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  1. Jarup L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin 2003; 68: 167-82.

  2. Tremblay M, Wolfson M, Connor Gorber S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Rationale, background and overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003). 2007; 18(Suppl): 7-20.

  3. Tremblay M, Langlois R, Bryan S, et al. Canadian Health Measures Survey Pre-test: Design, methods, results. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(Suppl): 21-30.

  4. Giroux S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Sampling strategy overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(Suppl): 31-6.

  5. Day B, Langlois R, Tremblay M, et al. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Ethical, legal and social issues. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003).2007; 18(Suppl): 37-52.

  6. Bryan S, St-Denis M, Wojtas D. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Clinic operations and logistics. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(Suppl): 53-70.

  7. Statistics Canada.  Canadian Health Measures Survey. Accessed May 1, 2008.

  8. van Oostdam JC, Dewailly E, Gilman A, et al. Circumpolar maternal blood contaminant survey, 1994-1997 organochlorine compounds. Science of the Total Environment 2004; 330: 55-70.

  9. Butler Walker J, Houseman J, Seddon L, et al. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada. Environmental Research 2006; 100: 295-318.

  10. Butler Walker J, Seddon L, McMullen E, et al. Organochlorine levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma in Arctic Canada. Science of the Total Environment 2003; 302: 27-52.

  11. Baghurst PA, Tong S, Sawyer MG, et al. Sociodemographic and behavioural determinants of blood lead concentrations in children aged 11-13 years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study. Medical Journal of Australia 1999; 170: 63-7.

  12. Bellinger DC. Lead neurotoxicity and socioeconomic status: Conceptual and analytical issues. Neurotoxicology 2008; 29: 828-32.

  13. Becker K, Kaus S, Krause C, et al. German Environmental Survey 1998 (GerES III): environmental pollutants in blood of the German population. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2002; 205: 97-308.

  14. Institut national de santé publique du Québec, 2004. Étude sur l'établissement de valeurs de référence d'éléments traces et de métaux dans le sang, le sérum et l'urine de la population de la grande région de Québec.  Cote: INSPQ-2004-030. Québec: Institut national de santé publique du Québec.

  15. Batariova A, Spevackova V, Benes B, et al.  Blood and urine levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in the general population of the Czech Republic and proposed reference values.  International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2006; 209: 359-66.

  16. Rao JNK, Wu GFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 12-001) 1992; 18: 209-17.

  17. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5: 281-310.

  18. Yeo D, Mantel H, Liu TP.  Bootstrap variance estimation for the National Population Health Survey. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, Survey Research Methods Section. Baltimore: American Statistical Association, 1999.

  19. Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.  Toxicological Profile for Lead.  US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007. Accessed May 1, 2008.

  20. Health Canada. Update of Evidence for Low-Level Effects of Lead and Blood Lead Intervention Levels and Strategies - Final Report of the Working Group, Federal-Provincial Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health. Ottawa: Health Canada, 1994.

  21. Health and Welfare Canada, Statistics Canada. The Health of Canadians: Report of the Canada Health Survey (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-538E).Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1981.

  22. Health Canada. It's Your Health – Effects of Lead on Human Health (Catalogue 0-662-35483-4) Ottawa: Health Canada, 2004.

  23. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (NCEH Pub. No. 05-0570) Atlanta, Georgia: National Center for Environmental Health, 2005.

  24. Becker K, Mussig-Zufika M, Conrad A, et al. German Environmental Survey for Children 2003/06 (GerES IV): Levels of Selected Substances in Blood and Urine of Children in Germany (Research Report 202 62 219) Berlin, Germany: Federal Environment Ministry, 2008.

  25. Health Canada. Human Health Risk Assessment of Mercury in Fish and Health Benefits of Fish Consumption.  Ottawa: Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, 2007.

  26. Kingman A, Albertini T, Brown LJ. Mercury concentrations in urine and whole blood associated with amalgam exposure in a US military population. Journal of Dental Research 1998, 77: 461-71.

  27. Passos CJS, Mergler D, Lemire M, et al. Fish consumption and bioindicators of inorganic mercury exposure. Science of the Total Environment 2007, 373: 68-76.

  28. Oskarsson A, Schultz A, Skerfving S, et al. Total and inorganic mercury in breast milk in relation to fish consumption and amalgam in lactating women. Archives of Environmental Health 1996, 51: 234-41.

  29. Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Mercury.  US Department of Health and Human Services. 1999.  Available at . Accessed May 1, 2008.

  30. Health Canada.  Mercury – Your Health and the Environment.  A Resource Tool. 2004. Accessed August 29, 2008.

  31. Environment Canada, Health Canada.  Canadian Environmental Protection Act – Priority Substances List Assessment: Cadmium and its Compounds. 1994. Accessed May 1, 2008.

  32. Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.  Toxicological Profile for Cadmium.  1999. Accessed May 1, 2008.

  33. Tellez-Plaza M, Navas-Acien A, Crainiceanu CM et al. Cadmium exposure and hypertension in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Environmental Health Perspectives 2008; 116: 51-6.

  34. International Agency for Research on Cancer.  IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans.  Volume 58: Beryllium, Cadmium, Mercury, and Exposures in the Glass Manufacturing Industry.  Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation. 1997. Accessed May 1, 2008.

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