2006 Aboriginal Population Profile for Sudbury
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This report examines the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the Aboriginal population living in the census metropolitan area of Sudbury1. The 2006 Census and 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS), which provide an extensive set of data about Aboriginal people, are the data sources.
The report focuses on the Aboriginal identity population, which refers to those people who reported identifying with at least one Aboriginal group, that is, North American Indian, Métis or Inuit, and/or those who reported being a Treaty Indian or a registered Indian as defined by the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported they were members of an Indian band or First Nation.
The term "First Nations" is used throughout the report to refer to people who identified as North American Indian. The term "Aboriginal population" is used to refer to the Aboriginal identity population.
Setting the context
There were 1,172,790 Aboriginal people in Canada in 2006, accounting for 3.8% of Canada's total population.
In 2006, a total of 242,500 Aboriginal people lived in Ontario, representing 2.0% of the provincial population.
There were 9,970 Aboriginal people living in Sudbury in 2006 making up 6.4% of the city's total population. By way of comparison, Toronto had the largest Aboriginal population (26,575) of any city in Ontario, and Kenora had the largest concentration of Aboriginal people of any city in Ontario (16%).
Between 2001 and 2006, the Aboriginal population in Sudbury grew by 35%, from 7,385 to 9,970 people. The Métis grew by 64% while the First Nations population grew by 10%.
Métis - largest Aboriginal group in Sudbury
In 2006, 5,430 persons identified as Métis accounting for just over half (54%) of the city's Aboriginal population. Another 4,260 identified as First Nations people and 35 as Inuit1. First Nations people accounted for 43% of the Aboriginal population while Inuit accounted for less than 1%. Another 2% reported multiple or other Aboriginal responses2.
Of those who identified as First Nations people in 2006, almost three in four (73%) reported being a Treaty Indian or a registered Indian as defined by the Indian Act of Canada.
About the data sources
The census provides a statistical portrait of Canada and its people. The most recent census was on May 16, 2006.
The 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) was conducted between October 2006 and March 2007. The survey provides extensive data on Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nations children aged 6 to 14 and those aged 15 and over living in urban, rural and northern locations across Canada. The Aboriginal Peoples Survey was designed to provide data on the social and economic conditions of Aboriginal people in Canada (excluding reserves).
It was possible to report both single and multiple responses to the Aboriginal identity questions on the census and the Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Census data used in this article for First Nations people, Métis and Inuit are based on the single responses only. Total Aboriginal identity population counts include people who reported identifying with at least one Aboriginal group and/or those who reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian and/or those who reported they were members of an Indian band or First Nation. The Aboriginal Peoples Survey data represent a combination of both the single and multiple Aboriginal identity populations.
Data have been provided for the total Aboriginal identity population and in some cases they have been broken down by Aboriginal group, sex and age group. For Aboriginal groups where the census count of the population aged 15 years and over is 200 or less, only the census count has been provided. No further data are shown due to potential data quality issues that can result from small counts that arise when several variables are cross-tabulated.
A young population
The Aboriginal population living in Sudbury is younger than the non-Aboriginal population. In 2006, the median age3 of the Aboriginal population in Sudbury was 31.2 years, compared to 41.3 years for the non-Aboriginal population.
In 2006, four in ten (41%) Aboriginal people were under the age of 25, compared to three in ten (30%) non-Aboriginal people. Further, only 5% of Aboriginal people were 65 years and over, compared to 15% in the non-Aboriginal population. One-quarter (25%) of Aboriginal people in Sudbury were under the age of 15, compared to 17% of their non-Aboriginal counterparts (chart 1). For more details, see table 1 in the appendix.
Aboriginal children aged 14 years and under represented 9.3% of the city's children. Over one-quarter (27%) of the First Nations population was 14 years of age and under, compared to 23% of Métis.
Aboriginal children more likely than non-Aboriginal children to live with a lone parent
In 2006, 55% of Aboriginal children aged 14 and under lived with both parents. Compared with their non-Aboriginal peers, Aboriginal children were more likely to live with a lone mother (38% versus 18%), a lone father (4% versus 3%), a grandparent (with no parent present) (1.4% versus 0.6%) or with another relative (2.2% versus 1.0%) (see table 2 in the appendix).
Young Aboriginal women as likely to be attending school as their non-Aboriginal counterparts
Seven in ten (72%) Aboriginal women aged 15 to 24 living in Sudbury in 2006 were attending school. This rate almost mirrors that of non-Aboriginal women in the same age group (73%). Young Aboriginal men were, however, less likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to be in school (62% versus 67%).
Older Aboriginal women (35 years of age and older) in Sudbury have a greater tendency to return to school later in life than do Aboriginal men and non-Aboriginal men and women in the same age group. About one in ten (11%) Aboriginal women 35 years of age or older were attending school in 2006, compared to 5% of Aboriginal men, 4% of non-Aboriginal men and 6% of non-Aboriginal women (see table 3 in the appendix).
The 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey found that among the off-reserve Aboriginal population in Ontario, men and women had different reasons for not completing high school. For young Aboriginal men aged 15 to 34, the most commonly reported reason was 'wanted to work', 'pregnancy/taking care of children' topped the reasons provided by Aboriginal women in the same age group.
Majority have completed post-secondary education
Over half of Aboriginal men (55%) and women (53%) aged 25 to 64 living in Sudbury in 2006 had completed postsecondary education compared to six in ten of their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Postsecondary education includes a trades certificate, a college diploma or a university certificate, diploma or degree. Aboriginal men and women were almost as likely as their non-Aboriginal counterparts to a have college diploma. However, Aboriginal men were more likely than non-Aboriginal men to have trades school credentials. Non-Aboriginal people of both sexes were more likely than Aboriginal people to have a university degree (see text table 1).
In 2006, 23% of Aboriginal men and 21% of Aboriginal women 25 to 64 years of age had less than a high school education, compared to 16% and 14%, respectively of their non-Aboriginal male and female counterparts.
Young Aboriginal women in Sudbury more likely to obtain a university degree than their male counterparts
In Sudbury, one in six (16%) Aboriginal women aged 25 to 34 reported having a university degree, in the 2006 Census, compared to 6% of their male counterparts. (This includes all certificates, diplomas or degrees at the bachelor's level or above). Furthermore, young Aboriginal women (25 to 34 years of age) were also twice as likely to have a university degree as older Aboriginal women 35 to 64 years of age (16% versus 8%) (see chart 2).
Regardless of their age group or sex, Aboriginal people living in Sudbury in 2006, were less likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to have a university degree.
Higher unemployment rates
In 2006, the unemployment rate4 for the Aboriginal core working age population (aged 25 to 54) in Sudbury was higher than that of the non-Aboriginal population (7.8% compared to 5.6%). First Nations and Métis women had the same rates of unemployment (7.9%). The unemployment rate for First Nations men (10.0%) was, however, three percentage points higher than that of Métis men (6.9%).
Unemployment rates were much higher for Sudbury's young people. In 2006, 31.9% of First Nations youth aged 15 to 24 years were unemployed, as were 23.5% of Métis youth, and 17.0% of non-Aboriginal youth (see table 4 in the appendix).
Métis more likely to be employed than First Nations
Another measure of labour market performance is the employment rate5. In 2006, Métis men (79.6%) and Métis women (66.9%) aged 25 to 54 living in Sudbury were less likely to be employed than their non-Aboriginal counterparts (84.1% and 76.2%). Their employment rates were, however, higher than those for First Nations men (69.2%) and First Nations women (58.6%) (see table 5 in the appendix).
Aboriginal people less likely to be working full-time full-year
Three in ten (29%) Aboriginal people living in Sudbury were working full-time full-year6 in 2005, compared to 35% of the non-Aboriginal population. Men were more likely than women to be full-time full-year workers in 2005, regardless of the population group. Over one-third (36%) of Aboriginal men and over four in ten (42%) non-Aboriginal men worked full-time full-year compared to 23% of Aboriginal women and 28% of non-Aboriginal women.
Métis men and women in the Sudbury labour force were more likely than their First Nations counterparts to be working full-time full-year in 2005. Four in ten (39%) Métis men and one in four (26%) Métis women were working full-year full-time compared to 31% of First Nations men and 18% of First Nations women (see text table 2).
Occupations in 'sales and services' most prevalent
In studying the labour market of a given area, it is helpful to examine its occupational7 make-up. In 2006, the most common occupational categories8 for both the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experienced labour forces in Sudbury were 'sales and service' and 'trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations'. However, the kinds of jobs people hold differ for men and women. For example, men were much more likely than women to work in 'trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations'. Women were more likely than men to work in 'sales and service'. This holds true for both the Aboriginal and the non-Aboriginal populations in Sudbury.
In 2006, Aboriginal men were more likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to work in 'trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations' (36% versus 30%). Among women, Aboriginal women were more likely than non-Aboriginal women to have 'sales and service' jobs (38% versus 32%) (see table 6 in the appendix).
Earnings gap closing
In 2000, the median earnings9 of full-time full-year Aboriginal earners in Sudbury (measured in 2005 dollars) were $38,099. By 2005, this had increased to $40,364. Even though Aboriginal people who worked full-time full-year in 2005 continued to earn less than their non-Aboriginal counterparts, the gap is closing. In 2000, Aboriginal people in Sudbury working full-time full-year earned 86% of what their non-Aboriginal counterparts were earning. By 2005, this percentage had increased to 89% (see table 7 in the appendix).
Total income lower for Aboriginal people
The census collects a number of measures of income that help in understanding the economic situation of a population. Earnings data have been provided above for the population working full-time full-year in 2005. It is also useful to look at total income10 as sources of income go beyond that of employment. In 2005, one in four (25%) Aboriginal people with income in Sudbury had a total income of $40,000 or over compared to about one-third (34%) of their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In 2005, Aboriginal women had the lowest median income ($15,891), whether compared to Aboriginal men ($29,377) or to non-Aboriginal men ($37,368) or to non-Aboriginal women ($20,176) (see table 8 in the appendix).
In understanding these data, it is important to note that, in Sudbury, 7% of the Aboriginal population 15 and over and 5% of the their non-Aboriginal counterparts reported having no income in 2005 (data not shown).
Over one in four Aboriginal people in Sudbury living below the low-income cut-off
Statistics Canada uses the concept of low-income cut-off (LICO)11 to indicate an income threshold below which a family will likely devote a larger share of its income on the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family. In 2005, in Sudbury over one in four (27%) Aboriginal people were living under the LICO, compared to 12% of non-Aboriginal people. In addition, 34% of Aboriginal children (aged 14 years and under) in Sudbury were living under the LICO, compared to 15% of non-Aboriginal children (data not shown). These data are based on the before taxLICO.
Half of Sudbury's Aboriginal population moved at least once between 2001 and 2006
The Census counts people where they are living on one particular day. On May 16, 2006 (the date of the 2006 Census) there were 9,970 Aboriginal people living in the census metropolitan area of Sudbury. This count does not include all of the Aboriginal people who may have lived in Sudbury at some point during the year, but only those who were living in Sudbury on that particular day12.
When looking at the Census population counts, it is important to remember that many people move between communities – for example, someone might move from a reserve community to a large city and back again within the same year. In Sudbury, in 2006, 50% of the Aboriginal population had lived at the same address five years ago, compared to 65% of the non-Aboriginal population. From 2001 to 2006, just over one-third (35%) of Aboriginal people had moved at least once within Sudbury, and the rest (15%) had moved to Sudbury from another community. A community may refer to another municipality, or a reserve, or a rural area (see table 9 in the appendix).
When asked on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey why they moved to their current city, town or community, most off-reserve Aboriginal people in Ontario reported family-related reasons, followed by work-related reasons.
One in nine live in homes needing major repairs – down from 2001
In Sudbury, one in nine (11.4%) Aboriginal people lived in homes requiring major repairs13 in 2006, compared to 17.8% in 2001. In comparison, the share of Sudbury's non-Aboriginal population living in dwellings in need of major repairs was 7.4% in 2006 and 8.3% in 2001.
The share of Aboriginal people living in crowded14 homes was 1.9% in 2006 up from 1.4% in 2001. The comparable rates for the non-Aboriginal population were 0.6% in 2006 and 0.8% in 2001 (see table 10 in the appendix).
Majority report being healthy
The majority of off-reserve First Nations and Métis adults (the population aged 15 and over) living in Ontario15 rated their health as excellent or very good in 2006. When asked as part of the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey whether their health was excellent, very good, good, fair or poor, 52% of the off–reserve adult First Nations population and 58% of Métis adults gave themselves a rating of excellent or very good. A further 26% of First Nations adults and 25% of the Métis adult population reported that their health was good.
Six in ten adults live with one or more chronic conditions
The 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey also inquired about chronic conditions16 that had been diagnosed by a health professional. Six in ten off-reserve First Nations (60%) and Métis (59%) adults living in Ontario reported that they had been diagnosed with at least one chronic condition17 Among the First Nations adult population, the most frequently reported conditions were: arthritis or rheumatism (25%), respiratory problems18 (22%) and high blood pressure, heart problems or effects of a stroke (22%). Among the Métis, arthritis or rheumatism was the most commonly reported condition affecting 24% of adults followed by high blood pressure, heart problems or effects of a stroke (23%) and respiratory problems (22%).
- The geographic area covered in this report is the census metropolitan area of Sudbury. A census metropolitan area (CMA) is a large urban centre. Census metropolitan areas are formed by one or more adjacent municipalities centered on a large urban area (known as the urban core). A Census metropolitan area must have a total population of at least 100,000 of which 50,000 or more must live in the urban core. Whitefish Lake First Nation is included within the CMA boundaries of Sudbury. For maps, see: CMA of Sudbury.
- While the Census count for Inuit in Sudbury is provided here, data for other characteristics are not included because of the small number of Inuit counted in the city.
- Includes people who reported more than one Aboriginal identity group and those who reported being Registered or Treaty Indian and/or member of an Indian band or First Nation without reporting an Aboriginal identity.
- The median age is the point where exactly one-half of the population is older and the other half is younger.
- The unemployment rate for a particular group is the unemployed in that group, expressed as a percentage of the labour force in that group, in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census day (May 16, 2006).
- The employment rate refers to the number of employed people, in a given group, as a percentage of the total population in that group.
- The term 'full-year full-time workers' refers to persons 15 years of age and over who worked 49 to 52 weeks (mostly full time) in 2005 for pay or in self-employment.
- Occupation refers to the kind of work persons were doing during the reference week, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. If the person did not have a job during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration, the data relate to the job of longest duration since January 1, 2005. Persons with two or more jobs were to report the information for the job at which they worked the most hours.
- Occupations contained within the categories can cover a broad range of skill levels. For example, the business and finance occupation category includes professional occupations requiring a university degree, as well as clerical occupations that require a high school diploma or equivalent.
- Median earnings are earnings levels that divide the population into two halves, i.e., half of the population receiving less than this amount, and half, more. Earnings or employment income refers to the income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2005 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.
- Total income refers to the total money income received from the following sources during calendar year 2005 by persons 15 years of age and over: wages and salaries (total), net farm income, net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice, child benefits, Old Age Security Pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan, benefits from Employment Insurance, other income from government sources, dividends, interest on bonds, deposits and savings certificates, and other investment income, retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from RRSPs and RRIFs, other money income.
- The low-income cut-off is a statistical measure of the income threshold level below which Canadians are estimated to devote at least one-fifth more of their income than the average family to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. For the 2005 matrix of low income before-tax cut-offs and additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue no. 92-566-XWE.
- For example, students who return to live with their parents during the year are included at their parents' address, even if they lived elsewhere while attending school or working at a summer job.
- Dwellings in need of major repairs are those that, in the judgment of the respondent, require major repairs to such things as defective plumbing or electrical wiring, and/or structural repairs to walls, floors or ceilings, etc.
- Crowding is defined as more than one person per room. Not counted as rooms are bathrooms, halls, vestibules and rooms used solely for business purposes.
- Data on health is not available for the census metropolitan area of Sudbury so provincial level data has been provided.
- Chronic conditions were those that had lasted or were expected to last six months or more and had been diagnosed by a health professional.
- Respiratory problems include asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
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