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1. Canadian Institute for Health Information. National Health Expenditures Trends, 1975 to 2013. Available at:

2. Genest J, McPherson R, Frohlich J, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult – 2009 recommendations. Canadian Journal of Cardiology 2009; 25(10): 567-79.

3. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program. The 2013 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Recommendations. Available at:

4. Harper W, Clement M, Goldenberg R, et al. Pharmacologic management of type 2 diabetes. Canadian Journal of Diabetes 2013; 37(Suppl.): S61-8.

5. Lam RW, Kennedy SH, Grigoriadis S, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults. III. Pharmacotherapy. Journal of Affective Disorders 2009; 117: S26-43.

6. Black A, Francoeur D, Rowe T. Canadian Conception Consensus. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Canada 2004; 143(Part 2): 219-54.

7.  Canadian Institute for Health Information. National Prescription Drug Utilization Information System (NPDUIS). Factsheet. Available at:

8. Morgan S, Smolina K, Mooney D, et al. The Canadian Rx Atlas. Third Edition. Vancouver: Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, University of British Columbia, 2013.

9. Daw JR, Morgan SG. Stitching the gaps in the Canadian public drug coverage patchwork? A review of provincial pharmacare policy changes from 2000 to 2010. Health Policy 2012; 104(1). doi:10-1016/j.healthpol.2011.08.015

10. Ramage-Morin PL. Medication use among senior Canadians. Health Reports 2009; 20(1): 37-44.

11. Beck CA, Williams JVA, Wang JL, et al. Psychotropic medication use in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2005; 50(10): 605-13.

12. Reason B, Terner M, Moses McKeag A, et al. The impact of polypharmacy on the health of Canadian seniors. Family Practice 2012; 29: 427-32.

13.  Gu Q, Dillon CF, Burt VL. Prescription drug use continues to increase: U.S. prescription drug data for 2007-2008. NCHS Data Brief 2010(42). Available at:

14. Mo F, Morrison H, Liepold H, et al. Drug utilization in Canadian patients with major chronic diseases. American Journal of Pharmacy Benefits 2011; 3(3): e42-50.

15. Giroux S, Labrecque F, Quigley A. Sampling Documentation for Cycle 2 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Methodology Branch Working Paper 002. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2013.

16.  Statistics Canada. CHMS documentation. Available at:

17.  Day B, Langlois R, Tremblay M, Knoppers BM. Canadian Health Measures Survey: ethical, legal and social issues. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.): 37-51.

18. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5: 281-310.

19.  WHO Collaborating System for Drug Statistics Methodology.  Structure and Principles.  Available at:

20. Brown MT, Bussell JK.  Adherence:  WHO cares?  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2011; 86(4): 304-14.

21. Morgan S, Cunningham CM, Hanley GE. Individual and contextual determinants of regional variation in prescription drug use: an analysis of administrative data from British Columbia. PLoS ONE 2010; 5(12): e15883. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015883.

22. Ward PR, Noyce PR, St. Leger AS. How equitable are GP practice prescribing rates for statins?: an ecological study in four primary care trusts in North West England. BioMedCentral 2007; 6(2). doi:10.1186/1475-9276-6-2.

23. Mustard C, Kaupert P, Kozyrskyj A, et al. Sex differences in the use of health care services.  The New England Journal of Medicine 1998; 338(23): 1678-83.

24. Qato DM, Alexander GC, Conti RM, et al. Use of prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements among older adults in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 2008; 300(24): 2867-78.

25. American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society updated Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of American Geriatrics Society 2012; doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.

26. Sikdar KC, Dowden J, Alaghehbandan J, et al. Adverse drug reactions in elderly hospitalized patients: A 12-year population-based retrospective cohort study. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2012; 46: 960-71.

27. Rocco MB. Statins and diabetes risk: fact, fiction, and clinical implications. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 2012; 79(12): 883-93.

28. Pham CDQ, Sadowski-Hayes LM, Regal RE. Prevalent prescribing of proton pump inhibitors: prudent or pernicious? Journal of Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2006; 31(3): 159-67.

29. Stagnitti MN. The top five outpatient prescription drugs ranked by total expense for children, adults and the elderly, 2004. MEPS Statistical Brief #180. Available at:

30. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Drug Use Among Seniors on Public Drug Programs in Canada, 2002 to 2008. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2010.

31. Kit BK, Ogden CL, Flegal KM. Prescription medication use among normal weight, overweight, and obese adults, United States, 2005-2008. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2012; 97: 872-7.

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