.3
1010 Division No. 10 Newfoundland and Labrador Red -15.4
4710 Division No. 10 Saskatchewan Red -16.1
2498 Minganie--Le Golfe-du-Saint-Laurent Quebec Red -16.6
6101 Region 1 Northwest Territories Red -16.8
6105 Region 5 Northwest Territories Red -16.9
4619 Division No. 19 Manitoba Red -16.9
2496 Manicouagan Quebec Red -17.0
4817 Division No. 17 Alberta Red -18.3
4814 Division No. 14 Alberta Red -18.5
4804 Division No. 4 Alberta Red -18.6
4819 Division No. 19 Alberta Red -18.9
2497 Sept-Rivières--Caniapiscau Quebec Red -19.0
6103 Region 3 Northwest Territories Red -19.3
4717 Division No. 17 Saskatchewan Red -19.3
4713 Division No. 13 Saskatchewan Red -19.4
5955 Peace River British Columbia Red -19.8
4701 Division No. 1 Saskatchewan Red -20.6
4615 Division No. 15 Manitoba Red -22.6
4818 Division No. 18 Alberta Red -33.9
5957 Stikine British Columbia Red -45.6
5959 Northern Rockies British Columbia Red -46.2
4816 Division No. 16 Alberta Red -64.0

Map 2

Data table for Map 2
Data table for Map 2
Net intraprovincial migration rates (per thousand), by census division, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Net intraprovincial migration rates (per thousand). The information is grouped by Census division code (appearing as row headers), Census division name, Province, Colour on map and Rate (per thousand) (appearing as column headers).
Census division code Census division name Province Colour on map Rate (per thousand)
3522 Dufferin Ontario Dark green 21.8
2474 Mirabel Quebec Dark green 21.3
2475 La Rivière-du-Nord Quebec Dark green 18.5
3543 Simcoe Ontario Dark green 17.8
3546 Haliburton Ontario Dark green 15.9
2468 Les Jardins-de-Napierville Quebec Dark green 15.3
2477 Les Pays-d'en-Haut Quebec Dark green 15.1
3544 Muskoka Ontario Dark green 15.1
2463 Montcalm Quebec Dark green 14.0
5909 Fraser Valley British Columbia Dark green 13.8
3516 Kawartha Lakes Ontario Dark green 13.5
2462 Matawinie Quebec Dark green 13.3
3514 Northumberland Ontario Dark green 12.6
3515 Peterborough Ontario Dark green 12.2
4613 Division No. 13 Manitoba Dark green 11.5
2478 Les Laurentides Quebec Dark green 10.8
2422 La Jacques-Cartier Quebec Dark green 10.4
2446 Brome-Missisquoi Quebec Dark green 10.2
3542 Grey Ontario Dark green 10.2
2421 La Côte-de-Beaupré Quebec Light green 9.4
3549 Parry Sound Ontario Light green 9.3
3528 Haldimand-Norfolk Ontario Light green 9.1
2471 Vaudreuil-Soulanges Quebec Light green 8.8
3518 Durham Ontario Light green 8.6
3526 Niagara Ontario Light green 8.6
3532 Oxford Ontario Light green 8.3
4711 Division No. 11 Saskatchewan Light green 8.2
6104 Region 4 Northwest Territories Light green 8.1
5907 Okanagan-Similkameen British Columbia Light green 8.0
4602 Division No. 2 Manitoba Light green 7.9
3529 Brant Ontario Light green 7.9
5921 Nanaimo British Columbia Light green 7.7
3523 Wellington Ontario Light green 7.6
2470 Beauharnois-Salaberry Quebec Light green 7.6
3512 Hastings Ontario Light green 7.6
2433 Lotbinière Quebec Light green 7.5
5924 Strathcona British Columbia Light green 7.5
2445 Memphrémagog Quebec Light green 7.4
1310 York New Brunswick Light green 7.3
2435 Mékinac Quebec Light green 7.2
3509 Lanark Ontario Light green 7.1
4607 Division No. 7 Manitoba Light green 6.8
2480 Papineau Quebec Light green 6.8
2479 Antoine-Labelle Quebec Light green 6.6
2442 Le Val-Saint-François Quebec Light green 6.4
5935 Central Okanagan British Columbia Light green 6.3
5905 Kootenay Boundary British Columbia Light green 6.2
5931 Squamish-Lillooet British Columbia Light green 6.1
3513 Prince Edward Ontario Light green 6.1
3524 Halton Ontario Light green 6.1
2467 Roussillon Quebec Light green 6.1
4612 Division No. 12 Manitoba Light green 5.9
5919 Cowichan Valley British Columbia Light green 5.8
4610 Division No. 10 Manitoba Light green 5.8
5929 Sunshine Coast British Columbia Light green 5.7
5933 Thompson-Nicola British Columbia Light green 5.7
3510 Frontenac Ontario Light green 5.6
5926 Comox Valley British Columbia Light green 5.6
6106 Region 6 Northwest Territories Light green 5.6
5917 Capital British Columbia Light green 5.5
2482 Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais Quebec Light green 5.4
2447 La Haute-Yamaska Quebec Light green 5.4
2434 Portneuf Quebec Light green 5.3
1205 Annapolis Nova Scotia Light green 5.3
3507 Leeds and Grenville Ontario Light green 5.2
3541 Bruce Ontario Light green 5.0
2449 Drummond Quebec Light green 5.0
1307 Westmorland New Brunswick Light green 4.9
3551 Manitoulin Ontario Light green 4.9
4604 Division No. 4 Manitoba Light green 4.9
2464 Les Moulins Quebec Light green 4.6
5937 North Okanagan British Columbia Light green 4.6
4609 Division No. 9 Manitoba Light green 4.6
2469 Le Haut-Saint-Laurent Quebec Light green 4.3
2461 Joliette Quebec Light green 4.3
3539 Middlesex Ontario Light green 4.3
2438 Bécancour Quebec Light green 4.3
2457 La Vallée-du-Richelieu Quebec Light green 4.3
3534 Elgin Ontario Light green 4.2
5923 Alberni-Clayoquot British Columbia Light green 4.2
2473 Thérèse-De Blainville Quebec Light green 4.2
5927 Powell River British Columbia Light green 4.2
5945 Central Coast British Columbia Light green 4.1
2437 Francheville Quebec Light green 4.1
4706 Division No. 6 Saskatchewan Light green 3.9
2439 Arthabaska Quebec Light green 3.9
3530 Waterloo Ontario Light green 3.8
1005 Division No. 5 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 3.8
2411 Les Basques Quebec Light green 3.6
2456 Le Haut-Richelieu Quebec Light green 3.6
2402 Le Rocher-Percé Quebec Light green 3.5
1001 Division No. 1 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 3.5
4811 Division No. 11 Alberta Light green 3.5
4614 Division No. 14 Manitoba Light green 3.4
2425 Lévis Quebec Light green 3.2
1209 Halifax Nova Scotia Light green 3.2
2454 Les Maskoutains Quebec Light green 3.1
2412 Rivière-du-Loup Quebec Light green 3.0
1102 Queens Prince Edward Island Light green 3.0
2472 Deux-Montagnes Quebec Light green 3.0
2459 Lajemmerais Quebec Light green 2.9
1306 Albert New Brunswick Light green 2.9
2430 Le Granit Quebec Light green 2.9
3511 Lennox and Addington Ontario Light green 2.7
2428 Les Etchemins Quebec Light green 2.7
2410 Rimouski-Neigette Quebec Light green 2.6
2431 Les Appalaches Quebec Light green 2.6
2476 Argenteuil Quebec Light green 2.4
2453 Pierre-De Saurel Quebec Light green 2.3
1210 Colchester Nova Scotia Light green 2.2
2481 Gatineau Quebec Light green 2.2
2443 Sherbrooke Quebec Light green 2.2
3531 Perth Ontario Light green 2.2
3525 Hamilton Ontario Light green 2.2
1006 Division No. 6 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 2.2
2451 Maskinongé Quebec Light green 2.1
6205 Keewatin Nunavut Light green 2.0
2452 D'Autray Quebec Light green 2.0
2432 L'Érable Quebec Light green 1.9
2427 Robert-Cliche Quebec Light green 1.9
3547 Renfrew Ontario Light green 1.8
4806 Division No. 6 Alberta Light green 1.8
2436 Shawinigan Quebec Light green 1.8
5939 Columbia-Shuswap British Columbia Light green 1.7
3506 Ottawa Ontario Light green 1.7
2419 Bellechasse Quebec Light green 1.4
2484 Pontiac Quebec Light green 1.4
3540 Huron Ontario Light green 1.3
4704 Division No. 4 Saskatchewan Light green 1.3
2458 Longueuil Quebec Light green 1.2
4618 Division No. 18 Manitoba Light green 1.1
4808 Division No. 8 Alberta Light green 1.1
2416 Charlevoix Quebec Light green 1.0
2420 L'Île-d'Orléans Quebec Light green 1.0
2460 L'Assomption Quebec Light green 1.0
2417 L'Islet Quebec Light green 1.0
3536 Chatham-Kent Ontario Grey 0.8
4707 Division No. 7 Saskatchewan Grey 0.7
2409 La Mitis Quebec Grey 0.7
3538 Lambton Ontario Grey 0.7
4805 Division No. 5 Alberta Grey 0.7
2444 Coaticook Quebec Grey 0.6
4601 Division No. 1 Manitoba Grey 0.6
2429 Beauce-Sartigan Quebec Grey 0.5
2418 Montmagny Quebec Grey 0.3
2486 Rouyn-Noranda Quebec Grey 0.3
2423 Québec Quebec Grey 0.3
3548 Nipissing Ontario Grey 0.2
3557 Algoma Ontario Grey 0.2
2440 Les Sources Quebec Grey 0.1
4803 Division No. 3 Alberta Grey 0.1
6001 Yukon Yukon Territory Grey 0.0
2406 Avignon Quebec Grey 0.0
4802 Division No. 2 Alberta Grey -0.1
1206 Lunenburg Nova Scotia Grey -0.1
4611 Division No. 11 Manitoba Grey -0.3
2465 Laval Quebec Grey -0.4
1301 Saint John New Brunswick Grey -0.4
2450 Nicolet-Yamaska Quebec Grey -0.4
2426 La Nouvelle-Beauce Quebec Grey -0.4
4712 Division No. 12 Saskatchewan Grey -0.5
3537 Essex Ontario Grey -0.5
6204 Baffin Nunavut Grey -0.6
2401 Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine Quebec Grey -0.6
5953 Fraser-Fort George British Columbia Grey -0.8
3558 Thunder Bay Ontario Orange -1.0
2455 Rouville Quebec Orange -1.0
1203 Digby Nova Scotia Orange -1.0
3502 Prescott and Russell Ontario Orange -1.2
6105 Region 5 Northwest Territories Orange -1.4
2483 La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau Quebec Orange -1.5
6208 Kitikmeot Nunavut Orange -1.5
3559 Rainy River Ontario Orange -1.6
4605 Division No. 5 Manitoba Orange -1.7
1207 Kings Nova Scotia Orange -1.7
1103 Prince Prince Edward Island Orange -1.9
1211 Cumberland Nova Scotia Orange -2.1
3553 Greater Sudbury / Grand Sudbury Ontario Orange -2.1
1214 Antigonish Nova Scotia Orange -2.2
2491 Le Domaine-du-Roy Quebec Orange -2.3
2489 La Vallée-de-l'Or Quebec Orange -2.3
3560 Kenora Ontario Orange -2.5
3501 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Ontario Orange -2.6
2487 Abitibi-Ouest Quebec Orange -2.6
5941 Cariboo British Columbia Orange -2.7
2493 Lac-Saint-Jean-Est Quebec Orange -2.8
1305 Kings New Brunswick Orange -2.9
2405 Bonaventure Quebec Orange -2.9
1303 Sunbury New Brunswick Orange -3.0
1313 Madawaska New Brunswick Orange -3.1
4801 Division No. 1 Alberta Orange -3.2
4616 Division No. 16 Manitoba Orange -3.3
2408 Matane Quebec Orange -3.3
4815 Division No. 15 Alberta Orange -3.4
1217 Cape Breton Nova Scotia Orange -3.4
1309 Northumberland New Brunswick Orange -3.5
1308 Kent New Brunswick Orange -3.5
1311 Carleton New Brunswick Orange -3.6
2407 La Matapédia Quebec Orange -3.6
2441 Le Haut-Saint-François Quebec Orange -3.7
1007 Division No. 7 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -3.7
4715 Division No. 15 Saskatchewan Orange -3.7
1201 Shelburne Nova Scotia Orange -3.8
5903 Central Kootenay British Columbia Orange -3.8
2413 Témiscouata Quebec Orange -3.8
5915 Greater Vancouver British Columbia Orange -3.9
2494 Le Saguenay-et-son-Fjord Quebec Orange -4.0
3554 Timiskaming Ontario Orange -4.0
1004 Division No. 4 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -4.1
5901 East Kootenay British Columbia Orange -4.2
4603 Division No. 3 Manitoba Orange -4.2
4709 Division No. 9 Saskatchewan Orange -4.3
2414 Kamouraska Quebec Orange -4.4
4708 Division No. 8 Saskatchewan Orange -4.5
2492 Maria-Chapdelaine Quebec Orange -4.5
1204 Queens Nova Scotia Orange -4.5
3519 York Ontario Orange -4.6
1212 Pictou Nova Scotia Orange -4.6
1315 Gloucester New Brunswick Orange -4.7
1314 Restigouche New Brunswick Orange -4.7
4620 Division No. 20 Manitoba Orange -4.8
1208 Hants Nova Scotia Orange -4.8
6101 Region 1 Northwest Territories Orange -4.9
1312 Victoria New Brunswick Orange -5.0
1002 Division No. 2 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -5.2
4606 Division No. 6 Manitoba Orange -5.3
1304 Queens New Brunswick Orange -5.7
1202 Yarmouth Nova Scotia Orange -5.8
2403 La Côte-de-Gaspé Quebec Orange -5.8
2448 Acton Quebec Orange -5.8
4608 Division No. 8 Manitoba Orange -5.9
1215 Inverness Nova Scotia Orange -6.0
4819 Division No. 19 Alberta Orange -6.1
4810 Division No. 10 Alberta Orange -6.2
4809 Division No. 9 Alberta Orange -6.4
4717 Division No. 17 Saskatchewan Orange -6.7
2488 Abitibi Quebec Orange -6.8
4621 Division No. 21 Manitoba Orange -6.8
1302 Charlotte New Brunswick Orange -6.8
5947 Skeena-Queen Charlotte British Columbia Orange -6.9
3521 Peel Ontario Orange -7.2
4716 Division No. 16 Saskatchewan Orange -7.2
4617 Division No. 17 Manitoba Orange -7.3
4807 Division No. 7 Alberta Orange -7.4
2499 Nord-du-Québec Quebec Orange -7.4
2485 Témiscamingue Quebec Orange -7.5
4702 Division No. 2 Saskatchewan Orange -7.6
4813 Division No. 13 Alberta Orange -7.6
5951 Bulkley-Nechako British Columbia Orange -7.8
4814 Division No. 14 Alberta Orange -7.9
1008 Division No. 8 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -7.9
2495 La Haute-Côte-Nord Quebec Orange -7.9
2404 La Haute-Gaspésie Quebec Orange -8.1
3556 Cochrane Ontario Orange -8.4
2466 Montréal Quebec Orange -8.5
2415 Charlevoix-Est Quebec Orange -8.6
1218 Victoria Nova Scotia Orange -8.7
5943 Mount Waddington British Columbia Orange -8.7
5949 Kitimat-Stikine British Columbia Orange -9.4
4812 Division No. 12 Alberta Orange -9.7
1010 Division No. 10 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -9.7
1216 Richmond Nova Scotia Orange -9.7
3520 Toronto Ontario Orange -9.9
1101 Kings Prince Edward Island Orange -9.9
4622 Division No. 22 Manitoba Red -10.0
4623 Division No. 23 Manitoba Red -10.0
1009 Division No. 9 Newfoundland and Labrador Red -10.1
4804 Division No. 4 Alberta Red -10.4
1011 Division No. 11 Newfoundland and Labrador Red -10.7
2490 La Tuque Quebec Red -11.0
4714 Division No. 14 Saskatchewan Red -11.1
4701 Division No. 1 Saskatchewan Red -11.1
4718 Division No. 18 Saskatchewan Red -11.1
4705 Division No. 5 Saskatchewan Red -11.7
4713 Division No. 13 Saskatchewan Red -12.1
1213 Guysborough Nova Scotia Red -12.5
4615 Division No. 15 Manitoba Red -12.8
1003 Division No. 3 Newfoundland and Labrador Red -12.9
2498 Minganie--Le Golfe-du-Saint-Laurent Quebec Red -13.3
4703 Division No. 3 Saskatchewan Red -13.5
4710 Division No. 10 Saskatchewan Red -14.5
6102 Region 2 Northwest Territories Red -15.2
5955 Peace River British Columbia Red -15.2
4817 Division No. 17 Alberta Red -15.2
3552 Sudbury Ontario Red -15.4
4619 Division No. 19 Manitoba Red -16.1
2496 Manicouagan Quebec Red -16.6
5957 Stikine British Columbia Red -17.8
2497 Sept-Rivières--Caniapiscau Quebec Red -18.5
4818 Division No. 18 Alberta Red -19.4
6103 Region 3 Northwest Territories Red -23.8
5959 Northern Rockies British Columbia Red -25.2
4816 Division No. 16 Alberta Red -38.7

Map 3

Description for Map 3
Data table for Map 3
Net interprovincial migration rates (per thousand), by census division, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Net interprovincial migration rates (per thousand). The information is grouped by Census division code (appearing as row headers), Census division name, Province, Colour on map and Rate (per thousand) (appearing as column headers).
Census division code Census division name Province Colour on map Rate (per thousand)
5939 Columbia-Shuswap British Columbia Dark green 14.2
5935 Central Okanagan British Columbia Dark green 14.0
5907 Okanagan-Similkameen British Columbia Dark green 11.5
5921 Nanaimo British Columbia Dark green 11.3
5937 North Okanagan British Columbia Dark green 11.1
5903 Central Kootenay British Columbia Dark green 10.8
5917 Capital British Columbia Dark green 10.1
4703 Division No. 3 Saskatchewan Dark green 10.0
5924 Strathcona British Columbia Light green 9.5
5931 Squamish-Lillooet British Columbia Light green 9.4
5926 Comox Valley British Columbia Light green 8.6
5905 Kootenay Boundary British Columbia Light green 8.0
5929 Sunshine Coast British Columbia Light green 8.0
1201 Shelburne Nova Scotia Light green 7.9
5919 Cowichan Valley British Columbia Light green 7.8
5927 Powell River British Columbia Light green 7.5
6001 Yukon Yukon Territory Light green 7.3
5945 Central Coast British Columbia Light green 7.3
1213 Guysborough Nova Scotia Light green 7.2
5901 East Kootenay British Columbia Light green 6.6
5923 Alberni-Clayoquot British Columbia Light green 6.0
1202 Yarmouth Nova Scotia Light green 5.9
5943 Mount Waddington British Columbia Light green 5.7
5933 Thompson-Nicola British Columbia Light green 5.6
1009 Division No. 9 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 5.4
5947 Skeena-Queen Charlotte British Columbia Light green 4.9
1008 Division No. 8 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 4.7
1007 Division No. 7 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 4.6
1215 Inverness Nova Scotia Light green 4.5
6103 Region 3 Northwest Territories Light green 4.5
5909 Fraser Valley British Columbia Light green 4.4
1216 Richmond Nova Scotia Light green 4.2
1205 Annapolis Nova Scotia Light green 4.2
1101 Kings Prince Edward Island Light green 4.1
1006 Division No. 6 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 3.9
1302 Charlotte New Brunswick Light green 3.9
1203 Digby Nova Scotia Light green 3.9
1204 Queens Nova Scotia Light green 3.9
5915 Greater Vancouver British Columbia Light green 3.6
5941 Cariboo British Columbia Light green 3.4
3506 Ottawa Ontario Light green 3.3
5949 Kitimat-Stikine British Columbia Light green 3.2
6102 Region 2 Northwest Territories Light green 2.9
5953 Fraser-Fort George British Columbia Light green 2.8
4618 Division No. 18 Manitoba Light green 2.7
1206 Lunenburg Nova Scotia Light green 2.5
3501 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Ontario Light green 2.4
1004 Division No. 4 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 2.2
5951 Bulkley-Nechako British Columbia Light green 2.2
4815 Division No. 15 Alberta Light green 2.2
4606 Division No. 6 Manitoba Light green 2.0
3520 Toronto Ontario Light green 1.9
3510 Frontenac Ontario Light green 1.8
1308 Kent New Brunswick Light green 1.8
1002 Division No. 2 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 1.7
4704 Division No. 4 Saskatchewan Light green 1.7
1312 Victoria New Brunswick Light green 1.4
3546 Haliburton Ontario Light green 1.4
3502 Prescott and Russell Ontario Light green 1.2
1003 Division No. 3 Newfoundland and Labrador Light green 1.2
3559 Rainy River Ontario Light green 1.2
4803 Division No. 3 Alberta Light green 1.1
3552 Sudbury Ontario Light green 1.1
1315 Gloucester New Brunswick Light green 1.0
1210 Colchester Nova Scotia Grey 0.9
2480 Papineau Quebec Grey 0.9
1103 Prince Prince Edward Island Grey 0.8
2401 Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine Quebec Grey 0.8
3521 Peel Ontario Grey 0.8
1309 Northumberland New Brunswick Grey 0.7
1212 Pictou Nova Scotia Grey 0.7
2416 Charlevoix Quebec Grey 0.7
4601 Division No. 1 Manitoba Grey 0.6
3539 Middlesex Ontario Grey 0.6
3509 Lanark Ontario Grey 0.6
3530 Waterloo Ontario Grey 0.6
3534 Elgin Ontario Grey 0.5
2440 Les Sources Quebec Grey 0.5
2411 Les Basques Quebec Grey 0.5
2482 Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais Quebec Grey 0.4
2433 Lotbinière Quebec Grey 0.4
2413 Témiscouata Quebec Grey 0.4
3524 Halton Ontario Grey 0.4
2417 L'Islet Quebec Grey 0.3
3537 Essex Ontario Grey 0.3
4714 Division No. 14 Saskatchewan Grey 0.3
3519 York Ontario Grey 0.3
3538 Lambton Ontario Grey 0.3
1209 Halifax Nova Scotia Grey 0.2
3536 Chatham-Kent Ontario Grey 0.2
2488 Abitibi Quebec Grey 0.2
1314 Restigouche New Brunswick Grey 0.2
3512 Hastings Ontario Grey 0.2
2427 Robert-Cliche Quebec Grey 0.2
4608 Division No. 8 Manitoba Grey 0.2
2402 Le Rocher-Percé Quebec Grey 0.2
3525 Hamilton Ontario Grey 0.2
1211 Cumberland Nova Scotia Grey 0.2
2435 Mékinac Quebec Grey 0.2
2408 Matane Quebec Grey 0.1
2474 Mirabel Quebec Grey 0.1
2453 Pierre-De Saurel Quebec Grey 0.1
3544 Muskoka Ontario Grey 0.1
4610 Division No. 10 Manitoba Grey 0.1
2492 Maria-Chapdelaine Quebec Grey 0.1
3551 Manitoulin Ontario Grey 0.1
2410 Rimouski-Neigette Quebec Grey 0.1
2479 Antoine-Labelle Quebec Grey 0.1
2455 Rouville Quebec Grey 0.0
2404 La Haute-Gaspésie Quebec Grey 0.0
2490 La Tuque Quebec Grey 0.0
3542 Grey Ontario Grey 0.0
3507 Leeds and Grenville Ontario Grey 0.0
1005 Division No. 5 Newfoundland and Labrador Grey 0.0
4617 Division No. 17 Manitoba Grey 0.0
2436 Shawinigan Quebec Grey -0.1
2491 Le Domaine-du-Roy Quebec Grey -0.1
2468 Les Jardins-de-Napierville Quebec Grey -0.1
3523 Wellington Ontario Grey -0.1
2409 La Mitis Quebec Grey -0.1
2429 Beauce-Sartigan Quebec Grey -0.1
3553 Greater Sudbury / Grand Sudbury Ontario Grey -0.1
3541 Bruce Ontario Grey -0.1
2477 Les Pays-d'en-Haut Quebec Grey -0.1
2457 La Vallée-du-Richelieu Quebec Grey -0.1
2493 Lac-Saint-Jean-Est Quebec Grey -0.1
2434 Portneuf Quebec Grey -0.1
2460 L'Assomption Quebec Grey -0.1
2430 Le Granit Quebec Grey -0.1
2439 Arthabaska Quebec Grey -0.2
2456 Le Haut-Richelieu Quebec Grey -0.2
2405 Bonaventure Quebec Grey -0.2
3532 Oxford Ontario Grey -0.2
4609 Division No. 9 Manitoba Grey -0.2
2450 Nicolet-Yamaska Quebec Grey -0.2
2412 Rivière-du-Loup Quebec Grey -0.2
2426 La Nouvelle-Beauce Quebec Grey -0.2
2442 Le Val-Saint-François Quebec Grey -0.3
2495 La Haute-Côte-Nord Quebec Grey -0.3
2451 Maskinongé Quebec Grey -0.3
1207 Kings Nova Scotia Grey -0.3
2463 Montcalm Quebec Grey -0.3
2448 Acton Quebec Grey -0.3
2425 Lévis Quebec Grey -0.3
4712 Division No. 12 Saskatchewan Grey -0.3
2486 Rouyn-Noranda Quebec Grey -0.3
2496 Manicouagan Quebec Grey -0.4
2462 Matawinie Quebec Grey -0.4
1208 Hants Nova Scotia Grey -0.4
2499 Nord-du-Québec Quebec Grey -0.4
2478 Les Laurentides Quebec Grey -0.4
4709 Division No. 9 Saskatchewan Grey -0.4
2428 Les Etchemins Quebec Grey -0.4
4604 Division No. 4 Manitoba Grey -0.4
2418 Montmagny Quebec Grey -0.4
2415 Charlevoix-Est Quebec Grey -0.4
3549 Parry Sound Ontario Grey -0.4
2447 La Haute-Yamaska Quebec Grey -0.4
3529 Brant Ontario Grey -0.5
2452 D'Autray Quebec Grey -0.5
2459 Lajemmerais Quebec Grey -0.5
3516 Kawartha Lakes Ontario Grey -0.5
2470 Beauharnois-Salaberry Quebec Grey -0.5
2437 Francheville Quebec Grey -0.5
2414 Kamouraska Quebec Grey -0.5
3560 Kenora Ontario Grey -0.5
2438 Bécancour Quebec Grey -0.5
2497 Sept-Rivières--Caniapiscau Quebec Grey -0.5
2419 Bellechasse Quebec Grey -0.5
2454 Les Maskoutains Quebec Grey -0.5
4802 Division No. 2 Alberta Grey -0.5
1214 Antigonish Nova Scotia Grey -0.6
2489 La Vallée-de-l'Or Quebec Grey -0.6
3548 Nipissing Ontario Grey -0.6
2441 Le Haut-Saint-François Quebec Grey -0.6
1304 Queens New Brunswick Grey -0.6
2445 Memphrémagog Quebec Grey -0.6
2469 Le Haut-Saint-Laurent Quebec Grey -0.6
4715 Division No. 15 Saskatchewan Grey -0.6
3557 Algoma Ontario Grey -0.6
2487 Abitibi-Ouest Quebec Grey -0.6
2464 Les Moulins Quebec Grey -0.6
2449 Drummond Quebec Grey -0.7
2432 L'Érable Quebec Grey -0.7
2494 Le Saguenay-et-son-Fjord Quebec Grey -0.7
3540 Huron Ontario Grey -0.7
3513 Prince Edward Ontario Grey -0.7
2407 La Matapédia Quebec Grey -0.7
2473 Thérèse-De Blainville Quebec Grey -0.7
3515 Peterborough Ontario Grey -0.7
2446 Brome-Missisquoi Quebec Grey -0.7
2431 Les Appalaches Quebec Grey -0.7
3526 Niagara Ontario Grey -0.8
2461 Joliette Quebec Grey -0.8
2444 Coaticook Quebec Grey -0.8
2475 La Rivière-du-Nord Quebec Grey -0.8
4619 Division No. 19 Manitoba Grey -0.8
1102 Queens Prince Edward Island Grey -0.9
3511 Lennox and Addington Ontario Grey -0.9
3518 Durham Ontario Grey -0.9
1001 Division No. 1 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -1.0
3547 Renfrew Ontario Orange -1.0
3556 Cochrane Ontario Orange -1.0
3543 Simcoe Ontario Orange -1.0
3531 Perth Ontario Orange -1.0
1306 Albert New Brunswick Orange -1.1
4716 Division No. 16 Saskatchewan Orange -1.1
2467 Roussillon Quebec Orange -1.1
4718 Division No. 18 Saskatchewan Orange -1.1
1313 Madawaska New Brunswick Orange -1.1
2483 La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau Quebec Orange -1.2
2421 La Côte-de-Beaupré Quebec Orange -1.2
2472 Deux-Montagnes Quebec Orange -1.2
6104 Region 4 Northwest Territories Orange -1.2
1217 Cape Breton Nova Scotia Orange -1.2
1303 Sunbury New Brunswick Orange -1.2
3528 Haldimand-Norfolk Ontario Orange -1.3
4614 Division No. 14 Manitoba Orange -1.3
2485 Témiscamingue Quebec Orange -1.3
2465 Laval Quebec Orange -1.3
2423 Québec Quebec Orange -1.4
3514 Northumberland Ontario Orange -1.5
2476 Argenteuil Quebec Orange -1.5
4605 Division No. 5 Manitoba Orange -1.5
4705 Division No. 5 Saskatchewan Orange -1.5
4622 Division No. 22 Manitoba Orange -1.5
4710 Division No. 10 Saskatchewan Orange -1.6
1218 Victoria Nova Scotia Orange -1.6
4602 Division No. 2 Manitoba Orange -1.6
3558 Thunder Bay Ontario Orange -1.7
2403 La Côte-de-Gaspé Quebec Orange -1.7
4613 Division No. 13 Manitoba Orange -1.7
1307 Westmorland New Brunswick Orange -1.7
2458 Longueuil Quebec Orange -1.8
2443 Sherbrooke Quebec Orange -1.8
4707 Division No. 7 Saskatchewan Orange -1.9
2406 Avignon Quebec Orange -2.0
4811 Division No. 11 Alberta Orange -2.1
1311 Carleton New Brunswick Orange -2.1
2481 Gatineau Quebec Orange -2.1
4805 Division No. 5 Alberta Orange -2.2
1305 Kings New Brunswick Orange -2.3
6208 Kitikmeot Nunavut Orange -2.4
3522 Dufferin Ontario Orange -2.5
3554 Timiskaming Ontario Orange -2.6
4801 Division No. 1 Alberta Orange -2.6
2471 Vaudreuil-Soulanges Quebec Orange -2.7
4603 Division No. 3 Manitoba Orange -2.7
4612 Division No. 12 Manitoba Orange -2.7
2466 Montréal Quebec Orange -2.8
1011 Division No. 11 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -3.0
4817 Division No. 17 Alberta Orange -3.1
4806 Division No. 6 Alberta Orange -3.2
4702 Division No. 2 Saskatchewan Orange -3.2
2422 La Jacques-Cartier Quebec Orange -3.2
4607 Division No. 7 Manitoba Orange -3.3
2498 Minganie--Le Golfe-du-Saint-Laurent Quebec Orange -3.3
6106 Region 6 Northwest Territories Orange -3.5
4813 Division No. 13 Alberta Orange -3.6
1301 Saint John New Brunswick Orange -3.7
4623 Division No. 23 Manitoba Orange -3.7
2420 L'Île-d'Orléans Quebec Orange -3.9
4809 Division No. 9 Alberta Orange -4.1
4807 Division No. 7 Alberta Orange -4.4
4711 Division No. 11 Saskatchewan Orange -4.4
4812 Division No. 12 Alberta Orange -4.6
5955 Peace River British Columbia Orange -4.6
6205 Keewatin Nunavut Orange -4.7
4708 Division No. 8 Saskatchewan Orange -4.8
2484 Pontiac Quebec Orange -4.8
4620 Division No. 20 Manitoba Orange -4.9
4621 Division No. 21 Manitoba Orange -4.9
4706 Division No. 6 Saskatchewan Orange -4.9
4611 Division No. 11 Manitoba Orange -5.1
1310 York New Brunswick Orange -5.3
4808 Division No. 8 Alberta Orange -5.3
1010 Division No. 10 Newfoundland and Labrador Orange -5.7
4616 Division No. 16 Manitoba Orange -5.9
4810 Division No. 10 Alberta Orange -6.1
6204 Baffin Nunavut Orange -6.9
4713 Division No. 13 Saskatchewan Orange -7.3
4804 Division No. 4 Alberta Orange -8.2
4701 Division No. 1 Saskatchewan Orange -9.5
4615 Division No. 15 Manitoba Orange -9.8
4814 Division No. 14 Alberta Red -10.6
6101 Region 1 Northwest Territories Red -11.9
4717 Division No. 17 Saskatchewan Red -12.7
4819 Division No. 19 Alberta Red -12.9
4818 Division No. 18 Alberta Red -14.5
6105 Region 5 Northwest Territories Red -15.4
5959 Northern Rockies British Columbia Red -21.0
4816 Division No. 16 Alberta Red -25.4
5957 Stikine British Columbia Red -27.8

As Table 3 shows, the Mirabel CD (Quebec) had the largest internal migration rate in Canada for 2015/2016 (+21.4 per thousand) – primarily due to an intraprovincial migration rate of 21.3 per thousand, the second highest in Canada. A majority of the intraprovincial migration for Mirabel came from the nearby suburban CDs of Thérèse-De Blainville and Laval, which are located halfway between Montréal and Mirabel. The neighbouring British Columbia CDs of Central Okanagan (+20.3 per thousand) and Okanagan-Similkameen (+19.4 per thousand) had the second and third largest internal migration rates over the same period. These two CDs benefited from having the second and third largest interprovincial migration rates in the country, behind the Columbia-Shuswap CD (British Columbia) which borders with Alberta. The Ontario CD of Dufferin had the fourth largest internal migration rate at 19.3 per thousand. This CD had the largest intraprovincial migration rate in the country (+21.8 per thousand), which predominantly came from the Peel CD, located halfway between the country’s most populated CD of Toronto and Dufferin. The fifth largest internal migration rate in 2015/2016 was the Nanaimo CD (+19.0 per thousand).

Table 3
Net interprovincial, intraprovincial and internal migration (number and rate) by census division, Canada, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Net interprovincial. The information is grouped by Census division (appearing as row headers), Interprovincial, Intraprovincial and Internal, calculated using number and rate units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Census division Interprovincial Intraprovincial Internal
number rate number rate number rate
Five largest net internal migrations (number)
Simcoe (Ontario) -501 -1.0 8,763 17.8 8,262 16.8
Capital (British Columbia) 3,918 10.1 2,110 5.5 6,028 15.6
Fraser Valley (British Columbia) 1,333 4.4 4,185 13.8 5,518 18.2
Durham (Ontario) -619 -0.9 5,743 8.6 5,124 7.7
Ottawa (Ontario) 3,181 3.3 1,659 1.7 4,840 5.0
Five largest net internal migration rates
Mirabel (Quebec) 7 0.1 1,077 21.3 1,084 21.4
Central Okanagan (British Columbia) 2,770 14.0 1,238 6.3 4,008 20.3
Okanagan-Similkameen (British Columbia) 932 11.5 649 8.0 1,581 19.4
Dufferin (Ontario) -160 -2.5 1,381 21.8 1,221 19.3
Nanaimo (British Columbia) 1,757 11.3 1,190 7.7 2,947 19.0
Five lowest net internal migrations (number)
Montréal (Quebec) -5,654 -2.8 -17,032 -8.5 -22,686 -11.4
Toronto (Ontario) 5,515 1.9 -28,073 -9.9 -22,558 -7.9
Peel (Ontario) 1,177 0.8 -10,419 -7.2 -9,242 -6.4
York (Ontario) 292 0.3 -5,218 -4.6 -4,926 -4.3
Division No. 16 (Wood Buffalo, Alberta) -1,944 -25.4 -2,962 -38.7 -4,906 -64.0
Five lowest net internal migration rates
Division No. 16 (Wood Buffalo, Alberta) -1,944 -25.4 -2,962 -38.7 -4,906 -64.0
Northern Rockies (British Columbia) -113 -21.0 -136 -25.2 -249 -46.2
Stikine (British Columbia) -14 -27.8 -9 -17.8 -23 -45.6
Division No. 18 (Greenview No. 16, Alberta) -219 -14.5 -293 -19.4 -512 -33.9
Division No. 15 (Neepawa, Manitoba) -212 -9.8 -277 -12.8 -489 -22.6
Canada's three largest census divisions
Toronto 5,515 1.9 -28,073 -9.9 -22,558 -7.9
Greater Vancouver 9,088 3.6 -9,928 -3.9 -840 -0.3
Montréal -5,654 -2.8 -17,032 -8.5 -22,686 -11.4

On the contrary, the Division No. 16 CD (Wood Buffalo, Alberta) had the lowest internal migration rate in the country in 2015/2016 (-64.0 per thousand). This was due to both the lowest intraprovincial migration rate (-38.7 per thousand) and second smallest interprovincial migration rate (-25.4 per thousand) in Canada. This migration out of Division No. 16 CD coincided with the rising unemployment in Alberta beginning in 2015, which reached a peak at the end of 2016 (Statistics Canada, 2017), as well as the Fort McMurray wildfires in 2016 (Statistics Canada, 2017). The British Columbia CDs of Northern Rockies (-46.2 per thousand) and Stikine (-45.6 per thousand) had the second and third smallest internal migration rates. The Division No. 18 CD (Greenview No. 16, Alberta) had the fourth lowest rate (-33.9 per thousand), while Division No. 15 (Neepawa, Manitoba) had the fifth smallest rate (-22.6 per thousand) in the country. The negative net internal migration rates for these four CDs were also due to the combined losses of both intraprovincial and interprovincial migration.

Of the country’s three largest CDs – Toronto, Greater Vancouver and Montréal – only Greater Vancouver did not record a considerable loss through internal migration in 2015/2016. However, all three of these CDs incurred losses of persons through intraprovincial migration, predominantly to their surrounding more suburban CDs. The Greater Vancouver CD’s internal migration was virtually null (-0.3 per thousand), with intraprovincial migration (-3.9 per thousand) offset by interprovincial migration (+3.6 per thousand). In contrast, internal migration in both the Montréal CD (-11.4 per thousand) and Toronto CD (-7.9 per thousand) were negative over the same period. Montréal’s negative internal migration rate was a combination of losses through intraprovincial (-8.5 per thousand) and interprovincial migration (-2.8 per thousand). Positive interprovincial migration (+1.9 per thousand) in Toronto could not offset the losses incurred through intraprovincial migration (-9.9 per thousand).

According to this analysis, the long-term migratory trend of urban spread persisted in 2015/2016. As Table 4 shows, all 10 of the largest flows expressed in net rates between census divisions originated from one of the three largest CDs (or their neighbouring CDs), and were directed towards their suburban areas. 6 of the 10 largest net flows between census divisions came from Toronto or one of its three direct neighbouring CDs – Peel, Durham and York. The largest net flow was 27.0 per thousand from Peel to Dufferin. The second and third largest net flows between CDs were from Greater Vancouver to its neighbouring CDs of Fraser Valley (+15.2 per thousand) and Squamish-Lillooet (+14.5 per thousand). The only net flow among the 10 largest in the country from the Montréal CD was to the neighbouring Vaudreuil-Soulanges CD (+10.1 per thousand), the ninth largest in the country.

Table 4
Main origin-destination net flows (net number and rate) of census divisions, Canada, 2015/2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Main origin-destination net flows of the census divisions. The information is grouped by Census division of origin (appearing as row headers), Census division of destination, Province, Net and Rate, calculated using number and per thousand units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Census division of origin Census division of destination Province Net Rate
number per thousand
Peel Dufferin Ontario 1,707 27.0
Greater Vancouver Fraser Valley British Columbia 4,617 15.2
Greater Vancouver Squamish-Lillooet British Columbia 648 14.5
Peel Halton Ontario 7,484 13.3
Durham Northumberland Ontario 1,140 13.1
Greater Vancouver Sunshine Coast British Columbia 383 13.1
Durham Kawartha Lakes Ontario 990 12.9
Toronto Durham Ontario 8,187 12.3
Montréal Vaudreuil-Soulanges Quebec 1,512 10.1
York Simcoe Ontario 4,637 9.4

Overview of the 2016/2017 period

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The analysis in this section is based on preliminary data. These data will be revised over the coming years, and it is possible that some trends described in this section will change as a result of these revisions. Therefore, this section should be interpreted with caution.

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The preliminary estimates for the 2016/2017 period that were released in September 2017 indicated that interprovincial migration in Canada was up by nearly 10,000 from the previous year, for a total of 286,932 migrants. This preliminary data shows that the interprovincial migration rate was 7.9 per thousand, a slight increase from the rate of 7.7 per thousand in 2015/2016.

Net interprovincial migration for 2016/2017 was the largest in Ontario and British Columbia. In Ontario, which had its first positive net interprovincial migration since 2002/2003 in 2015/2016, had 25,689 net interprovincial migrants for 2016/2017. This preliminary estimate would be the largest positive net interprovincial migration for the province since 1987/1988 (+35,215), and would also be the largest in the country for 2016/2017. Over the same period, British Columbia posted an annual net interprovincial migration estimate of 16,163. Despite having the second largest net interprovincial migration for 2016/2017, interprovincial migration in the province was down by more than 10,000 when compared with 2015/2016. The only other province that recorded positive net interprovincial migration for the preliminary 2016/2017 estimates was Nova Scotia (+645).

The net interprovincial migration loss of -15,108 in Alberta in 2015/2016 remained essentially the same at -15,131 for 2016/2017. Alberta had the largest loss through interprovincial migration for a second consecutive year. Nonetheless, preliminary estimates for the third and fourth quarters of 2017 indicated recent trends may have tempered, as the province recorded moderate gains in net interprovincial migration of 1,045 from July to December 2017. In comparison, the net interprovincial migration estimate for the second half of 2016 was -7,275. These third and fourth quarter estimates of 2017 coincide with Alberta’s improved labour market conditions over the same period, in which the province’s unemployment rate fell from 7.8% in July 2017 to 7.0% in December 2017 (Statistics Canada 2018).

For a second consecutive year, Quebec trailed Alberta for the largest negative net interprovincial migration, at -10,759. The other net interprovincial migration losses observed among the provinces for 2016/2017 were in Manitoba (-6,906), Saskatchewan (-5,615), Newfoundland and Labrador (-1,954), New Brunswick (-849) and Prince Edward Island (-436).

Summary

Interprovincial migration is an integral component of population growth, particularly in Western Canada. Historically, Alberta and British Columbia have been the main beneficiaries of this migration. While British Columbia characteristically had positive net interprovincial migration in 2015/2016, with the weakening of oil prices that affected Alberta’s labour market beginning at the end of 2014 and continued into 2016, Alberta recorded its first negative net interprovincial migration since 2009/2010 (and second since 1994/1995). Typically recording positive net flows with most provinces, Alberta had a negative net flow with all of the Atlantic provinces, Ontario and British Columbia. With this exchange, the Atlantic provinces (except for New Brunswick) and Ontario (for the first time since 2002/2003) registered gains in net interprovincial migration for 2015/2016.

Another prominent trend in 2015/2016 was the net internal migration from one of the three largest CDs (or in Toronto’s case, also its direct neighbouring CDs) to the surrounding more suburban CDs. Toronto, Greater Vancouver and Montréal all recorded losses through intraprovincial migration. Most of the 10 largest net internal migration rates over this period were to CDs located near one of the three largest CDs or near one of their neighbouring CDs.

References

Bourbeau, E. and A. Fields. 2017. Annual review of the labour market, 2016, Labour Statistics, Research Paper Series 75-004-M, Statistics Canada, Ottawa.

Finnie, R. 2000. Who Moves? A Panel Logit Model Analysis of Inter-provincial Migration in Canada, Analytical Studies Branch, Statistics Canada, Ottawa.

Statistics Canada. 2017. Infographic: Fort McMurray 2016 Wildfire – Economic Impact.

Statistics Canada. 2017. Labour Force Survey, March 2017.

Statistics Canada. 2018. CANSIM Table 282-0087 - Labour Force Survey (LFS) estimates.


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