Ethnicity, Language and Immigration Thematic Series
Portrait of French-speaking workers in Western Canada and the territories’ agriculture and agri-food industries, 2006 and 2016

by Étienne Lemyre

Release date: March 22, 2021

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Highlights

  • In 2016, 2,305 of the 107,480 farms located in Western Canada (2.1%) had a French-speaking main operator. There were more of these farms in Alberta (750), Saskatchewan (680) and Manitoba (655) than in British Columbia (220).
  • In 2016, the proportion of farms operated by one or more people 55 years or older was higher when the main operator was French-speaking than when the main operator was English-speaking. In Saskatchewan, this proportion was 65.8% for farms with a French-speaking main operator and 51.8% for farms with an English-speaking main operator.
  • In Manitoba and British Columbia, farms with a French-speaking main operator were more likely to cover a small area and generate low gross farm receipts than those with an English-speaking main operator. Conversely, in Saskatchewan and Alberta, farms whose main operator was French-speaking were more likely to cover a large area and generate high gross farm receipts.
  • The number of French-speaking agricultural workers in the Western provinces decreased from 4,810 to 3,695 between 2006 and 2016. In both years, about 2% of agricultural workers were French speakers.
  • The proportion of French-speaking agricultural workers aged 55 years or older increased between 2006 and 2016, surpassing the proportion of English-speaking workers. In Saskatchewan, the proportion of French-speaking agricultural workers 55 years or older rose from 56.5% to 71.5% over the decade, while among their English-speaking counterparts, this proportion increased from 42.9% to 49.2%.
  • The proportion of self-employed French-speaking agricultural workers was higher than among their English-speaking counterparts. In 2016, 52.7% of French-speaking agricultural workers in Manitoba were self-employed, compared with 45.7% of English-speaking workers (excluding unpaid family workers).
  • Between 2006 and 2016, the number of French-speaking agri-food workers was relatively stable in the Western provinces (10,065 to 9,930) and the territories (140 to 135).
  • The proportion of French-speaking agri-food workers who were born outside Canada grew between 2006 and 2016. In Alberta, the proportion increased from 22.6% to 37.6% over the decade, and in 2016 more than one in five French-speaking agri-food workers were born in Africa.
  • In 2016, French-speaking agri-food workers were more likely to have a postsecondary qualification than their English-speaking counterparts. In British Columbia, 50.1% of French-speaking agri-food workers had this kind of qualification, versus 35.2% of their English-speaking counterparts.
  • Excluding British Columbia’s agri-food sector, the proportion of French-speaking agricultural and agri-food workers who used only English at work rose in all Western provinces between 2006 and 2016. In Manitoba’s agri-food sector, this proportion rose from 54.5% to 58.0%.

Acknowledgements

This project was carried out as part of a collaboration between Statistics Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) as well as Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED). Thanks go to Martin Fournier and his team at AAFC for their suggestions and comments.

This project was also made possible thanks to the participation of Leon Laborde and his team at Statistic Canada’s Census of Agriculture.

Finally, the author wishes to thank his counterparts at the Centre for Ethnocultural, Language and Immigration Statistics (CELIS) for their advice and revision efforts, particularly Émilie Lavoie, Bertrand Ouellet-Léveillé, and Éric Caron-Malenfant, as well as Louis Cornelissen and Isabelle Duncan for their help finalizing this report.

Introduction

French speakersNote  who work in the agriculture and agri-food industriesNote  of Western Canada and the territories have unique characteristics and specific needs as an official language minority. This report provides an overview of farms whose main operatorNote  is French-speaking and of French-speaking workers in the agriculture and agri-food industries. It shows how the social, economic and linguistic profile of these workers changed between 2006 and 2016, for Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia (Western Canadian provinces), as well as for Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut (the territories). It is a follow-up to the “Portrait of French-language workers in Western Canada’s agriculture and agri-food industries”Note  published in 2017.

Section 1 of this report presents, for each province,Note  the characteristics of farms whose main operator is French-speaking, based on data from the 2016 Census of Population and the 2016 Census of Agriculture. Using the first official language spoken of the first farm operator listed on the Census of Agriculture questionnaire, this section identifies how farms with a French-speaking operator differ from other farms regarding operating arrangements, farm type, age groups and generational profile of the operators, declared land tenure, farm area, gross farm receipts, and farm capital.

Section 2 examines French-speaking workers in the agriculture industries of each Western province.Note  Using data from the 2006 and 2016 censuses of population, this section presents the profile of French-speaking agricultural workers and its changes between 2006 and 2016 by age group, sex, place of birth, IndigenousNote  identity, education, class of worker, employment income, and languages used at work.

Similarly, section 3 profiles French-speaking agri-food workers and their distribution by industry, for each Western province and for the territories.

Lastly, the conclusion summarizes the trends that were discussed in the previous sections to present general observations on the situation of French speakers in the agriculture and agri-food industries of Western Canada and the territories.

1. Portrait of Western Canadian farms whose main operator is French-speaking

This section examines the characteristics of farms in Western Canada according to the language of the main operator in order to identify potential issues that may be more pronounced for farms operated by French speakers.

The information in this section is based on integrated data from the 2016 Census of Agriculture and the 2016 Census of Population. This data integration helped to determine, for each farm, the first official language spoken—derived from responses to the Census of Population—of the first operator listed on the Census of Agriculture questionnaire. This operator is responsible for making farm management decisions; it may be the owner or tenant of the operation or a hired manager. As a result, farm-specific agricultural data can be presented according to the language of the main operator.

To improve readability, farms whose main operator is a French speaker will be referred to as “French-language farms”, and farms whose main operator is an English speaker as “English-language farms.”

Of the 107,480 farms in Western Canada in 2016, 2,305 were French-language farms. They were distributed across all the Western provinces:

  • In Manitoba, there were 14,790 farms in 2016. More than 95% of these farms were English-language farms, and 4.4% (655) were French-language farms. Approximately 20 farms had a main operator who spoke neither English nor French.
  • In Saskatchewan, 98.0% of the 34,520 farms were English-language farms in 2016. The province had 680 French-language farms, representing 2.0% of the province’s farms. Fewer than 10 farms had neither an English nor a French speaker as their main operator.
  • There were 40,640 farms in Alberta in 2016. More than 98% of these were English-language farms, while 1.8% (750) were French-language farms. Approximately 40 Albertan farms had a main operator who spoke neither English nor French.
  • In 2016, there were 17,530 farms in British Columbia, 98% of which were English-language farms. There were 220 French-language farms, representing 1.2% of the province’s farms. Just under 1% of farms in British Columbia had a main operator who spoke neither English nor French.

There were not enough farms in the territories to present statistics by the language of their main operator. In 2016, 160 farms were located in the territories, mostly in Yukon.

1.1 Operating arrangements

In 2016, more than half of farms in Western Canada were sole proprietorships. The proportion of farms that were partnerships was 18.1% in Saskatchewan, 22.2% in Alberta and 23.0% in Manitoba, while the proportion of farms that were family corporations was 20.8% in Manitoba, 22.9% in Alberta and 25.3% in Saskatchewan. In British Columbia, the proportion of farms that were partnerships was higher (26.4%) and the proportion of farms that were family corporations was lower (17.2%) than in the other provinces. Furthermore, in 2016, the operating arrangements of French-language farms in British Columbia were similar to those of English-language farms.

This was not the case for the other Western Canadian provinces—Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta—where the operating arrangements of French-language farms differed from those of English-language farms in 2016. In these provinces, just under half of French-language farms were sole proprietorships, compared with more than 52% of English-language farms. Moreover, French-language farms in these provinces were more likely to be family corporations than English-language farms: 28.7% compared with 20.5% in Manitoba, 30.3% versus 25.3% in Saskatchewan, and 26.3% compared with 22.8% in Alberta.

1.2 Type of farm

In 2016, the proportion of farms across Western Canada that grew crops was higher than the proportion of farms that were engaged in animal production. Excluding British Columbia, the main types of agricultural operations were oilseed and grain farming,Note  and cattle ranching and farming.Note 

With the exception of Saskatchewan, French-language farms in the Western provinces in 2016 were more likely to be associated with crop farming than English-language farms. In Manitoba and Alberta, French-language farms differed from English-language farms by the higher proportion that grew oilseeds and grains, and the smaller proportion engaged in cattle ranching and farming.


Table 1.2.1
Farms classified by farm typeTable 1.2.1 Note 1 and by first official language spoken (FOLS)Table 1.2.1 6Note 2 of the main operator,Table 1.2.1 Note 3 Manitoba, 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Farms classified by farm type and by first official language spoken (FOLS) of the main operator. The information is grouped by Farm type (appearing as row headers), FOLS of main operator , Total: Manitoba, French and English, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Farm type FOLS of main operator Total: Manitoba
French English
percent
Animal production 36.5 40.7 40.5
Cattle ranching and farming 25.3 28.0 27.9
Hog and pig farming 2.5 1.7 1.8
Poultry and egg production 1.4 1.7 1.7
Sheep and goat farming 0.9 1.2 1.2
Other animal production 6.3 8.0 7.9
Crop farming 63.5 59.3 59.5
Oilseed and grain farming 49.1 45.1 45.3
Vegetable and melon farming 1.3 1.3 1.3
Greenhouse, nursery and floriculture production 1.2 1.3 1.3
Fruit and tree nut farming 0.9 0.5 0.5
Other crop farming 11.0 11.1 11.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0

In 2016, about 45% of Manitoba farms grew oilseeds and grains, and 27.9% were dedicated to cattle ranching and farming. About four in ten farms were engaged in animal production and nearly six in ten grew crops.

In Manitoba, there was little difference between the farm types of English- and French-language farms. The proportion of French-language farms that grew oilseeds and grains (49.1%) was higher than that of English-language farms (45.1%), while a lower proportion of French-language farms were engaged in cattle ranching and farming (25.3%) than English-language farms (28.0%).


Table 1.2.2
Farms classified by farm typeTable 1.2.2 Note 1 and by first official language spoken (FOLS)Table 1.2.2 Note 2 of the main operator,Table 1.2.2 Note 3 Saskatchewan, 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Farms classified by farm type and by first official language spoken (FOLS) of the main operator. The information is grouped by Farm type (appearing as row headers), FOLS of main operator , Total: Saskatchewan, French and English, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Farm type FOLS of main operator Total: Saskatchewan
French English
percent
Animal production 24.6 26.8 26.7
Cattle ranching and farming 19.0 21.1 21.1
Hog and pig farming 0.7 0.1 0.1
Other animal production 4.9 5.6 5.5
Crop farming 75.4 73.2 73.3
Oilseed and grain farming 64.3 62.3 62.3
Other crop farming 11.1 11.0 11.0
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0

In 2016, more than six in ten farms in Saskatchewan were engaged in oilseed and grain farming, and about one in five of the province’s farms were dedicated to cattle ranching and farming. The farm types of English- and French-language farms in this province were similar.


Table 1.2.3
Farms classified by farm typeTable 1.2.3 Note 1 and by first official language spoken (FOLS)Table 1.2.3 Note 2 of the main operator,Table 1.2.3 Note 3 Alberta, 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Farms classified by farm type and by first official language spoken (FOLS)of the main operator. The information is grouped by Farm type (appearing as row headers), FOLS of main operator , Total: Alberta, French and English, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Farm type FOLS of main operator Total: Alberta
French English
percent
Animal production 30.8 46.4 46.1
Cattle ranching and farming 18.7 31.5 31.2
Other animal production 12.1 14.9 14.9
Crop farming 69.2 53.6 53.9
Oilseed and grain farming 48.1 32.8 33.1
Greenhouse, nursery and floriculture production 1.1 1.5 1.5
Vegetable and melon farming 0.9 0.7 0.7
Other crop farming 19.1 18.6 18.6
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0

In 2016, 31.2% of Alberta farms raised cattle and about one-third of the province’s farms grew oilseeds and grains. The proportion of Alberta farms dedicated to animal production (46.1%) was higher than in Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

The proportion of French-language farms in Alberta dedicated to crop farming (69.2%) was higher than the proportion of English-language farms (53.6%). Just under half of French-language farms grew oilseeds and grains, compared with less than one-third of English-language farms. Conversely, the proportion of French-language farms dedicated to cattle ranching and farming (18.7%) was lower than that of English-language farms (31.5%).


Table 1.2.4
Farms classified by farm typeTable 1.2.4 Note 1 and by first official language spoken (FOLS)Table 1.2.4 Note 2 of the main operator,Table 1.2.4 Note 3 British Columbia, 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Farms classified by farm type and by first official language spoken (FOLS) of the main operator. The information is grouped by Farm type (appearing as row headers), FOLS of main operator , Total: British Columbia, French and English, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Farm type FOLS of main operator Total: British Columbia
French English
percent
Animal production 32.4 46.7 46.2
Cattle ranching and farming 10.9 16.6 16.4
Poultry and egg production 4.5 7.0 7.0
Sheep and goat farming 2.7 3.2 3.2
Other animal production 14.3 19.9 19.7
Crop farming 67.6 53.3 53.8
Fruit and tree nut farming 23.1 17.8 18.1
Vegetable and melon farming 12.5 6.3 6.5
Greenhouse, nursery and floriculture production 10.0 8.5 8.6
Oilseed and grain farming 2.3 1.7 1.7
Other crop farming 19.7 19.0 18.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0

Unlike in the other Western provinces, oilseeds and grains were grown in relatively few farms in British Columbia (less than 2%) in 2016. In contrast, about 18% of farms in this province were dedicated to fruit and tree nut farming and nearly 9% to greenhouse, nursery and floriculture production.Note  In addition, nearly one in six farms were engaged in cattle ranching and farming.

French-language farms were more likely to be associated with crop farming (67.6%) than English-language farms (53.3%) in British Columbia. The proportion of French-language farms that grew fruits and tree nuts (23.1%) was higher than that of English-language farms (17.8%), and the proportion of French-language farms that practised vegetable and melon farmingNote  (12.5%) was almost twice as high as that of English-language farms (6.3%). Just under a third of French-language farms were dedicated to animal production, compared with nearly 47% of English-language farms.

1.3 Age group and generational profile of operators

Between one and three farm operators can be listed per farm on the Census of Agriculture questionnaire. The people who operate a given farm may belong to the same or to different age groups.

In 2016, a significant proportion of farms in Western Canada were operated exclusively by persons aged 55 years or older. In all provinces, this proportion was higher on French-language farms than English-language farms, and a smaller share of French-language farms were operated exclusively by people under 35 years. This suggests that the aging of farm operators was more pronounced on French-language farms than on English-language farms.

Chart 1.3.1 Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS)1 of the main operator,2 Manitoba, 2016

Data table for Chart 1.3.1 
Chart 1.3.1
Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS)Chart 1.3.1 Note 1 of the main operator,Chart 1.3.1 Note 2 Manitoba, 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS) of the main operator Under 35 years, 35 to 54 years, 55 years or over and Different age categories, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Under 35 years 35 to 54 years 55 years or over Different age categories
percent
French FOLS 6.2 28.5 52.4 12.9
English FOLS 8.8 32.4 47.6 11.3
Total: Manitoba 8.7 32.2 47.8 11.3

Manitoba farm operators were relatively old in 2016; nearly 48% of the province’s farms were operated exclusively by persons 55 years or older, and less than 9% of Manitoba farms were operated exclusively by people under the age of 35. The proportion of French-language farms operated by persons 55 years or older (52.4%) was higher than for English-language farms (47.6%), and the proportion of French-language farms operated exclusively by persons under the age of 35 was lower (6.2%) than for English-language farms (8.8%).

In 2016, the proportion of French-language farms in Manitoba that were multigenerationalNote  (8.9%) was slightly higher than that of English-language farms (7.0%).

Chart 1.3.2 Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS)1 of the main operator,2 Saskatchewan, 2016

Data table for Chart 1.3.2 
Chart 1.3.2
Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS)Chart 1.3.2 Note 1 of the main operator,Chart 1.3.2 Note 2 Saskatchewan, 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS) of the main operator Under 35 years, 35 to 54 years, 55 years or over and Different age categories, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Under 35 years 35 to 54 years 55 years or over Different age categories
percent
French FOLS 3.4 22.7 65.8 8.2
English FOLS 8.2 30.1 51.8 9.8
Total: Saskatchewan 8.1 30.0 52.1 9.8

More than half of Saskatchewan farms were operated exclusively by persons 55 years or older in 2016. Nearly 66% of French-language farms were operated exclusively by persons in this age group, compared with less than 52% of English-language farms. In addition, around 3% of French-language farms were operated exclusively by persons under the age of 35, compared with more than 8% of English-language farms.

The proportion of multigenerational French-language farms (4.6%) was slightly lower than that of English-language farms (5.7%) in Saskatchewan.

Chart 1.3.3Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS)1 of the main operator,2 Alberta, 2016

Data table for Chart 1.3.3 
Chart 1.3.3
Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS)Chart 1.3.3 Note 1 of the main operator,Chart 1.3.3 Note 2 Alberta, 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS) of the main operator Under 35 years, 35 to 54 years, 55 years or over and Different age categories, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Under 35 years 35 to 54 years 55 years or over Different age categories
percent
French FOLS 3.7 29.1 55.5 11.7
English FOLS 6.8 30.1 52.3 10.8
Total: Alberta 6.8 30.1 52.4 10.8

In Alberta in 2016, more than half of farms were operated exclusively by persons 55 years or older. This proportion was higher for French-language farms (55.5%) than for English-language farms (52.3%). Moreover, the share of French-language farms operated exclusively by persons under the age of 35 (3.7%) was lower than that of English-language farms (6.8%).

In 2016, a similar proportion of French-language (5.7%) and English-language (5.9%) farms in Alberta were multigenerational.

Chart 1.3.4 Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS)1 of the main operator,2 British Columbia, 2016

Data table for Chart 1.3.4 
Chart 1.3.4
Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS)Chart 1.3.4 Note 1 of the main operator,Chart 1.3.4 Note 2 British Columbia, 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Farms classified by operators' age group and first official language spoken (FOLS) of the main operator Under 35 years, 35 to 54 years, 55 years or over and Different age categories, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Under 35 years 35 to 54 years 55 years or over Different age categories
percent
French FOLS 2.3 19.3 64.4 14.1
English FOLS 4.2 28.8 54.0 13.0
Total: British Columbia 4.2 28.6 54.1 13.1

In 2016, about 54% of British Columbia farms were operated exclusively by persons 55 years or older. This proportion was higher for French-language farms (64.4%) than English-language farms (54.0%).

The proportion of multigenerational farms in British Columbia was similar for French- (7.7%) and English-language (6.7%) farms in 2016.

1.4 Land tenure

A farm’s land can be classified under more than one type of tenure, as the different parts of a given farm can be occupied in different ways.

Across Western Canada, more than 93% of farms included land that they owned. This proportion was similar in both French- and English-language farms in 2016, except in Saskatchewan, where the share of French-language farms that included land they owned (96.3%) was higher than for English-language farms (93.7%).

The proportion of farms that included land rented from governments was 6.6% in British Columbia, 11.4% in Manitoba, 13.9% in Alberta, and 15.5% in Saskatchewan. These proportions were similar for both French- and English-language farms.

Lastly, the share of French-language farms that included land rented from entities other than governments was lower than for English-language farms in Manitoba (44.4% compared with 47.2%), in Saskatchewan (37.5% compared with 44.4%), and in British Columbia (14.1% compared with 19.0%). In contrast, in Alberta, this proportion was higher for French-language farms (40.1%) than for English-language farms (37.9%).

1.5 Total farm area

The area covered by farms varied significantly among the provinces of Western Canada in 2016. The proportion of farms with a vast area, of 1,120 acres or more, was lower in British Columbia (6.0%) and higher in Alberta (27.3%), Manitoba (33.2%) and Saskatchewan (44.8%). In contrast, the share of farms with an area of less than 130 acres was higher in British Columbia (73.8%) and lower in Alberta (18.6%), Manitoba (17.6%) and Saskatchewan (7.0%).

The area covered by French-language farms differed from that of English-language farms in all Western provinces in 2016. In Manitoba and British Columbia, a greater share of French-language farms covered a small area. The proportion of French-language farms in Manitoba with an area of less than 400 acres (45.8%) was higher that of English-language farms (41.0%), and the share of French-language farms in British Columbia with an area of less than 130 acres (80.1%) was higher than that of English-language farms (73.5%).

In contrast to Manitoba and British Columbia, the proportion of French-language farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta that covered a small area was lower than that of English-language farms. In these provinces, the share of French-language farms with an area of less than 400 acres (26.9% in Saskatchewan and 43.7% in Alberta) was lower than the proportion of English-language farms (30.4% in Saskatchewan and 48.8% in Alberta).

1.6 Total gross farm receipts

In 2016, the proportion of Western Canada farms with gross farm receipts below $25,000 was lower in Saskatchewan (18.9%) and Manitoba (23.7%), and higher in Alberta (29.0%) and British Columbia (58.4%). Conversely, the proportion of farms that generated high farm receipts ($500,000 or more) was lower in British Columbia (8.5%) and Alberta (16.3%), and higher in Manitoba (21.3%) and Saskatchewan (21.8%).

French-language farms were more likely to generate high gross farm receipts of $500,000 or more than English-language farms in Manitoba (23.4% compared with 21.1%), Saskatchewan (25.4% compared with 21.8%), and Alberta (23.1% compared with 16.1%). The opposite was observed in British Columbia, where the proportion was 4.8% for French-language farms and 8.5% for English-language farms.

French-language farms also differed from English-language farms in the proportion that reported low farm receipts (less than $25,000). In 2016, this proportion was lower for French-language farms than for English-language farms in Saskatchewan (16.0% compared with 18.9%) and Alberta (25.5% versus 29.1%). In contrast, the proportion of French-language farms with farm receipts below $25,000 was higher than the share of English-language farms in Manitoba (26.9% versus 23.5%) and British Columbia (65.5% compared with 58.5%).

A link can be drawn between the area of French-language farms and the gross farm receipts these farms generate. In 2016, French-language farms in Manitoba and British Columbia, which were more likely to be smaller in area than English-language farms, were also more likely to generate low farm receipts. Conversely, the high proportion of French-language farms with a vast area in Saskatchewan and Alberta is associated with the proportion of these farms that generate high farm receipts. However, these differences could be related to multiple other factors not studied in this descriptive report. Further research would be necessary to explore their contribution.

1.7 Total farm capital

The proportion of farms in the Western provinces with high farm capital ($3,500,000 or more) was relatively similar in Manitoba (22.8%) and Saskatchewan (22.9%), and was a bit higher in Alberta (25.6%). That proportion was lower in British Columbia, where about one in eight farms had high farm capital. The proportion of farms with lower farm capital—below $500,000—was higher in Manitoba (25.0%), British Columbia (22.7%) and Saskatchewan (21.1%) than in Alberta (13.8%).

There were some differences in the farm capital of French- and English-language farms in all Western provinces, except Saskatchewan. The proportion of French-language farms with farm capital of $3,500,000 or more was higher than that of English-language farms in Manitoba (25.4% compared with 22.7%) and Alberta (29.6% versus 25.5%). Conversely, this proportion was lower among French-language farms in British Columbia (7.3% compared with 12.9%). Furthermore, the share of French-language farms with farm capital below $500,000 was higher than for English-language farms in Manitoba (26.9% compared with 24.8%) and British Columbia (24.8% compared with 22.6%). In both provinces, the proportions of French-language farms that covered a small area and generated low farm receipts were also higher than those of English-language farms.

2. Social, economic and linguistic profile of French-speaking agricultural workers in Western Canada

This section presents the changes in the social, economic and linguistic profile of French-speaking agricultural workers in the Western provinces between 2006 and 2016. “Agricultural workers” refers not only to the farm operators mentioned in the previous section, but to all persons aged 15 and older who workedNote  on a farm, in crop and animal production, in greenhouse, nursery and floriculture production, or in aquaculture. Table A.1 in Appendix A provides a detailed list of the industries in the agriculture sector. The data presented in this section are from the 2006 and 2016 censuses of population.


Table 2
First official language spoken (FOLS)Table 2 Note 1 of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over, Western Canada and the territories, 2006 and 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of First official language spoken (FOLS) of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over. The information is grouped by Province or territories (appearing as row headers), FOLS, 2006 and 2016, calculated using number and percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province or territories FOLS
2006 2016
French English Neither English
nor French
Total French English Neither English
nor French
Total
number
Manitoba 1,480 34,080 160 35,715 1,165 27,990 195 29,350
Saskatchewan 1,280 59,750 105 61,135 960 53,090 60 54,105
Alberta 1,390 72,440 195 74,030 1,060 63,145 425 64,630
British Columbia 655 40,185 5,145 45,985 515 37,600 5,350 43,460
Total: Western Canada 4,810 206,455 5,605 216,865 3,695 181,830 6,030 191,545
Territories 10 145 0 160 25 190 0 215
percent
Manitoba 4.1 95.4 0.4 100.0 4.0 95.4 0.7 100.0
Saskatchewan 2.1 97.7 0.2 100.0 1.8 98.1 0.1 100.0
Alberta 1.9 97.9 0.3 100.0 1.6 97.7 0.7 100.0
British Columbia 1.4 87.4 11.2 100.0 1.2 86.5 12.3 100.0
Total: Western Canada 2.2 95.2 2.6 100.0 1.9 94.9 3.1 100.0
Territories 5.7 94.3 0.0 100.0 11.8 88.2 0.0 100.0

The number of agricultural workers fell in the Western provinces from 216,865 in 2006 to 191,545 in 2016. This is a decrease of about 12% in the workforce. In 2016, the provinces with the most agricultural workers were Alberta (64,630) and Saskatchewan (54,105). There was also a significant number of agricultural workers in British Columbia (43,460) and Manitoba (29,350). In the territories, the number of agricultural workers rose slightly, from 160 in 2006 to 215 in 2016.

The decrease in FrancophoneNote  agricultural workers in the provinces of Western Canada between 2006 and 2016 was even greater than among all agricultural workers. The number of Francophone agricultural workers fell by about 23%, from 4,810 in 2006 to 3,695 in 2016. The proportion of Francophone agricultural workers in Western Canada declined from 2.2% in 2006 to 1.9% in 2016. A decrease in the number of Francophone agricultural workers over the decade was observed in all the Western provinces.

In 2016, there were many Francophone agricultural workers in each Western province: Manitoba (1,165 workers), Alberta (1,060), Saskatchewan (960), and British Columbia (515). About 4.0% of Manitoba’s agricultural workers in 2016 were Francophone, while in the other Western provinces, this proportion was less than 2%. There were 25 Francophone agricultural workers in the territories in 2016,Note  mainly in Yukon.

For each province, there were some specificities related to the change in the number of agricultural workers between 2006 and 2016 and the concentration of Francophone agricultural workers in certain census agricultural regions (CARs).Note  Appendix B presents the number of Anglophone and Francophone agricultural workers based on their CAR of residence, for each Western province.

Map 2.A

Description for Map 2.a 

This map shows the percentage change from 2006 to 2016 of the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agriculture sector, in each of Western Canada’s census agricultural regions.

On this map, five different colours are used to identify values. Grey represent census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agriculture sector was too small to calculate its percentage change from 2006 to 2016. In this group, there are three census agricultural regions.

Red represents census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agriculture sector decreased by more than 20% between 2006 and 2016. In this group, there are 16 census agricultural regions.

Orange represents census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agriculture sector decreased by 20 % or less between 2006 and 2016. In this group, there are nine census agricultural regions.

Light green represents census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agriculture sector increased by less than 20 % between 2006 and 2016. In this group, there is one census agricultural region.

Dark green represents census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agriculture sector increased by 20% or more between 2006 and 2016. In this group, there are six census agricultural regions.

The borders of each census agricultural region are delineated by a grey line. Each census agricultural region is assigned a colour based on the table below.

Census agricultural region Percentage change
4601 -80.2
4602 -43.9
4603 -50.2
4604 71.8
4606 -71.3
4607 -19.0
4608 -6.9
4609 -13.5
4610 -12.5
4611 65.2
4612 -11.2
4701 8.4
4702 -62.0
4703 -29.1
4704 -9.4
4705 -36.4
4706 -26.7
4801 -62.1
4802 202.3
4803 92.3
4804A -75.4
4804B 109.2
4805 -6.1
4806 -38.7
4807 -30.6
5901 -16.0
5902 -21.8
5903 -17.5
5904 20.9
5905 -34.0
5907 -54.9
5908 -89.5

Map 2.a shows that the number of Francophone agricultural workers decreased in 25 CARs in Western Canada between 2006 and 2016. In 16 CARs, the number of Francophone agricultural workers declined by more than 20%. Moreover, the number of Francophone agricultural workers grew over the decade in seven CARs, three of which were in Alberta.

Map 2.B

Description for Map 2.b 

This map shows the number of French-speaking agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016 in each of Western Canada’s census subdivisions.

On this map, we use six different colours to identify values. Dark grey represents census subdivisions for which data is unavailable. In this group, there are 43 census subdivisions.

Yellow represents census subdivisions where there were between zero and nine French-speaking agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are 2,101 census subdivisions.

Light green represents census subdivisions where there were between 10 and 29 French-speaking agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are 68 census subdivisions.

Dark green represents census subdivisions where there were between 30 and 59 French-speaking agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are 13 census subdivisions.

Light blue represents census subdivisions where there were between 60 and 89 French-speaking agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are four census subdivisions.

Dark blue represents census subdivisions where there were 90 or more French-speaking agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are five census subdivisions.

The borders of each census agricultural region are delineated by a red line. Each census subdivision is assigned a colour based on the table below.

Census subdivision Number of workers
4819041 220
4604064 120
4609018 120
4812014 120
4611040 95
4602032 85
4603030 85
4602053 80
4608032 75
4715057 50
4811059 45
4602057 40
4711066 40
4812004 40
4819049 40
4602075 35
4610043 35
4716056 35
4811061 35
4817026 35
4715014 30
5915022 30
4602044 25
4806016 25
5909052 25
4603065 20
4703018 20
4714056 20
4715067 20
4715079 20
4715094 20
4808001 20
4811012 20
4813028 20
4819012 20
4819046 20
4819048 20
5907026 20
5909020 20
4602069 15
4603072 15
4617041 15
4701039 15
4703026 15
4703028 15
4703068 15
4715048 15
4715099 15
4716051 15
4803011 15
4818015 15
5907053 15
5917027 15
5935010 15
4601043 10
4602037 10
4603067 10
4606023 10
4608042 10
4610035 10
4615047 10
4617026 10
4618040 10
4701043 10
4703009 10
4703058 10
4703071 10
4706001 10
4707006 10
4712054 10
4712078 10
4714061 10
4715064 10
4717054 10
4801006 10
4808022 10
4811001 10
4813044 10
4816037 10
4817027 10
4817076 10
4819059 10
5907005 10
5907028 10
5907035 10
5915001 10
5915004 10
5915075 10
5926022 10
5937022 10
4601039 5
4602024 5
4602046 5
4605071 5
4607039 5
4607062 5
4609029 5
4610052 5
4613032 5
4613047 5
4614015 5
4616030 5
4701006 5
4701047 5
4701049 5
4701053 5
4703042 5
4703054 5
4704028 5
4705044 5
4706027 5
4707039 5
4709062 5
4712034 5
4713032 5
4715011 5
4715051 5
4715061 5
4715062 5
4715066 5
4716041 5
4716046 5
4716047 5
4717047 5
4717052 5
4802001 5
4802012 5
4805006 5
4805012 5
4805031 5
4806014 5
4808038 5
4809002 5
4811034 5
4811052 5
4812037 5
4813018 5
4813019 5
4819044 5
5903010 5
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5907022 5
5907049 5
5907051 5
5915011 5
5915043 5
5915070 5
5917010 5
5924042 5
5927008 5
5931017 5
5931020 5
5935012 5
5935029 5
5937014 5
5937024 5
5953023 5
5953048 5
4601035 0
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Map 2.b shows that few census subdivisions (CSDs) in Western Canada had a high concentration of Francophone agricultural workers. In 2016, five CSDs had 90 or more Francophone agricultural workers: Smoky River No. 130 (220 workers) and St. Paul County No. 19 (120 workers) in Alberta; as well as Grey (120 workers), Lorne (120 workers) and Winnipeg (95 workers) in Manitoba. The CSDs where the most Francophone agricultural workers lived in Saskatchewan and British Columbia in 2016 were St. Louis No. 431 (55 workers) and Vancouver (30 workers), respectively.

2.1 Age group

Between 2006 and 2016, the populations of Francophone agricultural workers in Western Canada aged. The proportion of these workers aged 55 years or older rose over the decade, outpacing the proportion for their Anglophone counterparts. This marked aging is related to the decrease in the number of Francophone workers throughout the decade, as some workers retired or moved to other sectors of employment. It also reflects the high proportion of French-language farms operated exclusively by persons 55 years or older. However, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers aged 15 to 34 increased between 2006 and 2016 in Manitoba and Alberta.

Chart 2.1.1 Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.1.1 
Chart 2.1.1
Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.1.1 Note 1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) 15 to 34 years, 35 to 54 years and 55 years and over, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
15 to 34 years 35 to 54 years 55 years and over
percent
French FOLS
2006 18.8 41.7 39.5
2016 21.1 29.4 49.5
English FOLS
2006 29.4 37.8 32.8
2016 28.3 31.5 40.3

The median age of Francophone agricultural workers in Manitoba rose from 51.4 years in 2006 to 54.7 years in 2016, while the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers aged 55 years or older increased from 39.5% in 2006 to 49.5% in 2016. In contrast, a slight increase in the share of Francophone agricultural workers aged 15 to 34 (from 18.8% in 2006 to 21.1% in 2016) was also observed over the decade.

In Manitoba, Francophone agricultural workers were older than their Anglophone counterparts. Although the median age of Anglophone agricultural workers rose between 2006 (46.6 years) and 2016 (50.0 years), it remained lower than that of their Francophone counterparts. In 2016, the proportion of Anglophone agricultural workers aged 55 years or older (40.3%) was lower than that of their Francophone counterparts (49.5%), and the share of Anglophone agricultural workers aged 15 to 34 (28.3%) was higher than that of Francophone workers (21.1%).

Chart 2.1.2 Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.1.2 
Chart 2.1.2
Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.1.2 Note 1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) 15 to 34 years, 35 to 54 years and 55 years and over, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
15 to 34 years 35 to 54 years 55 years and over
percent
French FOLS
2006 12.7 30.7 56.5
2016 6.2 22.3 71.5
English FOLS
2006 21.1 36.0 42.9
2016 21.4 29.4 49.2

In Saskatchewan, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers aged 55 years or older rose from 56.5% to 71.5% over the decade, while the share of those aged 15 to 34 fell from 12.7% in 2006 to 6.2% in 2016. The median age of Francophone agricultural workers increased from 57.1 years in 2006 to 61.3 years in 2016.

The median age of Anglophone agricultural workers (52.0 years in 2006 and 54.6 years in 2016) was well below the median age of their Francophone counterparts. The difference was of about seven years in 2016. The proportion of agricultural workers aged 15 to 34 was more than three times higher among Anglophones (21.4%) than Francophones (6.2%) in 2016. Furthermore, fewer than half of Anglophone agricultural workers were 55 years or older, compared with more than seven in ten Francophone agricultural workers.

Chart 2.1.3 Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Alberta, 2006 et 2016

Data table for Chart 2.1.3 
Chart 2.1.3
Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.1.3 Note 1 Alberta, 2006 et 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) 15 to 34 years, 35 to 54 years and 55 years and over, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
15 to 34 years 35 to 54 years 55 years and over
percent
French FOLS
2006 11.5 37.8 50.7
2016 14.4 30.0 55.6
English FOLS
2006 25.5 35.5 39.0
2016 25.3 29.5 45.2

The median age of Francophone agricultural workers in Alberta rose from 55.9 years in 2006 to 57.0 years in 2016. This slight increase can be seen in the proportion of those aged 55 years or older, which rose from 50.7% in 2006 to 55.6% in 2016. However, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers aged 15 to 34 also increased between 2006 (11.5%) and 2016 (14.4%).

Francophone agricultural workers in Alberta were older than their English-speaking counterparts, whose median age was lower in 2006 (49.5 years) and in 2016 (52.7 years). The proportion of Anglophone agricultural workers aged 55 or older (45.2%) was lower than the proportion for Francophone workers (55.6%) in 2016. Furthermore, around one in four Anglophone agricultural workers were aged 15 to 34, compared with nearly one in seven Francophone agricultural workers.

Chart 2.1.4 Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.1.4 
Chart 2.1.4
Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.1.4 Note 1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) 15 to 34 years, 35 to 54 years and 55 years and over, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
15 to 34 years 35 to 54 years 55 years and over
percent
French FOLS
2006 30.0 40.0 30.1
2016 21.4 34.6 44.1
English FOLS
2006 31.3 37.6 31.1
2016 29.7 31.7 38.6

In British Columbia, the median age of Francophone agricultural workers rose from 45.9 years in 2006 to 53.2 years in 2016, and the proportion of those aged 55 years or older increased between 2006 (30.1%) and 2016 (44.1%). Moreover, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers aged 15 to 34 years fell from 30.0% in 2006 to 21.4% in 2016.

Anglophone agricultural workers were younger than their Francophone counterparts, with their median age rising from 46.0 years in 2006 to 49.2 years in 2016. The proportion of Anglophone agricultural workers aged 55 years or older (38.6%) was lower than that of their Francophone counterparts (44.1%) in 2016. In addition, the proportion of Anglophone agricultural workers aged 15 to 34 years (29.7%) was higher than that of Francophone workers (21.4%).

2.2 Sex

The proportion of women among Francophone and Anglophone agricultural workers in Western Canada was not close to parity in any province, except among Anglophone agricultural workers in British Columbia.

The proportion of women among Francophone agricultural workers in Manitoba was relatively stable between 2006 (23.8%) and 2016 (23.0%). These proportions were lower than those of their Anglophone counterparts (31.6% in 2006 and 29.1% in 2016).

In Saskatchewan, the proportion of women among agricultural workers was relatively stable between 2006 and 2016 and remained similar among both Francophones (28.1% in 2006 and 26.9% in 2016) and Anglophones (29.3% in 2006 and 29.2% in 2016).

In Alberta, the proportion of women among Francophone agricultural workers increased from 27.2% to 34.3% between 2006 and 2016. Among their Anglophone counterparts, the proportion of women declined from 36.1% in 2006 to 34.7% in 2016. Thus, in 2016, the proportion of women was similar among Anglophone and Francophone agricultural workers in Alberta.

The proportion of women among Francophone agricultural workers in British Columbia declined between 2006 (37.0%) and 2016 (29.8%). Among their Anglophone peers, the proportion of women was close to parity and remained relatively stable over the decade (44.1% in 2006 and 44.5% in 2016).

2.3 Place of birth

The proportion of Francophone agricultural workers born outside their province of residence was up between 2006 and 2016 across Western Canada, except in Manitoba, where the proportion changed little over the decade. In the three other Western provinces, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers born in a province other than their province of residence was higher than that of their Anglophone counterparts. In contrast, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers born outside Canada was below that of their Anglophone counterparts in all of Western Canada in 2016.

Chart 2.3.1 Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.3.1 
Chart 2.3.1
Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.3.1 Note 1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Province of residence, Other province or territory and Outside Canada, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province of residence Other province or territory Outside Canada
percent
French FOLS
2006 87.7 4.3 8.0
2016 86.2 5.3 8.5
English FOLS
2006 83.0 7.9 9.0
2016 77.4 7.8 14.8

The places of birth of Manitoba’s Francophone agricultural workers were similar in 2006 and 2016. More than eight in ten Francophone agricultural workers were born in the province in 2016. The proportions of Anglophone agricultural workers born in a province other than Manitoba (7.8%) or outside Canada (14.8%) were higher than those of their Francophone counterparts (5.3% and 8.5%, respectively). In 2016, about three in four Francophone agricultural workers born outside Canada were born in France.

Chart 2.3.2 Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.3.2 
Chart 2.3.2
Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.3.2 Note 1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Province of residence, Other province or territory and Outside Canada, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province of residence Other province or territory Outside Canada
percent
French FOLS
2006 89.5 9.0 1.5
2016 85.7 11.6 2.7
English FOLS
2006 87.4 9.9 2.7
2016 84.8 10.2 4.9

In Saskatchewan, more than eight in ten Francophone agricultural workers were born in the province in 2016. There was a slight increase in the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers born in a province other than Saskatchewan between 2006 (9.0%) and 2016 (11.6%). In 2016, more than half of Francophone agricultural workers born in a province other than Saskatchewan were from Quebec.

The places of birth of Francophone agricultural workers were similar to those of their Anglophone counterparts. However, the proportion of Anglophone agricultural workers born outside Canada (4.9%) was slightly higher than that of their Francophone counterparts (2.7%) in 2016.

Chart 2.3.3 Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.3.3 
Chart 2.3.3
Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.3.3 Note 1 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Province of residence, Other province or territory and Outside Canada, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province of residence Other province or territory Outside Canada
percent
French FOLS
2006 73.3 22.1 4.7
2016 67.8 24.3 8.0
English FOLS
2006 75.1 15.3 9.6
2016 70.0 17.2 12.8

In Alberta, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers born in the province decreased from 73.3% in 2006 to 67.8% in 2016. The share of these workers born outside Canada rose from 4.7% to 8.0% over the decade. In 2016, about one in four Francophone agricultural workers in Alberta were born in another province. This proportion was lower among their Anglophone counterparts (17.2%). However, Anglophone agricultural workers were more likely to be born outside Canada (12.8%) than their Francophone counterparts (8.0%).

Among Francophone agricultural workers born in a province other than Alberta in 2016, more than half were from Quebec. Overall, about one in eight Francophone agricultural workers in Alberta were born in Quebec. Moreover, among Francophone agricultural workers born outside Canada, nearly six in ten were from Europe.

Chart 2.3.4 Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.3.4 
Chart 2.3.4
Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.3.4 Note 1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Place of birth of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Province of residence, Other province or territory and Outside Canada, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province of residence Other province or territory Outside Canada
percent
French FOLS
2006 11.6 58.7 29.7
2016 7.0 66.5 26.6
English FOLS
2006 46.4 20.4 33.2
2016 49.1 19.1 31.8

In 2016, about two-thirds of Francophone agricultural workers in British Columbia were born in another province. This proportion was up slightly from 2006 (58.7%). In 2016, about one in fourteen Francophone agricultural workers were born in British Columbia, compared with close to half of their Anglophone counterparts. Furthermore, the proportion of Anglophone agricultural workers born outside Canada (31.8%) was higher than that of their Francophone counterparts (26.6%) in 2016.

In 2016, Francophone agricultural workers born in a province other than British Columbia were largely from Quebec (64.6%). Overall, more than four in ten of British Columbia’s Francophone agricultural workers were born in Quebec.

Most Francophone agricultural workers born outside Canada were from Europe (74.0%) in 2016. In other words, in British Columbia, nearly one in five Francophone agricultural workers were born in Europe.

2.4 Indigenous identity

In Manitoba, the number of IndigenousNote  agricultural workers increased from 1,425 in 2006 to 1,520 in 2016. French was the first official language spoken (FOLS) for 12.9% of these workers in 2006 and for 12.1% in 2016. All Indigenous agricultural workers in the province knew English or French in 2016. Moreover, about 5% knew an Indigenous language.

In Saskatchewan, there were 1,480 Indigenous agricultural workers in 2006 and 1,725 in 2016. The proportion with French as their FOLS decreased from 6.0% to 5.1% over the decade. In 2016, all Indigenous agricultural workers in the province knew at least one official language, and about one in ten knew an Indigenous language, often a Cree language.

Between 2006 and 2016, the number of Indigenous agricultural workers in Alberta rose from 1,425 to 1,975. For both years, about 2% had French as their FOLS. In 2016, all Indigenous agricultural workers in the province knew English or French, and 14.3% knew an Indigenous language, such as Blackfoot.

Lastly, the number of Indigenous agricultural workers in British Columbia increased from 1,760 in 2006 to 1,950 in 2016. The proportion with French as their FOLS decreased from about 2% in 2006 to around 1% in 2016. All Indigenous agricultural workers in the province knew at least one official language in 2016, and close to 7% knew an Indigenous language.

2.5 Education

The level of education of Francophone agricultural workers rose between 2006 and 2016 in all Western provinces. The proportion of these workers who did not have a certificate, diploma or degree declined over the decade in each province.

Chart 2.5.1 Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.5.1 
Chart 2.5.1
Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.5.1 Note 1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Highest certificate No certificate, diploma or degree, Secondary (high) school , Apprenticeship or trade school, College and University, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
No certificate, diploma or degree Secondary (high) school Apprenticeship or trade school College University
percent
French FOLS
2006 41.9 25.6 12.1 6.5 13.9
2016 27.6 36.9 7.7 13.2 14.6
English FOLS
2006 46.3 26.2 7.4 9.0 11.1
2016 29.7 34.1 7.0 13.3 16.0

In Manitoba, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers who did not have a certificate, diploma or degree fell from 41.9% to 27.6% between 2006 and 2016. In addition, while one in five Francophone agricultural workers had a collegeNote  or university qualification in 2006, almost 28% of these workers did in 2016. Furthermore, the level of education of Francophone agricultural workers was generally similar to that of their Anglophone counterparts in 2016.

Chart 2.5.1 Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.5.2 
Chart 2.5.2
Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.5.2 Note 1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Highest certificate No certificate, diploma or degree, Secondary (high) school , Apprenticeship or trade school, College and University, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
No certificate, diploma or degree Secondary (high) school Apprenticeship or trade school College University
percent
French FOLS
2006 44.5 26.5 11.7 6.7 10.6
2016 26.9 27.6 18.7 15.3 11.4
English FOLS
2006 42.0 29.2 9.5 9.1 10.1
2016 22.9 37.4 11.6 13.9 14.3

In Saskatchewan, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers who did not have a certificate, diploma or degree decreased from 44.5% in 2006 to 26.9% in 2016. Conversely, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers with a postsecondary qualification rose from 29.0% in 2006 to 45.4% in 2016. In 2016, this proportion was higher than that of their Anglophone counterparts (39.8%). This difference is due to the higher proportion of Francophone agricultural workers whose highest qualification was an apprenticeship or trades diploma (18.7% compared with 11.6% among their Anglophone counterparts). In contrast, Francophone agricultural workers were more likely to have no certificate, diploma or degree (26.9%) than their Anglophone peers (22.9%).

Chart 2.5.3 Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.5.3 
Chart 2.5.3
Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.5.3 Note 1 Alberta, 2006 and 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Highest certificate No certificate, diploma or degree, Secondary (high) school , Apprenticeship or trade school, College and University, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
No certificate, diploma or degree Secondary (high) school Apprenticeship or trade school College University
percent
French FOLS
2006 44.3 27.3 10.8 12.1 5.4
2016 22.5 34.7 14.1 16.4 12.4
English FOLS
2006 40.9 27.1 8.5 14.8 8.7
2016 24.4 34.0 9.9 19.5 12.2

In Alberta, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers who did not have a certificate, diploma or degree fell from 44.3% to 22.5% between 2006 and 2016, and the share of these workers who had a postsecondary qualification rose from 28.3% to 42.9% over the decade.

In 2016, the levels of education of Francophone and Anglophone agricultural workers in Alberta were similar, with similar proportions of workers who did not have a certificate, diploma or degree or who had a postsecondary qualification. However, Francophone agricultural workers were more likely to have an apprenticeship or trades diploma (14.1%) as their highest qualification than their Anglophone counterparts (9.9%), and Anglophone agricultural workers were more likely to have a college diploma as their highest diploma earned (19.5%) than their Francophone peers (16.4%).

Chart 2.5.4 Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.5.4 
Chart 2.5.4
Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.5.4 Note 1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Highest certificate No certificate, diploma or degree, Secondary (high) school , Apprenticeship or trade school, College and University, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
No certificate, diploma or degree Secondary (high) school Apprenticeship or trade school College University
percent
French FOLS
2006 27.8 24.0 15.6 18.9 13.7
2016 18.2 25.0 12.3 24.5 20.1
English FOLS
2006 29.3 34.8 9.4 12.8 13.7
2016 22.6 38.8 8.4 13.1 17.2

In British Columbia, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers with no certificate, diploma or degree decreased from 27.8% to 18.2% over the decade, and the proportion of those with college or university qualifications rose from 32.6% in 2006 to 44.6% in 2016.

Francophone agricultural workers in British Columbia had a higher level of education than their Anglophone counterparts in 2016. The proportion of Francophone agricultural workers with a postsecondary qualification (56.9%) was higher than that of their Anglophone peers (38.7%). Furthermore, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers had no certificate, diploma or degree (18.2%) was lower than that of their Anglophone counterparts (22.6%).

2.6 Class of worker

The proportion of self-employedNote  Francophone agricultural workers declined between 2006 and 2016 in Manitoba (from 56.6% to 52.9%) and Alberta (from 67.1% to 60.4%). This proportion was relatively stable in Saskatchewan (68.5% in 2006 and 67.5% in 2016) and increased in British Columbia (from 27.3% in 2006 to 37.1% in 2016).

In 2016, the proportion of self-employed agricultural workers was higher among Francophones than Anglophones across Western Canada: 52.9% versus 45.7% in Manitoba, 67.5% versus 58.1% in Saskatchewan, 60.4% versus 52.2% in Alberta, and 37.1% versus 32.2% in British Columbia. Over the decade, the proportion of self-employed Francophone agricultural workers who were incorporated increased in several provinces. Between 2006 and 2016, this proportion rose from about 28% to nearly 47% in Manitoba, from less than 23% to close to 45% in Saskatchewan, and from less than 34% to around 41% in Alberta. In British Columbia, about one in five self-employed Francophone agricultural workers were incorporated in 2016.

2.7 Employment income

Employment income includes all income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the calendar year preceding the census. The employment income of agricultural workers may include income from sources other than the job held in that sector.

Most of the information in this report includes all individuals categorized as workers, including those who worked during the reference week (e.g. May 1 to 7, 2016) or the census year (e.g. 2016), but who were not working in the year before the census (e.g. 2015). However, since these workers were not working in the year before the census, they are excluded from the information presented in this section. They are identified by the “not applicable” category in the charts below and are excluded from the calculations of median income, work arrangements, and average number of weeks worked per year.

In 2016, the median employment income of Francophone agricultural workers in Western Canada was lower than that of their Anglophone counterparts in all the Western provinces, except British Columbia.

Chart 2.7.1 Employment income1 of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),2 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.7.1 
Chart 2.7.1
Employment incomeChart 2.7.1 Note 1 of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.7.1 Note 2 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Employment income of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Under $10,000, $10,000 to $29,999, $30,000 to $59,999, $60,000 and over and Not applicable, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Under $10,000 $10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $59,999 $60,000 and over Not applicable
percent
French FOLS
2006 41.8 23.3 24.2 6.0 4.8
2016 38.5 25.3 22.0 12.1 2.2
English FOLS
2006 51.3 25.4 16.0 4.4 2.9
2016 33.0 25.7 28.3 10.5 2.5

The median employment incomeNote  of Francophone agricultural workers in Manitoba increased from $13,210 to $15,645 between 2006 and 2016. Over the decade, the proportion of these workers with low employment income (below $10,000) decreased from 41.8% in 2006 to 38.5% in 2016, while the share of these workers with high employment income ($60,000 or more) rose from 6.0% in 2006 to 12.1% in 2016.

The median employment income of Anglophone agricultural workers increased strongly between 2006 ($9,010) and 2016 ($20,425), outpacing their Francophone counterparts in 2016. The proportion of Anglophone agricultural workers with employment income below $10,000 was lower (33.0%) than that of their Francophone peers (38.5%) in 2016. Moreover, Anglophone agricultural workers were more likely to report an employment income of $30,000 or more (38.8%) than their Francophone counterparts (34.1%).

The average number of weeks worked per yearNote  was similar among Francophone (42.8) and Anglophone (43.7) agricultural workers in 2016. In addition, Francophone agricultural workers were somewhat more likely to work full-timeNote  (83.1%) than their Anglophone counterparts (79.2%).

The gap in median employment income between Francophone men and women who worked in Manitoba’s agriculture sector rose slightly between 2006 ($4,690) and 2016 ($5,220). The median employment income of Francophone women working in the agriculture sector increased from $9,655 in 2006 to $11,700 in 2016, and that of Francophone men, from $14,345 in 2006 to $16,920 in 2016.

Chart 2.7.2 Employment income1 of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),2 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.7.2 
Chart 2.7.2
Employment incomeChart 2.7.2 Note 1 of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.7.2 Note 2 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Employment income of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Under $10,000, $10,000 to $29,999, $30,000 to $59,999, $60,000 and over and Not applicable, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Under $10,000 $10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $59,999 $60,000 and over Not applicable
percent
French FOLS
2006 48.5 30.7 13.8 4.0 3.1
2016 40.5 19.7 19.8 15.8 4.2
English FOLS
2006 51.8 27.3 13.6 4.3 3.0
2016 37.7 24.3 21.7 13.5 2.8

The employment income of Francophone agricultural workers in Saskatchewan increased between 2006 and 2016. The proportion of these workers whose employment income was greater than or equal to $30,000 doubled over the decade, from 17.8% to 35.6%. The proportion of Francophone agricultural workers with employment income of $60,000 or more showed a sharp increase, almost quadrupling over the decade, from 4.0% in 2006 to 15.8% in 2016. Conversely, the share of these workers who reported employment income of less than $10,000 decreased between 2006 (48.5%) and 2016 (40.5%).

The median employment income of Francophone agricultural workers in Saskatchewan was $9,905 in 2006 and $13,935 in 2016. It was higher than the median employment income of their Anglophone counterparts in 2006, but not in 2016. The median employment income of Anglophone agricultural workers increased from $8,580 in 2006 to $17,150 in 2016. Furthermore, in 2016, a similar proportion of Francophone and Anglophone agricultural workers (about 35%) had employment income of $30,000 or more.

In 2016, the average number of weeks worked per year was slightly higher among Francophone agricultural workers (44.6) than among their Anglophone peers (43.6). The proportion who worked full-time was also higher among Francophone agricultural workers (82.9%) than among their Anglophone counterparts (79.7%).

The gap in median employment income between Francophone men and women who worked in Saskatchewan’s agriculture sector increased between 2006 ($5,750) and 2016 ($9,205). The median employment income of Francophone women working in the agriculture sector rose from $5,845 in 2006 to $8,270 in 2016, and that of Francophone men, from $11,595 in 2006 to $17,475 in 2016.

Chart 2.7.3 Employment income1 of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),2 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.7.3 
Chart 2.7.2
Employment incomeChart 2.7.2 Note 1 of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.7.2 Note 2 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Employment income of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Under $10,000, $10,000 to $29,999, $30,000 to $59,999, $60,000 and over and Not applicable, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Under $10,000 $10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $59,999 $60,000 and over Not applicable
percent
French FOLS
2006 40.2 32.6 14.5 9.0 3.7
2016 41.6 20.3 20.5 12.8 4.8
English FOLS
2006 48.7 25.3 16.4 6.4 3.2
2016 38.8 22.6 21.4 14.0 3.3

The median employment income of Alberta’s Francophone agricultural workers was relatively stable between 2006 ($14,560) and 2016 ($14,430). However, the proportion of these workers whose employment income was greater than or equal to $30,000 increased over the decade, from 23.5% to 33.3%. In 2016, this proportion was slightly lower than that of their Anglophone counterparts (35.4%). The median employment income of Anglophone agricultural workers increased significantly over the decade, from $9,895 in 2006 to $16,960 in 2016, outpacing their Francophone counterparts in 2016.

In 2016, 76.8% of Francophone agricultural workers worked full-time, compared with 74.9% of their Anglophone counterparts. On average, Francophone agricultural workers worked 44.1 weeks per year and their Anglophone counterparts worked 43.4 weeks per year.

In Alberta, the gap in median employment income between Francophone men and women who worked in the agriculture sector increased significantly between 2006 ($3,920) and 2016 ($18,000). The median employment income of Francophone women working in the agriculture sector declined over the decade, from $12,535 in 2006 to $4,005 in 2016, while that of Francophone men rose from $16,450 in 2006 to $22,000 in 2016.

Chart 2.7.4 Employment income1 of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),2 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 2.7.4 
Chart 2.7.4
Employment incomeChart 2.7.4 Note 1 of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 2.7.4 Note 2 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Employment income of agriculture sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Under $10,000, $10,000 to $29,999, $30,000 to $59,999, $60,000 and over and Not applicable, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Under $10,000 $10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $59,999 $60,000 and over Not applicable
percent
French FOLS
2006 44.7 33.8 14.7 5.1 1.7
2016 37.5 32.2 16.9 8.2 5.2
English FOLS
2006 42.2 29.0 17.5 6.8 4.6
2016 41.8 26.4 17.3 9.6 4.9

In British Columbia, the median employment income of Francophone agricultural workers increased between 2006 ($10,650) and 2016 ($12,770). Therefore, the proportion of these workers who reported low employment income (below $10,000) decreased over the decade (from 44.7% in 2006 to 37.5% in 2016). While nearly one in five Francophone agricultural workers had employment income of $30,000 or more in 2006, this was the case for about one in four in 2016.

The median employment income of Anglophone agricultural workers increased very little between 2006 ($12,435) and 2016 ($12,795). The median employment income of Francophone and Anglophone agricultural workers was therefore very similar in 2016. However, about 42% of British Columbia’s Anglophone agricultural workers had employment income below $10,000 in 2016, compared with less than 38% of their Francophone counterparts.

The proportion of Francophone agricultural workers who worked full-time (78.0%) was higher than that of their Anglophone counterparts (69.6%) in 2016. However, the average number of weeks worked per year was slightly lower among Francophones (36.0) than among their Anglophone peers (38.5).

The gap in median employment income between Francophone men and women in the agriculture sector increased in British Columbia between 2006 and 2016, from $1,580 to $8,790. The median employment income of Francophone women working in the agriculture sector was $10,650 in 2006 and $8,920 in 2016, and that of Francophone men was $12,230 in 2006 and $17,710 in 2016.

2.8 Languages used at work

A small proportion of Francophone agricultural workers in Western Canada used only FrenchNote  at work. This proportion was less than 4% in all Western provinces in 2016, except Manitoba. In this province, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers who used only French at work increased from 10.9% to 13.6% between 2006 and 2016.

The proportion of Francophone agricultural workers who used English and FrenchNote  at work was higher, although it decreased between 2006 and 2016. Over the decade, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers who used both of these languages at work decreased from 50.7% to 46.3% in Manitoba, 26.6% to 18.1% in Saskatchewan, 40.9% to 37.3% in Alberta and 23.1% to 20.8% in British Columbia. At the same time, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers who used only English at work increased in each of these provinces between 2006 and 2016, from 36.6% to 39.6% in Manitoba, 68.1% to 78.3% in Saskatchewan, 50.4% to 58.4% in Alberta, and 60.9% to 66.4% in British Columbia.

3. Social, economic and linguistic profile of French-speaking agri-food workers in Western Canada and the territories

This section tracks the evolution of the social, economic and linguistic profile of French-speaking agri-food workers in each Western province as well as the territories between 2006 and 2016.

In this report, agri-food workers include any person 15 years of age or older who worked in input and service supply (e.g. farm machinery and equipment wholesaler-distributors, farm support activities), in food, beverage, and tobacco processing (e.g. meat product manufacturing, bakeries, beverage manufacturing), in food retail or wholesale (e.g. grocery stores, food merchant wholesalers) and in food service (e.g. restaurants). A detailed list of the industries in the agri-food sector can be found in Table A.2 of Appendix A. The data presented in this section are from the 2006 and 2016 censuses of population.


Table 3
First official language spoken (FOLS)Table 3 Note 1 of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over, Western Canada and the territories, 2006 and 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of First official language spoken (FOLS) of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over. The information is grouped by Province or territories (appearing as row headers), FOLS, 2006 and 2016, calculated using number and percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province or territories FOLS
2006 2016
French English Neither English
nor French
Total French English Neither English
nor French
Total
number
Manitoba 2,150 71,745 605 74,500 1,695 77,295 1,630 80,620
Saskatchewan 645 63,450 230 64,325 600 65,975 740 67,315
Alberta 3,710 216,385 3,715 223,810 4,190 246,155 5,195 255,535
British Columbia 3,560 276,505 11,485 291,540 3,450 313,675 14,550 331,675
Total: Western Canada 10,065 628,075 16,030 654,175 9,930 703,100 22,120 735,145
Territories 140 4,220 70 4,430 135 5,520 70 5,725
percent
Manitoba 2.9 96.3 0.8 100.0 2.1 95.9 2.0 100.0
Saskatchewan 1.0 98.6 0.4 100.0 0.9 98.0 1.1 100.0
Alberta 1.7 96.7 1.7 100.0 1.6 96.3 2.0 100.0
British Columbia 1.2 94.8 3.9 100.0 1.0 94.6 4.4 100.0
Total: Western Canada 1.5 96.0 2.5 100.0 1.4 95.6 3.0 100.0
Territories 3.1 95.3 1.6 100.0 2.3 96.5 1.2 100.0

The agri-food sector in Canada’s Western provinces employed a growing number of workers between 2006 (654,175 workers) and 2016 (735,145 workers). British Columbia is the province where the most agri-food workers (331,675) lived in 2016, followed by Alberta (255,535 workers). The number of agri-food workers also increased in the territories between 2006 (4,430) and 2016 (5,725).

Between 2006 and 2016, the number of Francophone agri-food workers in the Western provinces was relatively stable, going from 10,065 workers to 9,930 workers over the decade. Francophones accounted for 1.4% of the sector’s workers in 2016, compared with 1.5% in 2006.

In 2016, the province with the most Francophone agri-food workers was Alberta (4,190 workers). This province was the only one in Western Canada where the number of Francophone agri-food workers increased between 2006 and 2016. In 2016, there were 3,450 Francophone agri-food workers in British Columbia, 1,695 in Manitoba and 600 in Saskatchewan. Manitoba was the province with the highest proportion of Francophones among agri-food workers (2.1%) in 2016, followed by Alberta (1.6%). This proportion was about 1% in Saskatchewan and British Columbia.

The number of Francophone agri-food workers in the territories was relatively similar in 2006 (140 workers) and in 2016 (135 workers). In 2016, 2.3% of agri-food workers in the territories were Francophones.

For each province, there were some specificities with regards to changes in the number of agri-food workers between 2006 and 2016 as well as to the concentration of Francophone workers in certain census agricultural regions (CARs). Appendix C thus presents the number of Francophone and Anglophone agri-food workers by their CAR of residence for each Western province.

Map 3.A

Description for Map 3.a 

This map shows the percentage change from 2006 to 2016 of the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agri-food sector, in each of Western Canada’s census agricultural regions.

On this map, five different colours are used to identify values. Grey represent census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agri-food sector was too small to calculate its percentage change from 2006 to 2016. In this group, there is one census agricultural region.

Red represents census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agri-food sector decreased by more than 20% between 2006 and 2016. In this group, there are 15 census agricultural regions.

Orange represents census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agri-food sector decreased by 20 % or less between 2006 and 2016. In this group, there are five census agricultural regions.

Light green represents census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agri-food sector increased by less than 20 % between 2006 and 2016. In this group, there are four census agricultural regions.

Dark green represents census agricultural regions where the French-speaking population aged 15 or over who worked in the agri-food sector increased by 20% or more between 2006 and 2016. In this group, there are ten census agricultural regions.

The borders of each census agricultural region are delineated by a grey line. Each census agricultural region is assigned a colour based on the table below.

Census agricultural region Percentage change
4601 170.6
4602 -24.8
4603 -29.3
4605 321.0
4606 55.2
4607 -40.4
4608 -32.8
4609 -20.7
4610 29.8
4611 45.2
4612 -49.8
4701 25.4
4702 -4.7
4703 153.5
4704 21.0
4705 -26.1
4706 -62.9
4707 -15.8
4801 261.6
4802 -11.5
4803 29.5
4804A 19.1
4804B -30.4
4805 19.9
4806 -21.6
4807 -32.0
5901 -13.3
5902 2.1
5903 4.6
5904 -9.6
5905 -21.0
5906 -55.6
5907 -37.8
5908 -42.0

Map 3.a shows that the number of Francophone agri-food workers decreased in 20 CARs in the Western provinces between 2006 and 2016. This decrease was of more than 20% in 15 CARs. In contrast, the number of Francophone agri-food workers rose in 14 CARs, with an increase of 20% or more between 2006 and 2016 in 10 CARs. Notably, the number of Francophone agri-food workers was up in several CARs that already had a large number of those workers in 2006; for example, CAR 2 (B.C.), where the Vancouver census metropolitan area (CMA) is located, CAR 3 (Alta.), where the Calgary CMA is located, and CAR 5 (Alta.), which includes the Edmonton CMA. Moreover, each Western province had at least one CAR where the number of Francophone agri-food workers increased between 2006 and 2016.

Map 3.B

Description for Map 3.b 

This map shows the number of French-speaking agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016 in each of Western Canada’s census subdivisions.

On this map, we use six different colours to identify values. Dark grey represents census subdivisions for which data is unavailable. In this group, there are 43 census subdivisions.

Yellow represents census subdivisions where there were between zero and nine French-speaking agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are 2,057 census subdivisions.

Light green represents census subdivisions where there were between 10 and 49 French-speaking agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are 102 census subdivisions.

Dark green represents census subdivisions where there were between 50 and 99 French-speaking agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are 19 census subdivisions.

Light blue represents census subdivisions where there were between 100 and 499 French-speaking agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are nine census subdivisions.

Dark blue represents census subdivisions where there were 500 or more French-speaking agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over in 2016. In this group, there are four census subdivisions.

The borders of each census agricultural region are delineated by a red line. Each census subdivision is assigned a colour based on the table below.

Census subdivision Number of workers
4601035 0
4601039 10
4601043 0
4601046 0
4601051 0
4601057 5
4601060 0
4601070 0
4601071 10
4601075 0
4601078 0
4601094 0
4602024 15
4602026 0
4602027 0
4602032 50
4602037 30
4602041 15
4602044 15
4602046 0
4602053 25
4602057 25
4602061 20
4602069 50
4602075 50
4603030 25
4603040 5
4603041 0
4603047 0
4603050 0
4603053 0
4603058 0
4603062 0
4603065 0
4603067 10
4603072 0
4603074 0
4604034 0
4604040 0
4604052 0
4604057 0
4604064 50
4604068 0
4605025 0
4605032 0
4605038 0
4605044 0
4605052 0
4605056 0
4605062 0
4605071 0
4606016 0
4606023 0
4606029 0
4606031 0
4606034 0
4606040 0
4607039 0
4607046 0
4607052 0
4607057 0
4607060 5
4607062 55
4607066 0
4607068 0
4607071 0
4607076 0
4608032 20
4608042 0
4608046 0
4608055 0
4608060 0
4608069 0
4609018 40
4609024 10
4609025 0
4609026 0
4609027 0
4609029 5
4610035 15
4610043 0
4610052 0
4611040 870
4611042 0
4612047 5
4612054 5
4612056 0
4613032 0
4613037 0
4613043 10
4613047 0
4613049 0
4613056 10
4613062 0
4614015 0
4614031 5
4614036 0
4614039 5
4614042 0
4615020 0
4615032 0
4615037 0
4615042 0
4615047 10
4615049 0
4615056 0
4615063 0
4615067 0
4615070 0
4615071 0
4615072 0
4615074 0
4615075 0
4615078 0
4615092 0
4616005 0
4616017 0
4616020 0
4616025 0
4616030 0
4616046 0
4616048 0
4617026 0
4617029 0
4617035 0
4617041 30
4617048 0
4617050 0
4617054 0
4617058 0
4617064 0
4617072 0
4617075 0
4617092 0
4618031 0
4618034 0
4618037 0
4618040 0
4618044 0
4618055 0
4618056 0
4618060 0
4618063 0
4618067 0
4618068 0
4618074 0
4618076 0
4618091 0
4619045 0
4619050 0
4619051 0
4619052 0
4619053 0
4619054 0
4619056 0
4619058 0
4619059 0
4619061 0
4619065 0
4619068 0
4619069 0
4619070 0
4619071 0
4619072 0
4619075 0
4619077 0
4619079 0
4619082 0
4620032 0
4620042 0
4620048 0
4620051 0
4620055 0
4620066 0
4620069 0
4621025 0
4621027 0
4621029 0
4621033 0
4621034 0
4621035 0
4621040 0
4621043 0
4621045 0
4621052 0
4621058 0
4621064 0
4621071 0
4621078 0
4622026 5
4622046 0
4622048 0
4622049 0
4622050 0
4622051 0
4622052 0
4622055 0
4622056 0
4622058 0
4622059 0
4622063 0
4622064 0
4622065 0
4622067 0
4622800 0
4622801 0
4623022 0
4623027 0
4623034 0
4623037 0
4623039 0
4623047 0
4623056 0
4623058 0
4623062 0
4623064 0
4623065 0
4623067 0
4623071 0
4701001 0
4701002 0
4701004 0
4701006 0
4701008 0
4701011 0
4701012 0
4701014 0
4701016 0
4701017 0
4701018 0
4701019 0
4701021 0
4701022 0
4701024 0
4701027 0
4701031 0
4701032 0
4701036 0
4701037 0
4701039 0
4701041 0
4701043 0
4701044 0
4701047 0
4701049 5
4701053 0
4701054 0
4701056 0
4701058 0
4701059 0
4701061 0
4701063 0
4701064 0
4701066 0
4701067 0
4701069 0
4701072 0
4701076 0
4701077 0
4701078 0
4701079 0
4701091 0
4701094 0
4701096 0
4701098 0
4701808 0
4701809 0
4701817 0
4701818 0
4701819 0
4702001 0
4702002 0
4702006 0
4702008 0
4702011 0
4702012 0
4702014 0
4702016 0
4702018 0
4702023 0
4702024 0
4702026 0
4702028 0
4702029 0
4702031 0
4702033 0
4702036 0
4702037 0
4702038 0
4702039 0
4702041 0
4702042 0
4702044 0
4702047 10
4702048 0
4702051 0
4702052 0
4702054 0
4702057 0
4702058 0
4702061 0
4702062 0
4702066 0
4702067 0
4702069 0
4702071 0
4702072 0
4702073 0
4702076 0
4702077 0
4702078 0
4702079 0
4703001 0
4703004 0
4703006 0
4703009 0
4703011 0
4703012 0
4703016 0
4703018 0
4703019 0
4703022 0
4703026 0
4703028 10
4703029 0
4703034 0
4703036 5
4703038 0
4703041 0
4703042 0
4703044 0
4703048 0
4703051 0
4703052 0
4703054 5
4703058 5
4703059 0
4703061 0
4703062 5
4703064 0
4703068 0
4703071 25
4703074 0
4703092 0
4703093 0
4703096 0
4703801 0
4704002 0
4704003 0
4704006 0
4704008 0
4704009 0
4704011 0
4704012 0
4704019 0
4704021 0
4704024 0
4704026 0
4704028 0
4704029 0
4704034 0
4704036 0
4704038 0
4704045 0
4704048 0
4704050 0
4704054 0
4704056 0
4704058 0
4704061 0
4704802 0
4705001 0
4705002 0
4705004 0
4705006 0
4705007 0
4705009 0
4705011 0
4705014 0
4705016 0
4705018 0
4705019 0
4705021 0
4705024 0
4705027 0
4705028 0
4705029 0
4705031 0
4705033 0
4705034 0
4705037 0
4705038 0
4705041 0
4705042 0
4705043 0
4705044 0
4705047 0
4705048 0
4705049 0
4705051 0
4705052 0
4705053 0
4705054 0
4705055 0
4705056 0
4705057 0
4705058 0
4705059 0
4705061 0
4705062 0
4705063 0
4705064 0
4705066 0
4705067 0
4705068 0
4705069 0
4705071 0
4705073 0
4705074 0
4705077 0
4705078 0
4705079 0
4705093 0
4705094 0
4705096 0
4705803 0
4705804 0
4705805 0
4705806 0
4705807 0
4705808 0
4706001 0
4706002 0
4706003 0
4706004 0
4706006 0
4706007 0
4706008 0
4706009 0
4706011 0
4706013 0
4706014 0
4706016 0
4706017 0
4706018 0
4706019 0
4706021 0
4706022 0
4706023 0
4706026 0
4706027 95
4706028 0
4706029 0
4706030 0
4706031 0
4706032 0
4706033 0
4706034 0
4706036 0
4706037 0
4706038 0
4706039 0
4706041 0
4706042 0
4706045 0
4706046 0
4706047 0
4706048 0
4706049 0
4706050 0
4706051 0
4706052 0
4706053 0
4706054 0
4706055 0
4706056 0
4706058 0
4706059 0
4706060 0
4706061 0
4706062 0
4706063 0
4706064 0
4706065 0
4706067 0
4706068 0
4706069 0
4706070 0
4706071 0
4706072 0
4706073 0
4706074 0
4706075 0
4706076 0
4706077 0
4706078 0
4706079 0
4706080 0
4706081 0
4706082 0
4706085 0
4706091 0
4706092 0
4706093 0
4706094 0
4706096 0
4706097 0
4706098 0
4706099 0
4706809 0
4706810 0
4706811 0
4706812 0
4706813 0
4706814 0
4706815 0
4706816 0
4706818 0
4706820 0
4706828 0
4706829 0
4707001 0
4707004 0
4707006 0
4707008 0
4707011 0
4707012 0
4707014 0
4707016 0
4707018 0
4707020 0
4707021 0
4707022 0
4707023 0
4707024 0
4707026 0
4707027 0
4707028 0
4707029 0
4707031 0
4707032 0
4707034 0
4707036 0
4707037 0
4707038 0
4707039 15
4707042 0
4707043 0
4707044 0
4707045 0
4707046 0
4707047 0
4707048 0
4707049 0
4707051 0
4707053 0
4707054 0
4707058 0
4707059 0
4707062 0
4707063 0
4707066 0
4707067 0
4707068 0
4707071 0
4707072 0
4707074 0
4707076 0
4707077 0
4707091 0
4707092 0
4707093 0
4708001 0
4708004 10
4708006 0
4708008 0
4708009 0
4708011 0
4708012 0
4708016 0
4708018 0
4708021 0
4708022 0
4708024 0
4708026 0
4708028 0
4708029 0
4708031 0
4708032 0
4708034 0
4708036 0
4708038 0
4708039 0
4708042 0
4708044 0
4708046 0
4708048 0
4708049 0
4708053 0
4708054 0
4708056 0
4708057 0
4708058 0
4708059 0
4708061 0
4708062 0
4708065 0
4708068 0
4708071 0
4708074 0
4708076 0
4708092 5
4708094 0
4709001 0
4709002 0
4709006 0
4709009 0
4709011 0
4709012 0
4709014 0
4709016 0
4709019 0
4709023 0
4709024 0
4709028 0
4709029 0
4709032 0
4709033 0
4709037 0
4709038 0
4709039 0
4709042 0
4709044 0
4709046 0
4709049 0
4709053 0
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4709056 0
4709058 0
4709060 0
4709061 0
4709062 0
4709064 0
4709065 0
4709066 0
4709067 0
4709069 0
4709071 0
4709072 0
4709075 0
4709076 0
4709819 0
4709820 0
4709821 0
4709822 0
4709832 0
4710002 0
4710003 0
4710004 0
4710008 0
4710009 0
4710011 0
4710012 0
4710014 0
4710022 0
4710024 0
4710027 0
4710028 0
4710029 0
4710031 0
4710035 0
4710036 0
4710038 0
4710041 0
4710043 0
4710046 0
4710047 0
4710052 0
4710054 0
4710056 0
4710058 0
4710061 0
4710062 0
4710064 0
4710066 0
4710068 5
4710071 0
4710072 0
4710822 0
4710823 0
4710824 0
4710825 0
4710826 0
4710828 0
4710836 0
4710838 0
4710840 0
4710849 0
4711002 0
4711003 0
4711004 0
4711006 0
4711007 0
4711008 0
4711009 0
4711011 0
4711014 0
4711016 0
4711018 0
4711019 0
4711021 0
4711022 0
4711024 0
4711026 0
4711027 5
4711028 0
4711029 0
4711031 0
4711032 0
4711034 0
4711036 0
4711038 0
4711039 0
4711041 0
4711042 0
4711044 0
4711046 0
4711048 0
4711049 0
4711052 0
4711053 0
4711054 0
4711056 0
4711058 0
4711059 0
4711060 0
4711061 0
4711063 0
4711064 0
4711065 0
4711066 165
4711067 0
4711068 5
4711069 0
4711070 0
4711071 0
4711072 0
4711073 0
4711075 0
4711076 0
4711077 0
4711078 0
4711079 0
4711091 0
4711092 0
4711094 0
4711096 0
4711828 0
4712001 0
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4712064 0
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4712072 0
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4712829 0
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4713002 0
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4713021 0
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4713031 0
4713032 0
4713038 0
4713039 0
4713041 0
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4713044 0
4713046 0
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4713062 0
4713064 0
4713067 5
4713068 0
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4714067 0
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4714077 0
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4714091 0
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4715026 0
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4715057 20
4715059 0
4715061 0
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4715064 0
4715066 20
4715067 0
4715068 0
4715070 0
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4715079 0
4715085 0
4715091 0
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4715851 0
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4715862 0
4716002 0
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4716016 0
4716018 0
4716019 0
4716022 0
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4716026 0
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4716028 0
4716029 10
4716033 0
4716038 0
4716041 0
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4716044 0
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4716051 0
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4716054 5
4716056 0
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4716060 0
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4716072 0
4716075 0
4716077 0
4716854 0
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4716860 0
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4716863 0
4716880 0
4716882 0
4716888 0
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4717001 0
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4717024 0
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4717032 0
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4717066 0
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4717801 0
4717802 0
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4717810 0
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4717812 0
4717813 0
4717815 0
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4718005 0
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4718021 0
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4718028 0
4718030 0
4718033 0
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4718065 0
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4718069 0
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4718075 0
4718090 0
4718100 0
4718801 0
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4718811 0
4718812 0
4718814 0
4718817 0
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4718826 0
4718828 0
4718829 0
4718831 0
4718832 0
4718839 0
4718852 0
4718854 0
4801003 0
4801006 15
4801008 0
4801009 0
4801014 0
4801018 0
4802001 0
4802002 0
4802004 0
4802006 0
4802008 0
4802009 0
4802011 0
4802012 95
4802013 0
4802014 0
4802016 0
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Map 3.b shows that there was a large concentration of 500 or more Francophone agri-food workers in four census subdivisions (CSDs) in Western Canada in 2016: Calgary (1,350 workers) and Edmonton (1,145 workers) in Alberta; Winnipeg (875 workers) in Manitoba; and Vancouver (780 workers) in British Columbia. In Saskatchewan, the CSD where the most Francophone agri-food workers lived in 2016 was Saskatoon (165 workers).

3.1 Age group

The aging of Francophone agri-food workers in Western Canada was less pronounced than that of their counterparts in the agriculture sector, with smaller proportions of those workers being 55 years or older. However, Francophone agri-food workers in 2016 were generally older than their Anglophone counterparts, since the median age of the sector’s Francophone workers was higher than the median age of their Anglophone counterparts in all Western provinces as well as in the territories. Moreover, between 2006 and 2016, the proportion of young Francophone agri-food workers aged 15 to 34 increased in all the Western provinces except British Columbia.

Chart 3.1.1 Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.1.1 
Chart 3.1.1
Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.1.1 Note 1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) 15 to 34 years, 35 to 54 years and 55 years and over, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
15 to 34 years 35 to 54 years 55 years and over
percent
French FOLS
2006 52.5 32.6 14.9
2016 53.9 23.5 22.6
English FOLS
2006 59.1 32.2 8.7
2016 57.5 29.3 13.2

The median age of Manitoba’s Francophone agri-food workers was relatively stable between 2006 (33.7 years) and 2016 (32.6 years). Over the decade, there was an increase in the proportion of those aged 55 years or older (from 14.9% in 2006 to 22.6% in 2016). However, the share of young Francophone agri-food workers aged 15 to 34 slightly increased between 2006 (52.5%) and 2016 (53.9%).

Manitoba’s Francophone agri-food workers were relatively older than their Anglophone counterparts, whose median age was 29.0 years in 2006 and 30.7 years in 2016. Less than one in seven Anglophone agri-food workers was 55 years or older in 2016, compared with more than one in five Francophone workers. In addition, the share of young agri-food workers aged 15 to 34 was higher among Anglophone workers (57.5%) than Francophone workers (53.9%).

Chart 3.1.2 Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.1.2 
Chart 3.1.2
Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.1.2 Note 1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) 15 to 34 years, 35 to 54 years and 55 years and over, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
15 to 34 years 35 to 54 years 55 years and over
percent
French FOLS
2006 31.8 30.3 37.9
2016 40.4 33.0 26.6
English FOLS
2006 58.6 31.4 10.1
2016 55.5 30.6 13.9

Unlike their counterparts in the agriculture sector, Francophone agri-food workers in Saskatchewan were relatively younger in 2016 than in 2006. Their median age went down over the decade, from 48.4 years in 2006 to 41.6 years in 2016, while the proportion of these workers aged 55 years or older decreased from 37.9% to 26.6%. At the same time, the share of Francophone agri-food workers aged 15 to 34 increased from 31.8% to 40.4%.

In contrast to these trends, Francophone agri-food workers remained older than their Anglophone counterparts, whose median age was 29.0 years in 2006 and 32.1 years in 2016. The proportion of Anglophone agri-food workers 55 years or older (13.9%) was nearly half that of their Francophone counterparts (26.6%) in 2016. Furthermore, more than 55% of Anglophone agri-food workers were between the ages of 15 and 34 in 2016, compared with about 40% of the Francophone peers.

Chart 3.1.3 Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.1.3 
Chart 3.1.3
Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.1.3 Note 1 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) 15 to 34 years, 35 to 54 years and 55 years and over, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
15 to 34 years 35 to 54 years 55 years and over
percent
French FOLS
2006 50.6 37.3 12.1
2016 54.6 31.2 14.3
English FOLS
2006 61.0 30.4 8.6
2016 57.7 30.3 12.0

In Alberta, the median age of Francophone agri-food workers fell slightly between 2006 and 2016, from 34.5 years to 32.4 years. These workers have become somewhat younger, as can be seen by the proportion of workers aged 15 to 34 years, which increased from 50.6% in 2006 to 54.6% in 2016. Meanwhile, the share of Francophone agri-food workers aged 55 years or older slightly increased over the decade, from 12.1% in 2006 to 14.3% in 2016.

Francophone agri-food workers in Alberta were somewhat older than their Anglophone counterparts. The median age of Alberta’s Anglophone agri-food workers rose from 28.1 years in 2006 to 31.3 years in 2016. The proportion of Anglophone agri-food workers aged 15 to 34 (57.7%) was slightly higher than the share among their Francophone counterparts (54.6%) in 2016.

Chart 3.1.4 Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.1.4 
Chart 3.1.4
Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.1.4 Note 1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) 15 to 34 years, 35 to 54 years and 55 years and over, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
15 to 34 years 35 to 54 years 55 years and over
percent
French FOLS
2006 53.1 35.5 11.5
2016 50.5 31.3 18.3
English FOLS
2006 57.5 33.3 9.2
2016 57.6 29.0 13.4

In British Columbia, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers aged 55 years or older increased from 11.5% to 18.3% between 2006 and 2016. However, the median age of these workers was relatively stable over the decade (33.6 years in 2006 and 34.9 years in 2016).

Anglophone agri-food workers in British Columbia were relatively younger than their Francophone counterparts. The proportion of Anglophone agri-food workers aged 15 to 34 (57.6%) was higher than the proportion of their Francophone peers (50.5%) in 2016. Moreover, the median age of Anglophone agri-food workers was relatively stable between 2006 (30.2 years) and 2016 (30.5 years), and lower than that of their Francophone peers.

Chart 3.1.5 Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.1.5 
Chart 3.1.5
Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.1.5 Note 1 Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) 15 to 34 years, 35 to 54 years and 55 years and over, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
15 to 34 years 35 to 54 years 55 years and over
percent
French FOLS
2006 59.3 31.6 9.1
2016 64.1 30.7 5.3
English FOLS
2006 64.1 28.3 7.6
2016 64.8 25.6 9.6

In the territories, the median age of Francophone agri-food workers rose from 24.1 years in 2006 to 32.4 years in 2016. In 2016, about six in ten Francophone agri-food workers were between the ages of 15 and 34. This proportion was similar among their Anglophone counterparts, whose median age was relatively stable between 2006 (26.9 years) and 2016 (27.7 years).

3.2 Sex

The proportion of women among Francophone and Anglophone agri-food workers was close to parity across Western Canada and in the territories in 2006 and 2016. However, with the exception of the territories, the proportion of women was lower among Francophone agri-food workers than among their Anglophone counterparts in 2016.

In Manitoba, the proportion of women among Francophone agri-food workers was 49.0% in 2006 and 47.0% in 2016. This proportion was higher among their Anglophone counterparts (52.4% in both years).

In Saskatchewan, the proportion of women among Francophone agri-food workers decreased between 2006 and 2016, from 63.0% to 50.2%. In 2016, this proportion was lower than that of Anglophone agri-food workers (54.1% in 2006 and 54.0% in 2016).

In Alberta, women represented a similar proportion of Francophone agri-food workers in 2006 (53.2%) and 2016 (52.1%). These proportions were lower than those observed among their Anglophone counterparts (55.5% in 2006 and 55.0% in 2016).

In British Columbia, the proportion of women among Francophone agri-food workers decreased between 2006 and 2016, from 56.6% to 50.0%. Among their Anglophone counterparts, the proportion of women among agri-food workers was 56.8% in 2006 and 55.8% in 2016.

Lastly, in the territories, the proportion of women among Francophone agri-food workers increased between 2006 and 2016, from 50.2% to 60.6%. Among their Anglophone peers, women represented 53.2% of workers in 2006 and 55.2% in 2016.

3.3 Place of birth

The proportion of Francophone agri-food workers born outside Canada grew in all the Western provinces and in the territories between 2006 and 2016. In 2016, it was similar to the proportion among their Anglophone counterparts in Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia.

Chart 3.3.1 Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.3.1 
Chart 3.3.1
Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.3.1 Note 1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Province or territory of residence, Other province or territory and Outside Canada, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province or territory of residence Other province or territory Outside Canada
percent
French FOLS
2006 82.7 12.5 4.8
2016 74.0 12.5 13.4
English FOLS
2006 71.5 12.9 15.6
2016 59.2 9.9 30.9

In Manitoba, one in eight Francophone agri-food workers were born in another province in both 2006 and 2016. In addition, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers born outside Canada almost tripled over the decade, increasing from 4.8% to 13.4%. However, in 2016, Anglophone agri-food workers were more likely to be born outside Canada (30.9%) than their Francophone counterparts (13.4%).

In 2016, among Francophone agri-food workers born in a province other than Manitoba, about half were born in Quebec (49.0%). As for their counterparts born outside Canada, about two-thirds were from Africa.

Chart 3.3.2 Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.3.2 
Chart 3.3.2
Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.3.2 Note 1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Province or territory of residence, Other province or territory and Outside Canada, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province or territory of residence Other province or territory Outside Canada
percent
French FOLS
2006 66.3 26.3 7.4
2016 50.5 24.9 24.6
English FOLS
2006 78.1 14.1 7.9
2016 60.9 13.3 25.9

In Saskatchewan, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers born outside Canada increased between 2006 (7.4%) and 2016 (24.6%). These proportions were similar among their Anglophone counterparts. Moreover, in 2016, about one-quarter of Francophone agri-food workers were born in a province other than Saskatchewan, compared with less than one in seven among their Anglophone peers.

In 2016, more than half of Francophone agri-food workers born in a province other than Saskatchewan were from Quebec (52.1%). As for their counterparts born outside Canada, 55.9% were born in Africa. Thus, in 2016 in Saskatchewan, about one in seven Francophone agri-food workers were born in Africa, and around one in eight were born in Quebec.

Chart 3.3.3 Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.3.3 
Chart 3.3.3
Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.3.3 Note 1 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Province or territory of residence, Other province or territory and Outside Canada, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province or territory of residence Other province or territory Outside Canada
percent
French FOLS
2006 27.3 50.2 22.6
2016 18.9 43.5 37.6
English FOLS
2006 51.3 26.1 22.6
2016 42.3 21.0 36.8

In Alberta, between 2006 and 2016, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers born in the province declined from 27.3% to 18.9%. The proportion of these workers born in another province also decreased (50.2% in 2006 and 43.5% in 2016), while the share of those born outside Canada increased from about 23% in 2006 to more than 37% in 2016. This last proportion was similar to that among Anglophone agri-food workers in 2016 (36.8%). However, Anglophone agri-food workers were about half as likely to be born in another province (21.0%) than their Francophone counterparts (43.5%) in 2016.

In 2016, Francophone agri-food workers born in another province were mainly born in Quebec (62.7%), Ontario (16.1%), and New Brunswick (11.5%). Thus, in 2016, more than one-quarter of Francophone agri-food workers in Alberta were born in Quebec.

As for Francophone agricultural workers born outside Canada in 2016, 58.5% were from Africa, 14.5% from Europe, 14.4% from elsewhere in the AmericasNote  and 12.5% from Asia. The main countries of birth of these workers were the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11.4%), France (8.2%), and Morocco (6.9%). In 2016 in Alberta, more than one in five Francophone agri-food workers were born in Africa.

Chart 3.3.4 Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.3.4 
Chart 3.3.4
Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.3.4 Note 1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Province or territory of residence, Other province or territory and Outside Canada, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province or territory of residence Other province or territory Outside Canada
percent
French FOLS
2006 11.9 58.6 29.5
2016 14.2 49.8 35.9
English FOLS
2006 50.2 18.3 31.5
2016 49.5 15.1 35.4

The proportion of Francophone agri-food workers in British Columbia who were born in another province decreased from 58.6% to 49.8% between 2006 and 2016. Moreover, the proportion of these workers born outside Canada rose from 29.5% in 2006 to 35.9% in 2016. A similar proportion of Anglophone agri-food workers were born outside Canada in 2016 (35.4%). However, less than one in six Anglophone agri-food workers were born in another province, compared with about half of Francophone agri-food workers.

In 2016, Francophone agri-food workers born in another province than British Columbia were mainly from Quebec (67.2%) and Ontario (13.5%). Therefore, more than one-third of British Columbia’s Francophone agri-food workers were born in Quebec.

Among Francophone agri-food workers born outside Canada in 2016, 50.1% were born in Europe, 22.7% in Asia, 16.6% in Africa and 10.2% elsewhere in the Americas. The main country of birth of these workers was France (32.5%). Thus, more than 11% of Francophone agri-food workers in British Columbia were born in France in 2016.

Chart 3.3.5 Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.3.5 
Chart 3.3.5
Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.3.5 Note 1 Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Place of birth of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Province or territory of residence, Other province or territory and Outside Canada, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province or territory of residence Other province or territory Outside Canada
percent
French FOLS
2006 8.4 74.8 16.9
2016 15.9 59.7 24.4
English FOLS
2006 40.6 47.3 12.1
2016 42.0 39.4 18.6

In the territories, about three in four Francophone agri-food workers were born in another province or territoryNote  in 2006, compared with less than six in ten in 2016. Nearly one in four Francophone agri-food workers were born outside Canada in 2016.

In 2016, Anglophone agri-food workers in the territories were less likely to be born in another province or territory (39.4%) or outside Canada (18.6%) than their Francophone counterparts (59.7% and 24.4%, respectively).

3.4 Indigenous identity

The number of Indigenous agri-food workers in Manitoba rose from 8,390 in 2006 to 10,575 in 2016. The proportion whose first official language spoken (FOLS) was French was 5.5% in 2006 and 3.2% in 2016. A very small number of Indigenous agri-food workers knew neither official language in 2016. Moreover, 10.1% knew an Indigenous language, often a Cree language, Oji-Cree or Ojibway.

In Saskatchewan, there were 7,210 Indigenous agri-food workers in 2006 and 8,040 in 2016. In both years, French was the FOLS of less than 1% of these workers. In 2016, all Indigenous agri-food workers in the province knew English or French and 13.4% knew an Indigenous language, often a Cree language or Dene.

Between 2006 and 2016, the number of Indigenous agri-food workers in Alberta increased from 12,090 to 13,905. French was the FOLS of about 1% of them in both years. In 2016, a very small number of these workers knew neither official language. Furthermore, 5.7% knew an Indigenous language, often a Cree language or Blackfoot.

In British Columbia, the number of Indigenous agri-food workers was up from 13,730 in 2006 to 20,110 in 2016. About 1% of them had French as FOLS in both years. In 2016, all these workers knew English or French and 3.1% knew an Indigenous language, such as the Carrier language.

Lastly, there were 1,785 Indigenous agri-food workers in the territories in 2006 and 2,890 in 2016. In both years, a very small number had French as FOLS and a very small number had no knowledge of an official language. Moreover, about 57% knew an Indigenous language in 2016, mainly Inuktitut.

3.5 Education

The level of education of Francophone agri-food workers generally increased between 2006 and 2016 in all Western provinces. The proportion of Francophone agri-food workers who had not completed secondary studies decreased over the decade in each province and in the territories. In addition, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers with a postsecondary qualification was higher than that of their Anglophone counterparts in 2016.

Chart 3.5.1 Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.5.1 
Chart 3.5.1
Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.5.1 Note 1 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Highest certificate No certificate, diploma or degree, Secondary (high) school , Apprenticeship or trade school, College and University, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
No certificate, diploma or degree Secondary (high) school Apprenticeship or trade school College University
percent
French FOLS
2006 35.7 35.0 8.6 12.6 8.2
2016 23.7 40.5 6.6 14.9 14.2
English FOLS
2006 35.5 38.9 6.4 9.3 10.0
2016 23.2 44.1 4.7 11.5 16.4

In Manitoba, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers who had not completed secondary studies decreased from 35.7% to 23.7% over the decade, and the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers with a college or university qualification increased from 20.8% to 29.1% over the same period.

The levels of education of Francophone and Anglophone agri-food workers were similar in 2016. However, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers with a postsecondary qualification (35.7%) was slightly higher than that of Anglophone agri-food workers (32.6%).

Chart 3.5.2 Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.5.2 
Chart 3.5.2
Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.5.2 Note 1 Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Highest certificate No certificate, diploma or degree, Secondary (high) school , Apprenticeship or trade school, College and University, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
No certificate, diploma or degree Secondary (high) school Apprenticeship or trade school College University
percent
French FOLS
2006 37.6 31.6 10.0 8.0 12.9
2016 14.6 44.3 11.4 12.1 17.8
English FOLS
2006 35.2 39.8 8.4 10.0 6.7
2016 24.1 42.2 6.5 11.1 16.1

In Saskatchewan, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers who did not have a certificate, diploma or degree fell markedly between 2006 and 2016, from 37.6% to 14.6%, and the share with a postsecondary qualification rose from 30.9% in 2006 to 41.3% in 2016. This proportion was higher than that of their Anglophone counterparts in 2016 (33.7%). Furthermore, in 2016, about one in four Anglophone agri-food workers had not completed secondary studies, compared to about one in seven among their Francophone counterparts.

Chart 3.5.3 Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.5.3 
Chart 3.5.3
Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.5.3 Note 1 Alberta, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Highest certificate No certificate, diploma or degree, Secondary (high) school , Apprenticeship or trade school, College and University, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
No certificate, diploma or degree Secondary (high) school Apprenticeship or trade school College University
percent
French FOLS
2006 30.3 29.5 9.5 17.4 13.3
2016 19.3 37.3 9.2 15.9 18.3
English FOLS
2006 36.1 36.7 5.8 11.5 9.9
2016 22.5 41.8 5.0 13.4 17.3

In Alberta, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers with no secondary diploma decreased between 2006 (30.3%) and 2016 (19.3%), and the share with a postsecondary qualification increased (40.2% in 2006 and 43.4% in 2016). Their Anglophone counterparts had a relatively lower level of education. In 2016, 22.5% of them did not have a certificate, diploma or degree, and 35.7% had a postsecondary diploma.

Chart 3.5.4 Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.5.4 
Chart 3.5.4
Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.5.4 Note 1 British Columbia, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Highest certificate No certificate, diploma or degree, Secondary (high) school , Apprenticeship or trade school, College and University, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
No certificate, diploma or degree Secondary (high) school Apprenticeship or trade school College University
percent
French FOLS
2006 23.6 33.1 9.7 18.7 15.0
2016 14.0 36.0 10.6 16.2 23.3
English FOLS
2006 25.3 42.0 6.9 12.5 13.4
2016 18.9 45.9 5.6 12.9 16.7

In British Columbia, the proportion of Francophone agricultural workers with no certificate, diploma or degree declined from 23.6% to 14.0% between 2006 and 2016, and the share of these workers with a postsecondary qualification increased from 43.4% to 50.1%. In 2016, slightly less than one-quarter of Francophone agri-food workers had a university degree. The level of education of Anglophone agri-food workers was relatively lower than that of their Francophone counterparts in 2016, as seen by the proportion of these workers who had not completed secondary studies (18.9%) and the share of these workers with a postsecondary qualification (35.2%).

Chart 3.5.5 Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),1 Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.5.5 
Chart 3.5.5
Highest certificate, diploma or degree of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.5.5 Note 1 Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Highest certificate No certificate, diploma or degree, Secondary (high) school , Apprenticeship or trade school, College and University, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
No certificate, diploma or degree Secondary (high) school Apprenticeship or trade school College University
percent
French FOLS
2006 22.7 28.1 7.6 33.2 8.5
2016 13.7 42.8 16.0 19.2 8.2
English FOLS
2006 47.4 27.6 6.5 14.1 4.3
2016 43.3 30.8 5.2 11.0 9.7

Between 2006 and 2016, the proportion of Francophone agri-food workers in the territories who had not completed secondary studies declined from 22.7% to 13.7%. Moreover, the share of these workers with a college diploma as their highest qualification also decreased, from 33.2% in 2006 to 19.2% in 2016. In 2016, about 43% of Francophone agri-food workers had a postsecondary qualification, compared with around a quarter of their Anglophone counterparts.

3.6 Class of worker

Across Western Canada and the territories, more than nine in ten agri-food workers were employees in 2006 and 2016. This proportion was similar among Anglophones and Francophones.

The proportion of self-employed persons among Francophone agri-food workers increased between 2006 and 2016 in Manitoba, from about 5% to around 8%. This share was relatively stable over the decade in Saskatchewan (about 7%) and British Columbia (about 10%). In Alberta, the proportion of self-employed workers among Francophone agri-food workers was down over the decade, from more than 8% to about 5%. Few Francophone agri-food workers in the territories were self-employed in 2016.

In 2016, the proportion of self-employment among Francophone agri-food workers was higher than that of their Anglophone counterparts in Manitoba (7.7% compared with 4.8%), Saskatchewan (6.8% versus 5.3%), and British Columbia (9.7% compared with 5.7%).

3.7 Employment income

Employment income includes all income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the calendar year preceding the census. The employment income of agri-food workers may include income from sources other than the job held in that sector.

Most of the information in this report includes all individuals categorized as workers, including those who worked during the reference week (e.g. May 1 to 7, 2016) or the census year (e.g. 2016), but who were not working in the year before the census (e.g. 2015). However, since these workers were not working in the year before the census, they are excluded from the information presented in this section. They are identified by the “not applicable” category in the charts below and are excluded from the calculations of median income, work arrangements, and the number of weeks worked per year.

The median employment income of Francophone agri-food workers was higher than that of their Anglophone counterparts in 2016 in all the Western provinces, except Alberta, as well as in the territories. Differences in median employment income between Francophone and Anglophone agri-food workers can partly be explained by the specific industry in which they work. The next section addresses this topic.

Chart 3.7.1 Employment income1 of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),2 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Data table for Chart 3.7.1 
Chart 3.7.1
Employment incomeChart 3.7.1 Note 1 of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS),Chart 3.7.1 Note 2 Manitoba, 2006 and 2016

Table summary
This table displays the results of Employment income of agri-food sector workers aged 15 or over by first official language spoken (FOLS) Under $10,000, $10,000 to $29,999, $30,000 to $59,999, $60,000 and over and Not applicable, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Under $10,000 $10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $59,999 $60,000 and over Not applicable
percent
French FOLS
2006 30.8 30.3 22.7 9.6 6.6
2016 29.2 28.0 24.3 12.4 6.1
English FOLS
2006 36.1 31.8 20.2 7.0 4.9
2016 30.0 33.4 22.4 9.1 5.2