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1.Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the standardisation sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourology Urodynamics 2002; 21: 167-78.

2.  Bartoli S, Aguzzi G, Tarricone R. Impact on quality of life of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder: a systematic literature review. Urology 2010; 75(3): 491-500.

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4.  Shaban A, Drake MJ, Hashim H. The medical management of urinary incontinence. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 2010; 152: 4-10.

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6.  Bogner HR, Gallo JJ, Sammel MD, et al. Urinary incontinence and psychological distress in community-dwelling older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2002; 50(3): 489-95.

7.  Bogner HR. Urinary incontinence and psychological distress in community-dwelling older African Americans and Whites. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2004; 52(11): 1870-4.

8.  Fultz NH, Herzog AR. Self-reported social and emotional impact of urinary incontinence. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2001; 49: 892-9.

9.  Thom DH, Haan MN, Van Den Eeden SK. Medically recognized urinary incontinence and risks of hospitalization, nursing home admission and mortality. Age and Ageing 1997; 26: 367-74.

10. Worrall G. The challenge of urinary incontinence in the elderly: A review. Canadian Family Physician 1989; 35: 1903-6.

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13.  Langa KM, Fultz NH, Saint S, et al. Informal caregiving time and costs for urinary incontinence in older individuals in the United States. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2002; 50(4): 733-7.

14. The Canadian Continence Foundation. Impacts of Incontinence in Canada: A Briefing Document from the Canadian Continence Foundation. 2009.  Available at:  Accessed April 23, 2012.

15.  Cacioppo JT, Hawkley LC, Crawford LE, et al. Loneliness and health: Potential mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine 2002; 64(3): 407-41.

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17.  Luo Y, Hawkley LC, Waite LJ, Cacioppo JT. Loneliness, health and mortality in old age: A national longitudinal study. Social Science and Medicine 2012; 74: 907-14.

18. de Jong Gierveld J. A review of loneliness: concept and definitions, determinants and consequences. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology 1998; 8: 73-8.

19.  Hughes ME, Waite LJ, Hawkley LC, Cacioppo JT. A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys: Results from two population-based studies. Research on Aging 2004; 26(6): 655-72.

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21.  Robitaille A, Orpana H, McIntosh CN. Psychometric properties, factorial structure, and measurement invariance of the English and French versions of the Medical Outcomes Study social support scale. Health Reports 2011; 22(2): 33-40.

22.  Furlong W, Feeny D. Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI2) and Mark 3 (HUI3)Disability Categories for Single- and Multi-Attribute Utility Scores. October 29, 2002. Unpublished

23.  Feeny D, Furlong W, Torrance GW, et al. Multiattribute and single-attribute utility functions for the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 System. Medical Care 2002; 40(2): 113-28.

24.  Feng Y, Bernier J, McIntosh C, Orpana H. Validation of disability categories derived from Health Utilities Index Mark 3 scores. Health Reports 2009; 20(2): 43-50.

25.  Allen RL, Oshagan H. The UCLA Loneliness Scale: invariance of social structural characteristics. Personality and Individual Differences 1995; 19(2): 185-95.

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28.  Herschorn S, Gajewski J, Schulz J, Corcos J. A population-based study of urinary symptoms and incontinence: the Canadian Urinary Bladder Survey. British Journal of Urology International 2008; 101(1): 52-8.

29.  Wilkins K, Park E. Chronic conditions, physical limitations and dependency among seniors living in the community. Health Reports 1996; 8(3): 7-15.

30.  Thom D. Variation in estimates of urinary incontinence prevalence in the community: Effects of differences in definition, population characteristics, and study type. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1998; 46(4): 473-80.

31.  Minassian VA, Crutz HP, Al-Badr A. Urinary incontinence as a worldwide problem. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2003; 82(3): 327-38.

32.  Swanson JG, Kaczorowski J, Skelly J, Finkelstein M. Urinary incontinence: Common problem among women over 45. Canadian Family Physician 2005; 51: 84.
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33.  Roberts RO, Jacobsen SJ, Rhodes T, et al. Urinary incontinence in a community-based cohort: prevalence and healthcare-seeking. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1998; 46(4): 467-72.

34.  Fultz NH, Herzog AR. Prevalence of urinary incontinence in middle-aged and older women: a survey-based methodological experiment. Journal of Aging and Health 2000; 12(4): 459-69.

35.  Thüroff JW, Abrams P, Andersson K-E, et al. EAU Guidelines on Urinary Incontinence. European Urology 2011; 59: 387-400.

36.  Irwin DE, Milsom I, Hunskaar S, et al. Population-based survey of urinary incontinence, overactive bladder and other lower urinary tract symptoms in five countries: Results of the EPIC Study. European Urology 2006; 50: 1306-15.

37.  Hampel C, Artibani W, Espuña Pons M, et al. Understanding the burden of stress urinary incontinence in Europe: A qualitative review of the literature. European Urology 2004; 46: 15-27.

38.  Dooley Y, Kenton K, Cao G, et al. Urinary incontinence prevalence: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of Urology 2008; 179: 656-61.

39.  Mittmann N, Trakas K, Riseborough N, Liu BA. Utility scores for chronic conditions in a community-dwelling population. Pharmacoeconomics 1999; 15(4): 369-76.

40.  Schultz SE, Kopec JA. Impact of chronic conditions. Health Reports 2003; 14(4): 41-53.

41.  Teunissen D, Van Den Bosch W, Van Weel C, Lagro-Janssen T. "It can always happen�: The impact of urinary incontinence on elderly men and women. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 2006; 24(3): 1666-73.

42.  Tennstedt SL, Chiu GR, Link CL, et al. The effects of serverity of urine leakage on quality of life in Hispanic, White and Black men and women: The Boston Community Health (BACH) Survey. Urology 2010; 75(1): 27-33.

43.  Ouslander JG, Abelson S. Perceptions of urinary incontinence among elderly outpatients. The Gerontologist 1990; 30(3): 369-72.

44.  Dugan E, Cohen SJ, Robinson D, et al. The quality of life of older adults with urinary incontinence: determining generic and conditions-specific predictors. Quality of Life Research 1998; 7(4): 334-7.

45.  de Vries HF, Northington GM, Bogner HR. Urinary incontinence (UI) and new psychological distress among community dwelling older adults. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2012; 55(1): 49-54.

46.  Dugan E, Roberts CP, Cohen SJ, et al. Why older community-dwelling adults do not discuss urinary incontinence with their primary care physicians. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2001; 49: 462-5.

47.  Wallner LP, Porten S, Meenan RT, et al. Prevalence and severity of undiagnosed urinary incontinence in women. The American Journal of Medicine 2009; 122: 1037-42.

48.  Melville JL, Katon W, Delaney K, Newton K. Urinary incontinence in US women. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005; 165: 537-42.

49.  Coyne KS, Sexton CC, Irwin DE, et al. The impact of overactive bladder, incontinence and other lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life, work productivity, sexuality and emotional well-being in men and women : results from the WPIC study. BJU International 2008; 101(11): 1388-95.

50.  Fonda D, Woodward M, D'Astoli M, Chin WF. Sustained improvement of subjective quality of life in older community-dwelling people after treatment of urinary incontinence. Age and Ageing 1995; 24: 283-6.

51.  Lee PS, Reid DW, Saltmarche A, Linton L. Measuring the psychosocial impact of urinary incontince: the York Incontinence Perceptions Scale (YIPS). Journal of the American Geriatric Society 1995; 43(11): 1275-8.

52.  Medical Advisory Secretariat. Behavioural interventions for urinary incontinence in community-dwelling seniors: an evidence-based analysis. Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series 2008; 8(3).

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