General Social Survey: An Overview, 2019

Release date: February 20, 2019

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Acknowledgements

The Chiefs of the General Social Survey (GSS) Program would like to acknowledge the following people who were instrumental in the updating of this document for 2019:  Catherine Allan, Denis Theriault, Dawn Blair, Brianna Jaffray, Michele Hardy, Amanda Halladay, Geneviève Vézina, Patrick St-Cyr, Patricia Houle, Anna Kemeny, Pascale Beaupré, Patric Fournier-Savard, Valerie du Plessis, Melanie Kowalski, Lynn Hamilton, Julie Sauvé, Paul Hartung, Nathalie Villemure and all the others on the GSS Team who work diligently to make the GSS Program the best it can be.

1. Introduction

Established in 1985, Canada’s General Social Survey (GSS) program was designed as a series of independent, annual, voluntary, cross-sectional surveys, each covering one topic in-depth. The overall objectives of the program were, and continue to be, to gather data on social trends in order to monitor changes in the living conditions and well-being of Canadians, and to provide information on specific social policy issues.

GSS data has served as evidence behind key government programs and policies aimed at improving the well-being of Canadians. It regularly informs comprehensive research projects on a variety of essential topics and has become a valuable training tool for quantitative methods in postsecondary institutions across the country.  The GSS is an important foundational social survey within Canada’s national statistical system.

The most recent GSS program surveys have focussed on seven themes: life at work and home; families; caregiving and care receiving; giving, volunteering and participating; victimization; social identity and time use.

Each of these themes have historically been explored in an in-depth manner approximately every five to seven years. In addition to the core topic, space is reserved in each cycle for new content that addresses emerging, policy-relevant issues. As well, each survey includes socio-demographic information such as age, sex, education, religion, immigrant status, place of birth, Indigenous group, population group/visible minority status, etc. Newer cycles also include questions on disability and veteran status. Regular collection of cross-sectional data allows for trend analysis, and for the testing and development of new concepts.

Since its inception, the GSS has tested new approaches and worked closely with stakeholders in the government, academia, and social sector. Since 2013, data have been collected using a combination of self-completed online questionnaires and telephone interviews. This tradition of innovation is continuing with increased momentum as the GSS leads the way in re-defining itself within Statistics Canada’s modernization agenda. New approaches to data collection, processing and dissemination are being explored to ensure the GSS stays relevant and useful in the years to come.

2. Methodology

Target population and sample size

The General Social Survey collects information from persons aged 15 and overNote in the ten provinces of Canada, excluding full-time residents of institutions. The Victimization Cycle, most recently collected in 2009 and 2014, was also carried out in Canada’s territories.

As of 2019, the GSS targets a sample size of approximately 20,000 respondents. Sometimes a cycle has a higher target sample size if funding has been received for an oversample, either in the form of a geographical sample top-up (i.e., adding more units in certain geographic areas),  a targeted oversample (e.g. focussing on immigrants, youth, or another population group), or a general oversample (i.e., increasing the raw sample size). With a final sample of 20,000 respondents, basic survey estimates are usually available for the national and regional levels, and for some provinces and Census Metropolitan Areas. Depending on the survey topic, the sample size may be sufficient to produce estimates for certain population groups such as lone parent families, certain visible minority groups or seniors.

The sample size for the GSS has changed over time. Until 1998, the targeted final sample size for each GSS cycle was approximately 10,000 persons. This was increased in 1999 to a target of 25,000, until 2015 when the figure was reduced to 22,000 and then further reduced to 20,000 starting in 2016.

Sampling frame

The GSS uses Statistics Canada’s common telephone frame, which combines landline and cellular telephone numbers from the Address Register, the Census of Population and various administrative sources and which has been integrated with Statistics Canada’s common dwelling frame. Records on the frame are groups of telephone numbers associated with one address (or a single telephone number in the case where a link between a telephone number and an address could not be established). This integrated frame includes cell phone only households, a growing population not covered by the previous Random Digit Dialing (RDD) frame that was used until 2012.

For detailed information on sample design for each GSS cycle, please refer to the appropriate User Guide for each survey. These User Guides may be obtained by contacting Client Services and Dissemination at statcan.sasdclientservices-dsseaserviceaclientele.statcan@canada.ca.

Data collection

General Social Survey data have been collected using a combination of self-completed online questionnaires and telephone interviews since 2013. Some data, most often income data, are drawn from tax or other administrative files rather than direct survey questions in order to reduce respondent burden and to improve data accuracy. Statistics Canada began asking respondents for permission to link their survey information to additional data sources in 2014. Since then, data collected in GSS cycles has been linked to the personal tax records (T1, T1FF or T4) of respondents and occasionally to other administrative data sources. Household information and respondent's information are key variables for the record linkage. During collection, respondents are informed of the planned record linkage and those who object are exempted from the process.

Before the introduction of the self-response electronic questionnaire (EQ) and the new telephone sampling frame, collection of data was primarily carried out via Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI), a method that offers lower collection costs than in-person interviews, as well as flexibility with respect to sample design. Telephone interviewing does, however, have some drawbacks: non-coverage of households is concentrated in certain population groups (those who only have cell phones, mostly young, single, urban Canadians, are excluded from RDD samples, as are those without a telephone - often concentrated in groups with lower income and education levels); response rates tend to be lower than for face-to-face interviews; and there are limitations on the amount and type of data which can be collected.

Data for the Indigenous population

Although GSS cycles include an indicator of Indigenous identity, data are not available for First Nations people living on or off reserve specifically. Using a telephone-based sample design, it may be possible that First Nations and non-Indigenous people living on reserve (with internet and/or telephone service) are selected as respondents. However, the number of persons living on-reserve who are interviewed has not, to date, been large enough to enable reliable estimates for the First Nations people living on reserve.

Depending on the sample size of each GSS cycle and the type of output analysis required, data for First Nations people, Métis and Inuit must often be aggregated to the total Indigenous population (by combining the three Indigenous identity groups) in order to obtain population counts high enough to be reliable for publication.

3. Keeping up with the times

In 2010, the GSS underwent an in-depth redesign that included a change in sampling frame and the introduction of self-completed online questionnaires. As indicated above, the RDD sampling frame was replaced with a frame that contains landline and cellular telephone numbers. The GSS used the new sampling frame and fielded its first multi-mode (internet and telephone) collection for its Social Identity cycle in the summer of 2013. In 2014, GSS data were linked to administrative data sources for the first time. In 2018, the GSS introduced the use of the Age-Order method to select a respondent within a household through an invitation letter rather than the traditional household rostering method. (The benefit of the Age-Order method is that only one household member is required to login to the online questionnaire, alleviating the “hand-off” issue which occurs when the selected household respondent is not the person who initially logs in to the online survey).  All of these changes have helped to mitigate declining response rates which have occurred due to the increase in cell-only households, the emergence of call display features which allows respondents to screen for calls, and many other social factors (see Appendix B for specific response rates by year).

The continued change in technology use and continued declines in response rates, have led to another phase of modernization of the GSS, which began in 2018 and is aligned with modernization activities across Statistics Canada. The key focusses of modernization at Statistics Canada as of 2019 are: User-centric Delivery Service, Leading-edge Methods and Data Integration, Statistical Capacity Building and Leadership, Sharing and Collaboration. For the GSS, this means exploring new sources of data, expanded modes of collection including mobile phone apps, the use of register-based approaches and a faster ability to respond to data gaps and user needs. Changes to the GSS are anticipated to be implemented, beginning in 2021.

4. Current GSS themes

Canadians at Work and Home

Lifestyle has an undeniable effect on health and well-being, and for many Canadians work and home are where a large portion of life takes place. This survey, which was collected for the first time in 2016, seeks to evaluate the quality of life of Canadians and their views about work, and work-life balance.

Where work is concerned, respondents are asked about topics such as work intensity, job security, compensation and benefits, work satisfaction, intercultural workplace relations, and discrimination and harassment. Meanwhile questions related to home cover other aspects of life, including work-life balance, eating habits, nutritional awareness, use of technology, sports, and involvement in outdoor and cultural activities. In addition, this is the only GSS with questions on purpose of life, opportunities, life aspirations, outlook, and resilience.

Together, information on work and home life allows for insights into the quality of life and lifestyle behaviours of Canadians, and into issues surrounding productivity, job satisfaction, work ethic, and discrimination in the workplace. GSS data are important for informing policy areas such as funding for sports and recreational associations, regulations on workplace bullying and harassment, studies on the integration of immigrants into the labour market, and promoting greater nutritional awareness.

The first results from the 2016 GSS were published in November 2017.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Canadians at Work and Home.

Family

The central role of the family in one’s life is indisputable. The GSS on Family was first conducted in 1990 and has been repeated approximately every five years since then, most recently in 2017. The survey captures information on the structure of families through each of its cycles and uses retrospective questions to follow the historic evolution of families.

This GSS cycle’s ability to monitor the evolution of families from cycle to cycle is in part due to its “life course perspective” approach. This approach, which recognizes the impact of social context on a person’s life, is vitally important given the increasing diversity of today’s families and the events they go through.

The 2011 GSS added new content to investigate organization and decision making within the household, family resiliency, couples living apart, difficulty in conceiving a child, and sterilization (previously asked in 2001). Childcare arrangement modules were also remodeled.

The 2017 GSS updated most of the information collected in previous family surveys, including leaving the family home, conjugal history (marriages, common-law unions, separations and divorces), children (birth, adopted or step), maternity and parental leave, intentions to form (or re-form) a union, fertility intentions, custody, and financial support agreements. In 2017, the modules on childcare services, childcare arrangements, child custody and financial support, and programs used after a separation or a divorce were also redesigned. Other changes involved expanding modules on parents and grandparents and removing the module on work history.

The first results from the 2017 GSS on Family were released in February 2019.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Family.

Caregiving and Care Receiving

With the aging of the population, women’s increased participation in the labour force, and the shifts in the structures of families in Canada, the importance of caregiving and care receiving has been increasingly recognized. The implications of providing care to someone with a long-term health condition extend beyond the direct economic, health, and social consequences to the family. Caregiving and care receiving also impact other policy areas of importance to governments, including labour productivity, labour force attachment, and institutionalized care expenditures, such as health care costs.

Data on caregiving and care receiving were first extensively collected through the 1996 GSS and again in 2002, 2007, and 2012. The objectives of these surveys were to determine the nature of the help provided and received, to understand the dynamic between an individual’s social network and help they obtained or gave, and to identify those who needed help but were not receiving any.

The 2012 GSS added a greatly expanded look at the impacts of providing care on the caregiver’s life, including social and emotional health, employment and financial consequences. Accessible housing was another new topic. For the first time, the proportion of Canada’s housing stock that is accessible to individuals using a wheelchair was measured.

The 2018 GSS on Caregiving and Care Receiving continued to collect data using many of the same questions as the 2012 GSS, including questions on the types of help provided and received for long-term health conditions, mental or physical disabilities or problems related to aging. Detailed sections covered the characteristics of both family and friend caregivers, as well as those who received formal and informal care. Links can be drawn between caregiving or receiving and the factors influencing or linked to health status (such as income, education, and social networks).

The 2018 GSS on Caregiving and Care Receiving was in collection from April to December 2018. Data are planned for release in late 2019.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Caregiving and Care Receiving.

Giving, Volunteering and Participating

The GSS on Giving, Volunteering and Participating is a key source of information on charitable giving and community involvement. Data from the survey are used by government and voluntary sector organizations to inform policy and program decisions. While Statistics Canada has conducted a standalone survey on this topic approximately every 3 years since 1997 (previously called the Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, or CSGVP), this survey became part of the GSS program in 2013.

The 2018 GSS on Giving, Volunteering and Participating (GVP) collects information about how Canadians volunteer their time; donate money and in-kind gifts to charitable and non-profit organizations; and provide direct help to others. While the 2018 GSS covers most of the content of previous GVP surveys, it includes new questions on quality of volunteer experience and skills used, hours spent on informal volunteer activities, help given directly to communities and money given directly to people.

The survey includes a set of modules that rotate in and out by cycle/survey year, depending on analytic priorities, to track changes over longer intervals. The 2018 GSS, for example, includes questions last asked in 2010 about youth experiences and attitudes. On the other hand, rotating modules on skills gained from volunteering, participation in groups and organizations, and donations for natural disaster relief that were asked in previous iterations are not part of the 2018 GSS. A longer module on employer support for volunteering was also rotated out and replaced by a shorter, employer support minimum module for this iteration.

New socio-demographic content, added for 2018, includes gender, disability screening questions and the veterans identifier.

The 2018 GSS was in collection from September to December 2018. Data are planned for release in 2020.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Giving, Volunteering and Participating.

Victimization

The GSS on Victimization explores the sensitive subjects of criminal victimization and spousal violence. In particular, Victimization cycles ask Canadians about reported and unreported victimization, including experiences of crime, violence and abuse by current or past spouse or partner; use of services available to help victims of abuse or crime; fear of crime; crime prevention; and social disorder and experiences of discrimination. The survey allows for the measurement of victimization rates over time by age, sex, province and other classification variables, as well as many other indicators related to victimization.

GSS data on victimization are an important complement to administrative data on police-reported crime, as they capture information that does not come to the attention of the police and is therefore not counted in official crime rates. The survey produces estimates of the extent to which persons are the victims of eight types of offences: physical assault, sexual assault, robbery, theft of personal property, breaking and entering, motor vehicle theft, theft of household property and vandalism.

The 2019 iteration of the GSS kept most of the content of previous cycles including internet victimization, cyber bullying, and crime prevention. The stalking questions (criminal harassment) from the 2014 cycle were rotated out for the 2019 survey while the questions on perceptions of criminal courts, prison and parole systems were brought back in for 2019. The 2019 survey also included new questions on dating violence (to be comparable with spousal and ex-spousal abuse) childhood victimization (sex of adult responsible, location of the most serious incident, harsh parenting questions) and fraud (during the past 5 years and past 12 months, including details on the most serious incident of fraud).

Additionally, the 2019 GSS included a two-step approach to measuring sex and gender which has recently been adopted by all GSS cycles and by other surveys at Statistics Canada. Specific to the GSS on Victimization, however, the survey also included “gender identity or expression” as one of the potential categories which could be chosen by respondents as the perceived reason that they had experienced a hate crime or discrimination.

The GSS on Victimization is the only national survey of self-reported victimization which provides data for the provinces and territories. It is also the only GSS to conduct interviews in Canada’s territories.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Victimization.

Social Identity

The GSS on Social Identity was first collected, under that name, in 2013. However, past cycles of this survey were conducted under the names Social Networks in 2008 and Social Engagement in 2003. Each of these cycles collected information on social contacts with family, friends, and neighbours; involvement in formal organizations, political activities and volunteer work; values and attitudes; and level of trust in people and public institutions. The 2008 GSS also looked at how Canadians use their social networks to obtain support during periods of change in their lives.

The 2013 GSS was expanded to cover the broader issues of social identity and, in particular, Canadians’ identification with, and sense of belonging to, national, ethnic, geographic and cultural groups as well as to local, regional and national institutions. Questions on shared values revealed a portrait of identity as a common body of norms adhered to by most people. Content on engagement and participation have been used to help understand how social integration is built among people living in a modern, diverse society with multiple ethnicities and backgrounds. Finally, questions on social networks and norms of trust examined the social patterns that hold society together. Data from this survey have helped build national measures and support policies on the inclusion and diversity of people living in Canada.

Please note that there were two separate GSSs conducted in 2013: Social Identity, and Giving, Volunteering and Participating (GVP).

The next iteration of the GSS on Social Identity is currently in the consultation and development phase, with collection planned for 2020.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Social Identity.

Time Use

The GSS on Time Use collects information on how respondents manage their time and perform their daily activities. These data can therefore inform a broad range of policies, and can be used to assess social trends and changes in living conditions. Three key themes have been identified as necessary for informed policy making and for which no other data sources are adequate: unpaid work and non-market production; well-being; and gender equality. Other topics covered by the Time Use survey include leisure time, work-life balance, health, commuting, culture, and sports.

Statistics Canada has been conducting Time Use surveys since 1986 at approximately five- to seven- year intervals, most recently in 2015. The GSS on Time Use employs a retrospective 24-hour time diary to collect information on respondents’ participation in, and time spent on, a wide variety of day-to-day activities. In addition, information is collected on the location where these activities occurred (e.g., at home, at work, etc.) and, for non-personal activities, the people who were with the respondent at the time of the activity. In addition, GSS Time Use surveys also include questions on household composition, labour force status, life satisfaction, unpaid work, time perceptions and pressures, and participation in sports and cultural activities along with numerous socioeconomic characteristics.

In 2010, simultaneous activity questions were introduced for the first time. These questions allow for a better understanding of multitasking, particularly in situations where passive childcare is combined with other activities (e.g., a parent cooking dinner while watching over the children).

Time Use surveys are conducted in several countries other than Canada. In recent years, many Time Use surveys internationally have experienced a drop in response rates. In line with this trend, the response rate for the 2015 GSS Time Use survey (38%) was lower than the response rate achieved for the previous GSS Time Use survey conducted in 2010 (55%). In order to ensure that the data were fit-for-use, additional nonresponse adjustment steps were taken and the final data was validated using several data sources. For more information please consult the Survey Technical Note.

The first results from the 2015 GSS on Time Use were published in June 2017.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Time Use.

5. Discontinued GSS themes

The table in Appendix A provides a list of GSS themes, including those which have been discontinued or incorporated into other surveys. For additional information on discontinued GSS Cycles, please contact Client Services and Dissemination: statcan.sasdclientservices-dsseaserviceaclientele.statcan@canada.ca.

6. Data and product availability

GSS data and analytical articles published by Statistics Canada are available publicly.

Dissemination activities begin for each survey with a data availability announcement in The Daily. The Daily is Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin and its first line of communication with the media and the public. The Daily issues news releases on current social and economic conditions and announces new products. It provides a comprehensive one-stop overview of new information available from Statistics Canada. One can subscribe to The Daily.

Access to the GSS analytical files and the bootstrap weights files are provided through Statistics Canada’s Research Data Centres (RDCs), which are located throughout the country. RDCs provide researchers with access, in a secure setting, to microdata from population and household surveys, administrative data holdings and linked data. The centres are staffed by Statistics Canada employees. They are operated under the provisions of the Statistics Act in accordance with all the confidentiality rules and are accessible only to researchers with approved projects who have been sworn in under the Statistics Act as ‘deemed employees’. One must submit an application to access data held in the RDCs. Please visit The Research Data Centres (RDC) Program to learn more about the RDCs, and the Application process and guidelines to learn about the application process.

Data files can also be accessed using the Real Time Remote Access (RTRA) tool at Statistics Canada. This is a subscription service provided for a fee to clients associated with an academic institution, a government department or a non-profit organization. The RTRA system is an on-line remote access facility allowing users to run SAS programs, in real-time, using microdata sets located in a central and secure location. Researchers using the RTRA system do not gain direct access to the microdata and cannot view the content of the microdata file. Instead, users submit SAS programs to extract results in the form of frequency tables.

The RTRA complements existing methods of access to confidential microdata, including RDCs. Using a secure username and password, the RTRA provides around the clock access to survey results from any computer with internet access. Confidentiality rules and reliability guidelines are automatically applied to all requests by the RTRA system, eliminating the need for manual intervention and allowing for rapid access to results.

Please visit The Real Time Remote Access (RTRA) system for more information on how to obtain a user account or an RTRA agent can be reached at statcan.madrtra-damadtr.statcan@canada.ca.

Custom tabulations are also available on a cost recovery basis for individuals who require a specific set of data for an article or analysis. Please contact Client Services and Dissemination: statcan.sasdclientservices-dsseaserviceaclientele.statcan@canada.ca.

Researchers wishing to undertake more in-depth analysis of their own may request a Public Use Microdata File (PUMF). A PUMF, including documentation, is produced for each GSS and is available free of charge. In order to protect the confidentiality of Canadians, an extensive disclosure risk analysis takes place before the release of the PUMF. Variables with extreme values are capped, information for some variables is aggregated into broader classes and in rare cases certain variables are modified.

For the most up-to-date information on products and services, please visit Statistics Canada’s website.

7. Appendices

Appendix A – Topics according to series, year and cycle


Table A.1
Topics according to series, year and cycle
Table summary
This table displays the results of Topics according to series. The information is grouped by Topic (appearing as row headers), 1st series, 2nd series, 3rd series, 4th series, 5th series, 6th series and 7th series (appearing as column headers).
Topic 1st series 2nd series 3rd series 4th series 5th series 6th series 7th series
year (cycle)
Health 1985 (1) 1991 (6) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Time Use 1986 (2) 1992 (7) 1998 (12) 2005 (19) 2010 (24) 2015 (29) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Victimization 1988 (3) 1993 (8) 1999 (13) 2004 (18) 2009 (23) 2014 (28) 2019 (34)
Education, Work and Retirement 1989 (4) 1994 (9) 2002 (16) 2007 (21) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Family 1990 (5) 1995 (10) 2001 (15) 2006 (20) 2007 (21) 2011 (25) 2017 (31)
Access To and Use of ICT 2000 (14) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Social Identity 2003 (17)Table A.1 Note  2008 (22)Table A.1 Note  2013 (27) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Caregiving and Care Receiving 1996 (11) 2002 (16) 2007 (21) 2012 (26) 2018 (32) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Giving, Volunteering and Participating 1997Table A.1 Note § 2000Table A.1 Note § 2004Table A.1 Note †† 2007Table A.1 Note †† 2010Table A.1 Note †† 2013 (27) 2018 (33)
Canadians at Work and Home 2016 (30) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period

Appendix B – GSS cycle numbers, collection dates and response rates


Table B.1
GSS cycle numbers, collection dates and response rates
Table summary This table displays the results of Table B.1 GSS cycle numbers. The information is grouped by Cycle (appearing as row headers), Date of collection, Core content, New content and Response rate (appearing as column headers).
Cycle Date of collection Core content New content Response rate
34 2019 Victimization Dating violence, childhood victimization, fraud, gender, veterans identifier Not available
33 2018 Giving, Volunteering and Participating Quality of the volunteer experience and skills used, mandatory unpaid work hours, hours spent on informal volunteer activities, help given directly to communities, money given directly to people, gender, disability screening questions, veterans identifier Not available
32 2018 Caregiving and Care Receiving Aboriginal group, population group, veterans identifier Not available
31 2017 Family Expanded modules on parents and grandparents 52.4
30 2016 Canadians at Work and Home 2016 was the first time this survey was conducted 50.8
29 2015 Time Use Subjective wellbeing/use of technology/light diary 38.2
28 2014 Victimization Childhood victimization, criminal harassment 52.9
27 2013 Social Identity Sense of belonging, pride in Canada, shared values, trust, importance of symbols, discrimination 48.1
27 2013 Giving, Volunteering and Participating Online giving, searching for information about a charity before giving, knowing how to verify if an organization is a registered charity, awareness of organizations that monitor how charities use their donations 46.0
26 2012 Caregiving and Care Receiving The consequences of caregiving 65.7
25 2011 Family Family transitions 65.8
24 2010 Time Use / Stress and Well-being Simultaneous activities, work-life balance 55.2
23 2009 Victimization Internet victimization 61.6
22 2008 Social Networks Coping with change 57.3
21 2007 Family, Social Support, Retirement Work/family history, retirement experiences and plans 57.7
20 2006 Family History Family transitions 67.4
19 2005 Time Use Social networks/trust/transportation 58.6
18 2004 Victimization Use of restraining orders, stalking and social disorder 74.5
17 2003 Social Engagement Social/civic participation, trust and values 78.0
16 2002 Social Support and Aging Retirement planning and experience 74.5
15 2001 Family History Education history, mobility 80.9
14 2000 Technology - Computer and Internet Use of computers, impact of technology on privacy, access to information 80.8
13 1999 Victimization Spousal, senior abuse/perceptions 81.3
12 1998 Time Use Sports participation/culture 77.6
11 1996 Social Support Tobacco use 85.3
10 1995 Family Effects of tobacco smoke 81.4
9 1994 Education, Work and Retirement Transition into retirement 81.2
8 1993 Personal Risk Alcohol and drug use 81.6
7 1992 Time Use Culture, sport and unpaid-work activities 76.8
6 1991 Health Various health topics 80.2
5 1990 Family and Friends Relationships and interactions with family and friends 75.8
4 1989 Education and Work New technologies and human resources 80.7
3 1988 Personal risk Victim services 82.4
2 1986 Time Use, Social Mobility Language 78.9
1 1985 Health Social support 83.4

Appendix C – Selected publications using GSS data, by survey theme


Table C.1
Publications on Canadians at Work and Home
Table summary
This table displays the results of Publications on Canadians at work and home. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Catalogue Information and Release date (appearing as column headers).
Title Catalogue number Release date
2016 Public Use Microdata File 45-25-00012018001 June, 2018
Eating out: Nutrition information on menus and menu boards 11-627-M January, 2019
Eating out: How often and why? 11-627-M January, 2019
Canadian youth: hopeful, resilient and hard-working 11-627-M December, 2018
Harassment in Canadian workplaces 75-006-X December, 2018
Assessing Job Quality in Canada: A Multidimensional Approach 11F0019M December, 2018
Life satisfaction among Canadian seniors 75-006-X August, 2018
Making time for creative activities 11-627-M June, 2018
Canadians and the outdoors 11-627-M March, 2018
Nutritional Information on Packaged Foods 11-627-M February, 2018
A portrait of Canadian youth 11-631-X February, 2018
Barriers to Labour Mobility in Canada 11-626 November, 2017
Life in the fast lane: How are Canadians managing?, 2016 11-001 November, 2017
The Internet and Digital Technology 11-627-M November, 2017

Table C.2
Tables on Canadians at Work and Home
Table summary
This table displays the results of Tables on Canadians at work and home. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Table number (appearing as column headers).
Title Table number
Use of technology by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and regions 22-10-0110-01
Job satisfaction by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and regions 22-10-0111-01
Average satisfaction with life and with selected domains of life by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and regions 13-10-0106-01
Resilience by age group, Canada, provinces and regions 13-10-0107-01
Participation in cultural activities in the past 12 months by age, sex, current employment status, and perceived health, Canada, provinces and regions 13-10-0108-01
Participation in outdoor activities in the past 12 months, by age, sex, current employment status, and perceived health, Canada, provinces and regions 45-10-0030-01
Job-family conflict by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and regions 14-10-0100-01
Satisfaction with the balance between work and home by age group, sex and employment type, Canada, provinces and regions 14-10-0207-01

Table C.3
Publications on Families
Table summary
This table displays the results of Publications on families. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Catalogue Information and Release date (appearing as column headers).
Title Catalogue number Release date
2011 Public Use Microdata File 12M0025XCB April, 2013
Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada 91-209-X June, 2018
Women and Paid Work (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 March, 2017
Families and Living Arrangements (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 November, 2015
Diversity of grandparents living with their grandchildren 75-006-X April, 2015
Parenting and child support after separation or divorce 89-652-X February, 2014
Living apart together 75-006-X March, 2013
2011 General Social Survey: Overview of Families in Canada 89-650-X October, 2012
Making fathers "count" 11-008 June, 2010
Parenting after separation and divorce: a profile of agreements and arrangements for spending time with and making decisions for children 85-002 October, 2009
I Do...Take Two? Changes in Intentions to Remarry Among Divorced Canadians during the Past 20 years 89-630-X July, 2008
Do older Canadians have more friends now than in 1990? 89-630-X July, 2008

Table C.4
Publications on Caregiving and Care Receiving
Table summary
This table displays the results of Publications on caregiving and care receiving. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Catalogue Information and Release date (appearing as column headers).
Title Catalogue number Release date
2012 Public Use Microdata File 89M0031X August, 2014
Senior Women (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 March, 2016
Senior care: Differences by type of housing 75-006-X February, 2015
End-of-life care 89-652-X October, 2014
Young Canadians providing care 89-652-X September, 2014
Canadians with unmet home care needs 75-006-X September, 2014
Receiving care at home 89-652-X June, 2014
Portrait of caregivers, 2012 89-652-X September, 2013
Family Caregiving: What are the Consequences? 75-006-X September, 2013
Caring for a parent who lives far away: The consequences 11-008 January, 2010
Online activities of Canadian boomers and seniors 11-008 August, 2009
2007 General Social Survey: Care Tables 89-633-X October, 2008
Elder care: What we know today 11-008 October, 2008
2007 General Social Survey report: The retirement plans and expectations of older workers 11-008 September, 2008
2007 General Social Survey report: The retirement puzzle: Sorting the pieces 11-008 September, 2008

Table C.5
Tables on Caregiving and Care Receiving
Table summary
This table displays the results of Tables on caregiving and care receiving. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Table number (appearing as column headers).
Title Table number
Population providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and age group, occasional, 2012 44-10-0001-01
Population providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and presence of children under 18 years in the household, occasional, 2012 44-10-0002-01
Population providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and main activity of caregiver, occasional, 2012 44-10-0003-01
Population providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and household income of caregiver, occasional, 2012 44-10-0004-01
Population providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and relationship between caregiver and primary care receiver, occasional, 2012 44-10-0005-01
Time spent providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and age group, occasional, 2012 44-10-0006-01
Time spent providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and presence of children under 18 years in the household, occasional, 2012 44-10-0007-01
Time spent providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and main activity of caregiver, occasional, 2012 44-10-0008-01
Time spent providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and household income of caregiver, occasional, 2012 44-10-0009-01
Time spent providing care to a family member or friend with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, by sex and relationship between caregiver and primary care receiver, occasional, 2012 44-10-0010-01
Caregivers receiving financial support from family or friends for providing care to relatives or friends with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, occasional (percent), 2012 44-10-0011-01
Caregivers receiving financial support from government programs for providing care to relatives or friends with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, occasional (percent), 2012 44-10-0012-01
Caregivers receiving federal tax credits for providing care to relatives or friends with a long-term illness, disability or aging needs, occasional (percent), 2012 44-10-0013-01

Table C.6
Publications on Giving, Volunteering and Participating
Table summary
This table displays the results of Publications on giving. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Catalogue Information and Release date (appearing as column headers).
Title Catalogue number Release date
2013 Public Use Microdata File 89M0033X November, 2015
A portrait of Canadian youth 11-631-X February, 2018
The Girl Child (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 February, 2017
Employer support of volunteering: Underlying characteristics of participation and presence of support 89-652 June, 2016
Senior Women (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 March, 2016
Charitable giving in Canada 11-627-M December, 2015
Charitable giving by individuals 89-652 December, 2015
Volunteering in Canada, 2004 to 2013 89-652 June, 2015
The Faces of Volunteers 11-627-M April, 2015
Volunteering and charitable giving in Canada 89-652 January, 2015
Giving and volunteering among Canada's immigrants 11-008 May, 2012
Employer support of volunteering 11-008 May, 2012
Charitable giving by Canadians 11-008 April, 2012
Volunteering in Canada 11-008 April, 2012

Table C.7
Tables on Giving, Volunteering and Participating
Table summary
This table displays the results of Tables on giving. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Table number (appearing as column headers).
Title Table number
Donor rate and distribution of donations, by age group, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0004-01
Donor rate and distribution of donations, by sex, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0005-01
Donor rate and distribution of donations, by marital status, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0006-01
Donor rate and distribution of donations, by education, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0007-01
Donor rate and distribution of donations, by labour force status, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0008-01
Donor rate and distribution of donations, by household income, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0009-01
Donor rate and distribution of donations, by presence of children in household, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0010-01
Donor rate and distribution of donations, by religious attendance, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0011-01
Volunteer rate and distribution of volunteer hours, by age group, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0012-01
Volunteer rate and distribution of volunteer hours, by sex, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0013-01
Volunteer rate and distribution of volunteer hours, by marital status, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0028-01
Volunteer rate and distribution of volunteer hours, by education, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0015-01
Volunteer rate and distribution of volunteer hours, by labour force status, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0016-01
Volunteer rate and distribution of volunteer hours, by household income, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0017-01
Volunteer rate and distribution of volunteer hours, by presence of children in household, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0018-01
Volunteer rate and distribution of volunteer hours, by religious attendance, Canada, provinces, occasional (Percent), 2013 45-10-0019-01

Table C.8
Publications on Victimization
Table summary
This table displays the results of Publications on victimization. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Catalogue Information and Release date (appearing as column headers).
Title Catalogue number Release date
2014 Public Use Microdata File 12M0026X July, 2016
Female offenders in Canada, 2017 85-002-X January, 2019
Police-reported violence against girls and young women in Canada, 2017 85-002-X December, 2018
Violent victimization of Canadians with mental health-related disabilities, 2014 85-002-X October, 2018
Women and men who experienced cyberstalking in Canada 75-006-X June, 2018
Violent victimization of lesbians, gays and bisexuals in Canada, 2014 85-002-X May, 2018
Association between the frequency of cannabis use and selected social indicators 75-006-X May, 2018
Violent victimization and discrimination, by religious affiliation in Canada, 2014 85-002 April, 2018
Violent victimization and discrimination among visible minority populations, Canada, 2014 85-002 April, 2018
Violent victimization, discrimination and perceptions of safety: An immigrant perspective, Canada, 2014 85-002 April, 2018
Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2016 85-002 April, 2018
Violent victimization of women with disabilities, 2014 85-002 March, 2018
A portrait of Canadian youth 11-631-X February, 2018
Family Violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2016 85-002 January, 2018
Canadians' perceptions of personal safety and crime, 2014 85-002 December, 2017
Cyberstalking in Canada 11-627-M December, 2017
Childhood physical abuse: Differences by birth cohort 75-006 September, 2017
Self-reported sexual assault in Canada, 2014 85-002 July, 2017
Women and the Criminal Justice System (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 June, 2017
The Girl Child (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 February, 2017
Family Violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2015 85-002 February, 2017
Cyberbullying and cyberstalking among Internet users aged 15 to 29 in Canada 75-006 December, 2016
Hidden homelessness in Canada 75-006 November, 2016
Perceptions of police performance in the territories, 2014 89-652 June, 2016
Victimization of Aboriginal people in Canada, 2014 85-002-X June, 2016
Criminal victimization in the territories, 2014 85-002 April, 2016
Canadians' perceptions of neighbourhood disorder, 2014 89-652-X March, 2016
Family Violence in Canada, 2014 11-627-M January, 2016
Criminal victimization in Canada, 2014 85-002 November, 2015
Payment Patterns of Child and Spousal Support 85-002 April, 2013
Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends 85-002 February, 2013
Victimization of Older Canadians, 2009 85-002 March, 2012
Criminal Victimization in the Territories, 2009 85-002 January, 2012
Canadians' Perceptions of Personal Safety and Crime, 2009 85-002 December, 2011
Self-reported Internet Victimization in Canada, 2009 85-002 September, 2011
Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2009 85-002 June, 2011
Violent Victimization of Aboriginal Women in the Canadian Provinces, 2009 85-002 May, 2011
Violent Victimization of Aboriginal people in the Canadian Provinces, 2009 85-002 March, 2011
Criminal Victimization in Canada, 2009 85-002 September, 2010
A profile of perceptions of incivility in the metropolitan landscape 11-008 July, 2008

Table C.9
Tables on Victimization
Table summary
This table displays the results of Tables on victimization. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Table number (appearing as column headers).
Title Table number
General social survey, perception of job being done by local police in regard to enforcing the law, by sex, population aged 15 and over, every 5 years (Persons), 2014 35-10-0158-01
General social survey, perception of job being done by local police in regard to responding quickly to calls, by sex, population aged 15 and over, every 5 years (Persons), 2014 35-10-0159-01
General social survey, perception of job being done by local police in regard to being approachable and easy to talk to, by sex, population aged 15 and over, every 5 years (Persons) 35-10-0160-01
General social survey, perception of job being done by local police in regard to supplying information to the public on ways to prevent crime, by sex, population aged 15 and over, every 5 years (Persons), 2014 35-10-0161-01
General social survey, perception of job being done by local police in regard to ensuring neighbourhood safety, by sex, population aged 15 and over, every 5 years (Persons), 2014 35-10-0162-01
General social survey, perception of job being done by local police in regard to treating people fairly, by sex, population aged 15 and over, every 5 years (Persons), 2014 35-10-0163-01

Table C.10
Publications on Social Identity
Table summary
This table displays the results of Publications on social identity. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Catalogue Information and Release date (appearing as column headers).
Title Catalogue number Release date
2013 Public Use Microdata File 89M0032X June, 2015
Canadians and political activities 11-627-M October, 2018
A portrait of Canadian youth 11-631-X February, 2018
The Girl Child (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 February, 2017
Patterns and Determinants of Immigrants' Sense of Belonging to Canada and Their Source Country 11F0019M October, 2016
Senior Women (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 March, 2016
Visible Minority Women (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 March, 2016
The use of media to follow news and current affairs 89-652-X February, 2016
Public confidence in Canadian institutions 89-652-X December, 2015
Political participation and civic engagement of youth 75-006 October, 2015
Canadian identity, 2013 89-652-X October, 2015
Immigrant Women (Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report) 89-503 October, 2015
Civic engagement and political participation in Canada 89-652-X September, 2015
Proud to be Canadian 11-627-M June, 2015
Sense of belonging to Canada, province of residence and local community, 2013 89-652-X June, 2015
Trends in social capital in Canada, 2003, 2008 and 2013 89-652-X May, 2015
Canadians' connections with family and friends 89-652-X December, 2014
Quality of personal networks: Does living alone matter? 11-008 November, 2011
Personal networks and the economic adjustment of immigrants 11-008 November, 2011
Ethical consumption 11-008 January, 2011
Working at home: An update 11-008 December, 2010
2008 General Social Survey: Selected Tables on Social Engagement 89-640-X June, 2009
2008 General Social Survey report: Social networks help Canadians deal with change 11-008 June, 2009

Table C.11
Tables on Social Identity
Table summary
This table displays the results of Tables on social identity. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Table number (appearing as column headers).
Title Table number
General social survey (GSS), electoral participation in last federal election, by sex and age group, every 5 years (Persons), 2013 45-10-0025-01
General social survey (GSS), electoral participation in last provincial election, by sex and age group, every 5 years (Persons), 2013 45-10-0026-01
General social survey (GSS), electoral participation in last municipal election, by sex and age group (Persons), 2013 45-10-0027-01

Table C.12
Publications on Time Use
Table summary
This table displays the results of Publications on time use. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Catalogue Information and Release date (appearing as column headers).
Title Catalogue number Release date
2015 Public Use Microdata File 89-M0034X October, 2017
Ready, set, snooze! 11-627-M October, 2018
Time use: Total work burden, unpaid work, and leisure 89-503-X July, 2018
Time to eat 11-627-M March, 2018
A day in the life: How do older Canadians spend their time? 75-006-X March, 2018
Changes in parents' participation in domestic tasks and care for children from 1986 to 2015 89-652-X June, 2017
General Social Survey 2015 Time Use Survey Technical Note 89-658-X June, 2017
Satisfaction with work-life balance: Fact sheet 89-652-X April, 2016
What's stressing the stressed? Main sources of stress among workers 11-008 October, 2011
Commuting to work: Results of the 2010 General Social Survey 11-008 August, 2011
General Social Survey - 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians 89-647 July, 2011
Life in metropolitan areas: Are suburban residents really less physically active? 11-008 April, 2009
Who participates in active leisure? 11-008 February, 2009
Kids' Sports 11-008 June, 2008
Who gets any sleep these days? Sleep patterns of Canadians 11-008 April, 2008

Table C.13
Tables on Time Use
Table summary
This table displays the results of Tables on time use. The information is grouped by Title (appearing as row headers), Table number (appearing as column headers).
Title Table number
Average time spent in hours on unpaid domestic and care work by sex 45-10-0014-02
Daily average time spent in hours on various activities by age group and sex, 15 years and over, Canada and provinces, 2015 45-10-0014-01
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