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Health Reports – May 19, 2021

Ethnocultural and socioeconomic disparities in exposure to residential greenness within urban Canada
by Lauren Pinault, Tanya Christidis, Olaniyan Toyib and Dan L. Crouse

Residential greenness has been associated with benefits to health, such as lower risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, obesity, adverse birth outcomes, asthma and better psychological health. However, the variation in greenness across socioeconomic and demographic characteristics in urban areas of Canada has not been well documented. Authors of a study focused upon respondents to the 2001 Canadian Census reported that more affluent and more highly educated adults living in the 30 largest Census metropolitan areas of Canada had greater exposures to residential greenness than those who were less affluent and less well-educated. This study builds on that work by using data from the more recent, 2016 Census; including respondents of all ages; and by considering differences in exposures according not only to age, education, and income, but also according to immigration status, time since immigration, self-reported ethnicity, and neighbourhood deprivation indices.

Gentrification, Urban Interventions and Equity (GENUINE): A map-based gentrification tool for Canadian metropolitan areas
by Caislin L. Firth, Benoit Thierry, Daniel Fuller, Meghan Winters, and Yan Kestens

Researchers, policy makers, and urban planners require tools to better understand the complex relationship between gentrification and health. The Gentrification, Urban Interventions and Equity (GENUINE) tool is an open-access, map-based tool that allows users to explore measures of gentrification for Canadian cities and incorporate them into their work. The objective of this paper is to present GENUINE and describe gentrification patterns by these measures for all Canadian census metropolitan areas (CMAs) from 2006 to 2016. GENUINE is a set of four gentrification measures that reflect the diversity of approaches to gentrification and the lack of consensus around how to measure it. Insights are also provided on how this tool can be used in population health research and by policy makers.

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