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  • In 2010/2011, there were, on average, about 163,000 adult offenders in Canada's correctional system on any given day. Of these, 77% were under community supervision while 23% were incarcerated.
  • The rate of adults under correctional supervision in 2010/2011 (616 per 100,000 adult population), changed little from the previous year (-1%) but was 7% lower than a decade ago. The decrease since 2000/2001 was driven by a drop in the rate of adults under community supervision (-10%) as the rate of adults in custody rose 5% over this period.
  • Quebec reported the lowest rate of adults under correctional supervision in 2010/2011 at 303 offenders per 100,000 adult population or about one-half of the overall average. In contrast, the highest rates were in the territories followed by Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Prince Edward Island.
  • On any given day in 2010/2011, there were about 38,000 adults in custody. Of these, 36% were in a federal institution (2 years or more), 29% were in a provincial or territorial facility (less than 2 years) and 34% were being held on remand. Less than 1% of adults in custody were on another type of temporary detainment, such as an immigration hold.
  • Among the provinces, Manitoba reported the highest incarceration rate, due largely to a relatively high rate of adults in remand. In contrast, Nova Scotia reported the lowest incarceration rate, as has been the case for more than 20 years.
  • The rate of adults in remand dropped 6% between 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, the first notable decline in over a decade. In recent years, many provinces and territories have taken steps to reduce the amount of time offenders spend in remand awaiting trial or sentencing.
  • Overall, most (76%) crimes committed by adults admitted to provincial or territorial sentenced custody in 2010/2011 were non-violent. The exceptions were in the Northwest Territories and Manitoba where most admissions were for violent offences (74% and 62%).
  • In comparison to the adult population in general, adults in custody tend to be disproportionately male, single and young (under 25 years). As well, Aboriginal people were over-represented in custody across all provinces and territories.
  • Of the approximately 125,000 adults under community supervision on any given day in 2010/2011, most (83%) were on probation. Following a period of decline throughout the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, the rate of offenders on probation has remained relatively stable.
  • About 11% of adult offenders under community supervision on any given day in 2010/2011 were on a conditional sentence. Since becoming a sentencing option in 1996, the rate of adults on a conditional sentence increased until 2004/2005 then decreased slightly.
  • The combined rate of adults on day and full parole has declined each year since peaking in 1993/1994. At 20 adults per 100,000 adult population, the 2010/2011 rate of offenders on parole was at its lowest point since data were first collected over 30 years ago.
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